GALFRID OF VENDOME: Abbot of the cloister at Vend6me from 1093; d. at Angers Mar. 26, 1132. When Pope Urban II. (q.v.) fell into sore straits under the party of the antipope Clement III., Galfrid hastened to Rome and rendered such great service that he was appointed a cardinal-priest, and received still further tokens of the pope's good-will. He enjoyed favorable relations with Paschal II. as well; also with Ca,lixtua II. and Honorius Il. In church history at large, Galfrid is a factor of some significance on account of his share in the in vestiture controversy (see Investiture); he be longed to those of the clergy who stoutly demanded the revocation of the privilege of investiture con ferred by Paschal II. on the German king. He was the author of certain minor teleological writings.

Carl Mirbt.

Bibliography: Gottfried's Npistola, libelli sad Opuwula were edited by J. Sirmond, Paris, 1610, and are also in MPL, clvii. The libdli, ed. E. Smkur, are in MGH, Libelli de life, ii (1893), 880-700. Consult: Histoire littéraire de la Francs,:d. 180; L. Compain, i¢tude ear Geoffmi de Venddme. Paris, 1891; E. Sackur, in NA, xviii (1893).666-673; C. Mirbt, Die Publisistikinzsifalt6 Grepom VII., Leipsic. 1894.


I. The Israelitic Period.
Names and Boundaries § 1).
History (§ 2).
Cities (§ 3).
II. The Jewish Period
Geographical Limits (§ 1).
Earlier History (§ 2).
Galilee the Home of Insurrection (§ 3).
Cities (§ 4).

Galilee (Hebr. Galil; Aram. Gallila, Gelila; Gk. H8 Galilaia) is the most northern district of Palestine. The form of the name indicates two distinct periods in the history of the region, the. Israelitic and the Jewish.

L The Inaelitic Period: The word Galfl or Galilah (II Kings xv. 29) means a circle, region, district. It is used nearly in its primary sense in Isa. ix. i (cf. I Macc. v. 15), and suggests in these passages a region not in the complete possession of the Hebrews. The passage in Isaiah defines the region closely enough, mentioning on one aide Zebulun and Naphtali, on the other "beyond


Jordan," and also " the way of the sea," which is the caravan route from Damascus to Acre via Bahrat al-Hulah, Wadi al-Hammam

r. Names and past Kam Hattin, and also the and Bound- "district of the nations" (R. V. mar-

aries. gin). The region through which this road passes beyond Kam Hattin is the land of Zebulun; the Jordan region is the stretch on the west side from Bahrat al-Hulah to Dan. The " district of the nations "includes the mountain region to the north of the plain of al Battof (cf. Josh. xx. 7 and II Kings xv. 29). The last two expressions in Isa. ix. 1 correspond to the " land of Naphtali " in the preceding context.

The earliest reports of this region come from the inscriptions of Sethos I. and Rameses II. (fourteenth and thirteenth centuries B.C.) in connection with the conquered territory between the Kishon and Lebanon, in which Asher is mentioned. By this is not necessarily meant the tribe of Asher, since the incriptions clearly mean a country. Gen. xxx. 9-13 makes Asher a son of Jacob and Zilpah, the bondservant of Leah, that is, a stock of mixed Hebrew and Canaanitic blood: or, in other words, Hebrew settlers in the district of

2. History. Asher had assumed the name of the region, though they had in time become its masters. A similar explanation applies to the case of Naphtali as the son of Jacob and Bilhah, the bondservant of Rachel (Gen. xxx. 1-8). The two Canaanitic stocks out of which these peoples developed were the Amorites and the Hivites. The Amorites came from Lebanon later than 1250 B.C.; the Hivites dwelt at the foot of Hermon (Josh. xi. 3) or Lebanon (Judges iii. 3). In the Song of Deborah, Naphtali and Zebulun receive praise, while Asher is charged with indifference and lack of effort, but in Judges vi. 35, vii. 23, Asher is reckoned among the fighting tribes. The indications of history and of Judges i. 31-33 are that the district of Asher was less under Hebrew control than that of Naphtali. But it is clear from the reading of events that the population of the region had little influence at least upon the religion of Israel. Solomon ceded to Hiram of Tyre twenty cities in Galilee which belonged to the region of Cabul (I Kings ix. 10-14) which Hiram gave to Solomon (II Chron. viii. 2), though the history in the Books of Kings does not bear out the Chronicler. Benhadad I. wasted "all the land of Naphtali" (I Kings xv. 20); after the victory of Ahab it was again recovered by Hazael (II Kings xii. 18, xiii. 22), and Jeroboam was able to restore the control to Israel, though only for a short time. In 734 B.C. Tiglath-pileser III. assailed this entire region at the request of Ahaz (II Kings xvi. 7) and carried the inhabitants into exile (II Kings xv. 29). The harassed condition of the inhabitants is expressed in Isa. iii. 21, ix. 4. The Israelitic period ends with the assimilation of the region to the Assyrian rule.

