GALATEO, ga"ld-0'6, GIROLAMO. See Italy, the Reformation in, § 3.

GALATIA. See Asia Minor, Vii.

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE. See Paul the Apostle.

GALBANUM. See Incense, I., § 3.

GALE, THEOPHILUS: English non-conformist; b. at Kingsteignton (12 m. s.s.w. of Exeter), Devonshire, 1628; d. at Newington, London, Feb. or Mar., 1678. He studied at Magdalen Hall, Oxford (B.A., 1649; M.A., 1652), and in 1650 received the fellowship of one of the ejected fellows. After having distinguished himself as a university preacher, he accepted an appointment as preacher in Winchester Cathedral in 1657, but retained his fellowship. At the Restoration he lost his preferments and became a tutor to the children of Lord Wharton. He traveled abroad with his pupils 1662-65, and on the termination of his engagement in 1666, he settled at Newington, London, as assistant pastor to John Rowe, whom he succeeded in 1677. On his death he left his theological library to Harvard College. Gale is known by his Court of the Gentiles (parts i. and ii., Oxford, 1669-71; parts iii. and iv., London, 1677; 2d. ed., London, 1682), which is a learned attempt to trace all European languages back to Hebrew and to prove that all ancient philosophy and theology were derived from the Hebrew Scriptures. Among Gale's other works are: A True Idea of Jansenism (London, 1669); Anatomy of Infidelity (1672); and Idea Theologiae (1673).

Bibliography: A. Wood, Athenae Oxonienses, ii. 461, 750, 778, London, 1692; E. Calamy, Historical Account, pp. 64-65, ib. 1713; S. Palmer, Nonconformist's Memorial, i. 239, ib. 1802; DNB, xx. 377-378.

GALERIUS: Roman emperor, 293-311. See Diocletian.

GALFRID, gdl'frid (GAUFRID, GOTTFRID), OF CLAIRVAUX: Cistercian abbot; d. after 1188. He was born at Auxerre, and was a pupil of Abelard, but obtained Bernard's favor in 1140, and later became his secretary (notarius). In 1159 he was made abbot of the monastery at Igny, in 1162 of Clairvaux, but had to give up this position in 1167. In 1170 he became abbot of Fossanova, near Rome, in 1176 of Hautecombe in Savoy. The most important part of Galfrid's activity refers to Bernard of Clairvaux, of whose biography he wrote books iii.-v. and the third part of book vi., besides collecting materials. For the pdings against Gilbert of Poitiers at Reims in 1149 he collected patristic quotations against him and published them afterward (MPL, clxxxv. 595-618). At the request of the order he also wrote a biography of the archbishop Peter of Tarentaise. Commentaries on the Song of Songs, on the Apocalypse, and sermons are still extant in manuscript. Galfrid nowhere develops any new. thoughts nor does he betray any deep conception of persons and thin, but he shows a certain ability in the way of presentation. His unlimited admiration of Bernard and his hostility to Abelard and Gilbert make it necessary to accept his statements with caution.

S. M. Deutsch.

Bibliography: : Mabillon, Introduction to the Vita· Bernardi, in MPL, dzxzv. 221 sqq.; Histoire littéraire de la Frame, xiv. 430-451; H. Reuter, Alasander 111., vol. ii., Leipsic, 1882; G. Hailer, Der heilips BeryAard von Clairsaux, i. 27 sqq., Münster, 1886; E. Vaoandard, Vie de St. Bernard, Paris; 1895; KL. v. 932-933.


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