GARASSE, ga"r&, FRANCOIS: French Jesuit; b. at Angoul6me (66 m. n.e. of Bordeaux), France, 1584; d. at Poitiers (60 m. s.s.w. of Tours), France, June 14, 1631. He joined the Jesuit order in 1600, and soon became known as a powerful pulpit orator. As a writer he devoted himself chiefly to polemics, sparing no opponents of his order, and attacking even the dead. In 1622 he published a pamphlet against Ptienne Pasquier, a Roman Catholic, who had died several years before, because the latter had defended the university against the Jesuits in 1565. Under the pseudonym "Andreas Schioppius" he wrote a polemical pamphlet entitled Elixir calvinisticum (Charenton, 1615) aimed at the French Reformed Protestants, and in 1619 he published at Brussels his Rabelais reforme, which was more of a satire than a polemic. He was especially antagonistic toward Pierre du Moulin, a prominent and scholarly Reformed polemic author. Garasse's writings are characterized by a lack of earnestness, scientific spirit, and thorough knowledge of his subject, as well as by a want of dignity and truthfulness. He died of the plague at Poitiers, whither he had been sent at his own request to care for the sick.

Bibliography: H. Hurts% Nomenclator literarius, i. 289, Innsbruck, 1892; Der, Bibliothkque de la compagnie de Jesus, ed. C. Sommervogel, iii. 1184 sqq., Paris, 1892.

GARDENS, HEBREW: In gardening the Israelites were pupils of the Canaanites. The Hebrew gars meant either a vegetable-garden (I Kings xxi. 2) or an orchard (Jer. xxix. 5; Amos iv. 9; Eccles. ii. 5). In the first-mentioned were raised onions, garlic, cucumbers, and melons (which, eaten with bread, were leading articles of diet), and aromatic herbs, such as mint and caraway. Such gardens required careful and bountiful watering (Isa. lviii. 11; Jer. xxxi. 12). Vegetables were often planted in the fields after the harvest of the winter crop (see Agriculture, Hebrew).

Of greater importance were the orchards (see Fruit-TREES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT), which formed the gardens characteristic of the Old Testament. The kings of Jerusalem had such gardens in the valley southeast of the city (II Kings xxv. 4; Jer. xxxix. 4; cf. II Kings xxi. 18, 26), which served as pleasure-grounds, particularly when provided with water. To "sit under one's vine and fig-tree" was characteristic of a happy period (I Kings iv. 25; Micah iv. 4). The old Hebrew, like other dwellers in the scantily watered East (cf. the descriptions of paradise, in the Koran and the general Mohammedan conception), thought of paradise as an Eden with trees of all kinds, where, at evening, cool breezes blow (Gen. iii. 8). It was customary to place the family vault in a "garden" (II Kings xxi. 18, 26; Matt. xxvii. 60). In Babylon such pleasure-grounds were popular (cf. B. Meisaner and P. Rost, Bauinschriften Sanheribs, v. 14 sqq., Leipsic, 1893), and the kings and noblemen of Persia delighted in beautiful parks (Xenophon, Cyropadia, I., iii. 12; Anabasis, I., ii. 71; cf. Esther i. 5, vii. 7). Indeed, the word parries, the later


Hebrew designation for such a garden, meaning " paradise " and also " forest " (Neh. ii. 8), was borrowed from the Persian.

(I. Benzinger.)

Bibliography: Benzinger, Archäologie, pp. 35-36: E. Day, Social Life among the Hebrews, New York. 1901; DB, ii. 108-110; EB, ii. 1640-44 (both of these are especially excellent); JE, vi. 470-472.


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