The Galilee of Israelitic times possessed no large cities. It was not easily accessible, since there were no good roads, and the caravan route passed through its southeastern corner only.. One road passed eastward from Tyre to Abel-beth-maacah, and crossed several leading north and south; there was a path from Tyre to the Sea of Galilee, and one from Acre, more traveled, which branched on the hills northward and southward. Judges xviii. 7-10

probably represents the condition of 3. Cities. all the places called cities in Galilee.

Josh. xi. 10 names Hazor as the capital, one of Solomon's border fortresses (I Kings ix. 15), while I Macc. xi. 63-73 locates it south of Kedesh. Kedesh was one of the oldest possessions of Israel; its modern name is Kades, located north of Bahrat al-Hulah. Its name indicates that it was an old sanctuary, and Josh. xx. 7, xxi. 32 make it a city of refuge and a Levitical city. North of Kedesh, on the border of the hill country above the Jordan valley, lay Abel-Beth-maacah, the modern Abil al-Kamh, the refuge of Sheba (II Sam. xx. 14). Still farther north lay Ijon, not definitely located, though there is a Marj Ajun between the Litany and the Hasbany. Dan was situated eastward from Abil al-Kamh, on the west source of the Jordan (Judges xviii., Josh. xix. 47). Its earlier name was Lais or Leshem. Jeroboam made it one of the royal sanctuaries, and it stood for the extreme northern boundary of Israel. Achahaph (Josh. xi. 1) is possibly the modern Khirbat Iksaf, southwest of the bend in the Litany. The village Jarun west of Bahrat al-Hulah perhaps marks the Iron of Josh. xix. 38, Kana, south of this, may be the Kanah of Josh. xix. 28, and Ramiya, still farther south, the Ramah of Josh. xix. 29.

II. The Jewish Period: The boundaries of the Jewish Galilee differed from those under Israel. Josephus makes it begin on the north of Scythopolis and the Plain of Jezreel, and divides it into Upper and Lower Galilee, with the division at the plain of al-Ramah, with Beersheba on the line. While the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan were normally the eastern boundary, places farther east were reckoned to it (see Gaulanitis). The

northern and western boundaries are z. Geo- hard to define, though Josephus makes graphical Kedesh a Tyrian fortress on the bound- Limits. ary. The Jewish Galilee included the

territory of Zebulun, which was not in the earlier district. Dr. Hirsch Hildesheimer (Bei trdge zur Geographic Paldstinas, Berlin, 1886) from indications in the Talmud would place the northern line by Tibnin, Marj Ajun and Csarea Philippi in the time of Alexander Jannaeus. But it is hardly likely that Kedesh had changed its relations between his time and that of Josephus.

Despite the exemplary punishment meted out to the district by Tiglath-pileser III., the Israelitic inhabitants continued for the most part to hold their position, and it did not suffer the same admixture of foreign population as did Samaria. The narrative in II Chron. xxx. 10-I1 supports the supposition that there were those in the country about 300 B.C. who were allied in religion with the Jews; and that Jews lived in that country is shown

by I Macc. v. 14-23, in that Simon the 2. Earlier Maccabee brought numbers of Jews History. thence to live in Judea. Under John

Hyroanus I. Samaria was subjected and the boundaries thrust farther north to Galilee. Aristobulus I. seems to have conquered and Judaized


4 Galilee (Josephus, Ant'. XIII., xi. 3), and Hyrcanus II. was confirmed by Pompey as ethnarch of the region. The later destiny of Galilee was bound up with that of Judea. The proconsul Gabinius divided the whole Jewish country into five districts, each with its own synedrium, that for Galilee sitting in Sepporis. But this arrangement did not prove satisfactory. The risings of the years 55 and 53 B.c. were suppressed by the Romans, but Herod first secured peace in the land 45 B.c. After the rule of Antigonus, 40-37, Galilee was united with Herod's kingdom (37-4 s.c. ), and Augustus gave Herod also the tetrarchy of Zenodorus. After the death of Herod, hatred of the Romans and hopes of the Messiah kindled the fires of insurrection. Judas of Gamala, son of an Ezechias executed by Herod, rebelled and was subdued by Varus (see Judas of Galilee). Meanwhile Augustus had confirmed Herod's will and Galilee and Perma fell to Antipas, who made his capital first in Sepporis and then in Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee. While the census of Quirinius (7 A.D.) did not affect Galilee, it set loose forces of

insurrection. The Zealots arose under 3. Galilee Judas of Gamala and the Pharisee

the Home Zaddok. Judas was killed (Acts v. of Insurrec- 37), but he had sown seed which pro-

tion. duced fruit. Both John the Baptist and Jesus found Zealots among their disciples (John i. 35-42; Mark iii. 18). These continued movements caused Antipas great anxiety (Luke xiii. 31, 32). An event of the year 40 showed how great was the feeling against the Romans. Caligula had ordered Petronius, the governor of Syria, to place the emperor's statue in the Temple at Jerusalem, and thousands of Jews assembled in Ptolemais and Tiberias, in the latter place con tinuously for forty days, beseeching him not to profane the Temple, and Petronius gave up the design. From the year 44 the Zealots continued to gain ground among the people, though treated by the Romans as common brigands. By a gift of Nero, part of Galilee came under Agrippa II., viz., Tiberias and Tarichma. At the beginning of the war in 67, Sepporis yielded to the Romans and the other cities, Tarichaea, Tiberias, Gamala, and the fortress on Tabor and at Gischala were subdued. After 70, Vespasian took the entire district, so rife with sedition, under his private control, and Judea was administered by governors probably of pretorian rank. Agrippa's realm after his death in 100 was joined to the province of Syria.

