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GEIGER, FRANZ TIBURTIUS: Roman Catho lic; b. at Harting, near Regensburg, May 16, 1755; d. at Lucerne May 8; 1843. He studied under the Jesuits in Regensburg and the Benedictines at St. Emmeran. In 1772 he became a novice in the Franciscan order at Lucerne. The next year he returned to Regensburg and he studied theology in W├╝rzburg. He was successively teacher of Hebrew in Regensburg, privat-docent of poetry and rhetoric in Offenburg, professor of philosophy at Freiburg in Switzerland, and cathedral preacher and professor of theology in the school of his order at Solothurn. In 1792 ha was appointed professor of theology at Lucerne, the seat of the papal nuncio, and the center of Roman Catholic Switzerland. He was opposed here on account of his original method, which was not in sympathy with scholasticism, and because in the doctrine of grace he did not follow the Jesuits. He was even accused in Rome, but the papal court took care to keep so efficient a worker.

As Theologus nuntiaturce he rendered important services to the Roman Catholic Church. He di rected far-reaching ultramontanist plans and stood in connection with the most important leaders of the party. In his doctrines, sermons, negotiations, and treatises he concentrated all his energies to enliven the Roman consciousness, to make Switzerland the bulwark of ultramontanism, and to frustrate the efforts of political and religious liberalism. "Without pope, no Church" was for him as much an axiom as " Without revelation, no religion." He attacked freemasonry especially, and in 1819 his opponents succeeded in removing him from his chair, thereby making him a martyr and in creasing his influence. His numerous polemical trea tises, notwithstanding the effect they produced, have no scholarly value.

(Emil Egli.)

Bibliography: The works of Geiger were collected and published by Prof. Widmer, 8 vols., Lucerne, 1824-39. who published also Franz Geiger, . . Laute Gus seinem Leben, ib. 1843. Consult also KL, v. 186-188.

GEIKIE,: gf"kf', JOHN CUNNINGHAM: Church of England; b. at Edinburgh Oct. 26, 1824; d. at Bournemouth (25 m. s.w. of Southampton), Hampshire, Apr. 1, 1906. He studied at Queen's College, Toronto, and was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1848. He was pastor of the Argyle Street Presbyterian Church, Halifax, N. S., 1851-1854, of the Argyle Street Chapel, Sunderland, England, 1.860-67, and of Islington Chapel, London, 1867-73. He then entered the Church of England and was ordered deacon in 1876 and ordained priest in 1877. He was curate of St. Peter's, Dulwich, 1876-79, rector of Christ's Church, Neuilly, Paris, 1879-81, vicar of St. Mary's, Barnstaple, 1882-85, and vicar of St. Martin-atPalace, Norwich, 1885-90. In 1890 he retired from the active service of the Church. In theology he adhered to the Evangelical school of the Church of England, but maintained the right to full investigation of all religious problems. He wrote George. Stanley: or, Life in the Woods (London, 1864); Life: A Book for a Quiet Hour (1868); Light from Beyond to Cheer the Christian Pilgrim (1872); The. Life and Words of Christ (1877); Old Testament Portraits (1878); The English Reformation (1879); Entering on Life (1879); Hours with the Bible (12 vols., 1880-1897); The Holy land anal the Bible (1887); Short Life of Christ for Old and Young (1888); Landmarks of Old Testament History (1895); and The Vicar and his Friends (1901).

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