GAMES: A means of securing entertainment and relaxation, as is indicated by the most general Hebrew term "to play," ;zih,.,hak ( = " to laugh long and heartily "). The Old Testament gives no detailed information about the games of children, but it may be assumed that Hebrew young people employed their mental, muscular, and nervous energy in the same way as the children of all other peoples. Even the positive prohibition of images by Islam has not prevented the children from delighting in models of horses, sheep, and the like. Since in spite of Ex. xx. 4 there were varied products of the arts in animal and other forms in the

Temple; the Hebrew children doubtless had their playthings made after similar models. A hint of a mode of entertainment may be given in Job xli. 5" Wilt thou play with him [leviathan] as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens? " (cf. Baruch iii. 17). The excavations in Taanach have revealed bone implements such as the Arabs still employ in playing dice. The Talmud (Rosh ha-Shanah i. 8) pronounces those who train doves for speed trials or to lure other doves into their dove-cotes and those who use dice incompetent to bear witness. There is mention of a game of drafts in Sanhedrin 25b. Early rabbis condemned card-playing. To win money from a Jew by a game is robbery, to win it from a Gentile is not robbery though a breach of the law. "Odd and even" was a game of the Egyptians; Assyrian dice of bronze with spots of gold have been found; a similar game, played by the drawing of arrows, was used by the ancient Arabs; the,' Homeric Greeks had both drafts and dice; and Tacitus reports that the Germans played with dice. Doubtless the early Hebrews in their moments of leisure, as they sat at their doors or met in public gathering-places (Gem. xix. 1; Lam. v. 14) or on festal occasions (Judges xiv. 10 sqq.), amused themselves in similar manner, and it is known that they sharpened their wits in the propounding and answering of riddles (Judges xiv. 14 sqq.; I Kings x. 1; Prov. xxx. 21 sqq.). The drama does not seem to have been congenial to the Hebrew character, and for this reason the interpretation of Canticles as a drama. seems less reasonable, though in later times the Jews are reported to have gone upon the stage and written dramas (Josephus, Life, iii.; Clement of Alexandria, Strom., i. 155).

There were also what may be classed as sensuous games in distinction from those already mentioned which exercise primarily the mental faculties. In these song and music occupy prominent parts (Ex. xv. 20-21; I Sam. xvi. 16 sqq.; Isa. v. 12; Jer. xxx. 19; Amos vi. 5; see Music, Hebrew). Games which exercised the powers of body and will were numerous; among these dances take first place (Job xxi. 11; Jer. xxxi. 4), in which the course of the seasons or national success or personal prowess was celebrated in joyous and concerted movement (Judges xxi. 21; I Sam. xviii. 6; see Dancing). With such dancing to the accompaniment of music and song Samson was probably expected to entertain his enemies (Judges xvi. 25). The foot-race is implied in Ps. xix. 5, and by the references to the speed of Saul, Jonathan, and Asahel (II Sam. i. 23, ii. 18). Skill of hand and arm were employed in a game of ball (Isa. xxii.18), which game is recognized among Assyrian sports, is mentioned by the rabbis, and was known to the Egyptians. The shooting of arrows at a mark was likewise a means of entertainment (I Sam. xx. 20; Job xvi. 12; Lam. iii. 12). Throwing the stone is suggested by Zech. xii. 3 (cf. C. eon Orelli, Durchs heilige Land, Basel, 1890, p. 291). The Jews raised energetic protest against the adoption of Greek sports (I Macc. i. 14; II Macc. iv. 9-15); but the Herodian faction had theaters and amphitheaters near Jerusalem and Joppa, and Herod's interest in such matters is reported by Josephus (Ant. XV., viii. 1, ix. 6, XVI., v.


1). Gladiatorial shows were most strongly con demned by the Jews. In the New Testament Paul makes frequent reference to the foot-race and its rewards (I Cor. ix. 24-27; Phil. iii. 12; II Tim. ii. 5; cf. James i. 12; Rev. ii. 10).

(E. König.)

Bibliography: H. J. Van Lennep, Bible Laude, . . Cue toma and Manners 1llusimtive of Scripture, pp. 573-574, New York-, 1875; J. G. Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, London, 1878; E. Buchholz, Die homerischen Realien, ii. 1, pp. 280-299, Leipsic, 1881; J. 8. Howson, Metaphors of St. Paul, chap. iv., London, 1883; A. Huber, Udber das "Meiair" . Spiel der heidnischen Araber, pp 9 sqq, Leipsic, 1883; A. Wünsche, Die Rdtselweiaheit bei den Hebraern, ib. 1883; M. Lazarus, Die Reize des Spieles, Berlin, 1883; T. Mommsen, R6mi sehe Altertilmer, ii. 517 sqq., Leipsic, 1887; G. Dalman, Paldstinischer Diuyan


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