A review shows that the population of Galilee was heterogeneous. Besides the Jews, themselves not of pure strain, there were Arameans, Itureans (perhaps Arabs), to say nothing of Phenicians and Greeks. On this account the contempt of the Jews for Galileans is explicable (John i. 46, vii. 52), and the dialect was distinguishable from that used in the south (Matt. xxvi. 73; Mark xiv. 70). Nevertheless in the second century Galilee became the home of Jewish scholarship, the place where the Masoretic work was done upon the text of the Old Testament and where the beginning was made of the collection which became the Jerusalem or Palestinian Talmud.

The best-known cities belonged to Lower Galilee.

Near the southwestern boundary and south of the Wadi al-Malak lay Simomas, the Shimron of Josh. xi. 1, the modern Semuniyah. South of Tabor the modern Nein locates the Nain of Luke vii. 11. On the plateau between Tabor and the Sea of Galilee the modern village of Sarona locates the Saronas of Eusebius (OnomaSticon, 296). In the time of Christ the region immediately west of the Sea of Galilee was densely populated. In the south, not far from the outlet into the Jordan, lay the Talmudic fortress Bethirah, to be identified with the Tarichaea of Josephus, the modern Khirbet al-Karak. Four miles north was the celebrated spring of Tiberias, with Tiberias itself half an 4. Cities. hour farther north, according to the Talmud the site of the Rakkath of Josh. xix. 35. After Herod Antipas had built it, he found it difficult to get Jews to settle there, since they regarded it as unclean on account of the many graves in the vicinity or on the site. An hour still to the north is located the village al-Majdal, identified with the home of Mary Magdalene. From there to Khan Minyah stretches the plain, the Gennesaret of Mark vi. 53. On the location of Capernaum see Capernaum. The best road from the shore of the Sea of Galilee westward is through the Wadi al-Hammam, where Herod's famous battle with the supporters of the Hasmoneans was fought (Josephus, War, I., xvi. 2, 4). The basalt hill of Kam Hattin is identified by the Roman Catholics as the Mount of Transfiguration, but without good reason. To the southwest is situated Kafr Kanna, often identified with the Cana of John ii.; others locate Cana at Khirbet Kana, and a third identification is with Hanat al-Jalil, at the north of the plain of al-Battof. But half an hour north of Nazareth (q.v.) is a spring still known as Ain Kana, surrounded by masonry, and near it a basin of masonry. This site better fulfils the conditions required for the site of Cana. One and a half hours north of Nazareth is Safuriyah, which marks the site of Sepporis, a town by nature a fortress, and for that reason influentil1 in history. Before Tiberias was built, it was the chief city of the district. In the north of the plain of al-Battof (plain of Asochis, Ant. XIII., xii. 4), at the modern Tell Jafat was the fortress of Jotapata (Josephus, War, III., vii.-viii.). In Upper Galilee, near the north shore of the Sea of Galilee and near Capernaum, the present Khirbet Karazah is the site of Chorazin (Matt. xi. 21). Upon a high spur, giving a wide view southward, was Zafed, a city reckoned with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Tiberias as one of the holy places. Westward lies Meron, often mentioned in the Talmud and still a place of pilgrimage for Jews who honor the doctors of the law buried there. Gischala lay to the north, the modern ruins bearing the name al-Jish.

(H. Guthe.)

Bibliography: G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, London, 1897; Sehther, Geschichte, i.-ii., Eng. transl., I., i., II., i.; A. Neubauer, La Geopraphie du Talmud, Paris, 1868; V. Gudrin, Description de la. Palestine, III., Galil6e, i. ii., ib. 1880; C. R. Conder and H. H. Kitchener, Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, vol, i., London, 1881; S. Merrill, Galilee in the Time of Christ, Boston, 1881; W. M. Thomson, Land and Book, Central


Palestine, London, 1883; B. Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, vol. i., Berlin, 1887; H. Graets, tiewhiehte der Ju dea, vol. iii., Index, " GalilAa," " · Galil$er," "Zeloten," ib. 1888; W. M. Moller, Asian and Europa, Leipsic, 1893; J. Wellhausen, Israelit%sdke and iiidssehe Geschichts, Ber lin, 1894; F. Buhl, tiaographie des alten Palastina, Frei burg, 1898; W. Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels, pp. 20 48, London, 1903; Robinson, Researches, Vol. ii.; DB, ii. 98-104; EB, ii. 1628-36; JE, v. 553-554.


CCEL home page
This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at
Calvin College. Last modified on 08/11/06. Contact the CCEL.
Calvin seal: My heart I offer you O Lord, promptly and sincerely