GEIBEL,: gai'bl, JOHANN: German Reformed minister; b. at Hanau Apr. 1, 1776; d. at Lubeck July 25, 1853. He studied at Hanau and at Marburg and acted for some time as private tutor at Copenhagen. In 1797 he was called to Lubeck as vicar to Pastor Butendach, upon whose death, half a year later, he succeeded to the chief ministry, and served as such till 1847. As a preacher he was eloquent and convincing, and he exercised consid-


erable influence outside the Reformed congregation. With several prominent men of Ltibeck he founded a Bible Society and a Missionary Association; and in his own house he held Bible lectures and discussions. In the interest of his congregation he published various catechetical works, but only a few of his sermons appeared in print. With the Hessian philosopher Suabedissen, Geibel established a school for his congregation which existed for six years. He also served his community by arran ging (1824) the system of worship still in existence, and by the introduction (1832) of the first satisfactory hymn-book of modern times. Of his published works may be mentioned Prafet Alles and behaket das Gute (Hamburg, 1818), five sermons " in behalf of Evangelical liberty and truth"; and Wieder der ersten christlichen Gemeinde, von Philalethes (1840).

GEIGER,: gai'ger, ABRAHAM: German Jewish scholar and theologian; b. at Frankfort May 24, 1810; d. at Berlin Oct. 23, 1874. He studied phi losophy and Oriental languages at Heidelberg and Bonn and in 1832 became rabbi at Wiesbaden. In the interest of the reform movement in Judaism with other scholars, he established the Zedschrift für jüdische Th-ologie in 1835. In 1838 he accepted a call to Breslau as associate rabbi, though he had to defend himself against the opposition of the orthodox party. Here he founded in 1862 the Jii dische Zeitsraarift fair Wissenschaft and Leben (11 vols., Breslau, 1862-74), which was written almost entirely by himself. He was rabbi at Frankfort from 1863 to 1870, when he became rabbi at Berlin and professor in the newly established "Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judentums." Geiger was one of the pioneers of the reform of Judaism, in sisting upon a liberal interpretation in the construction and observance of the traditional Jewish law. Of his numerous writings the most important are: Was hat Mohammed Gus de?n Judentum aufgenom men p (Bonn, 1833; new ed., Leipsic, 1902), a prize essay on the Jewish sources of the Koran; Urschrift urul Ueberaetzurgen der Bibel in ihrer Abhdngigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (Bres lau, 1857); Die Sadducder and Pharisaer (1863); and Das Judentum und seine Geschichte (3 vols., 1864-71; Eng. transl., Judaism acrd its History, vol. i., New York and London, 1866). His son Ludwig Geiger edited his Nachgelassene Schriften (5 vols., Berlin, 1875-78).

Bibliography: A memoir by his eon Ludwig, A. Geiger, Leben and Briefs, is in the Naehgelassene Schriften, vol. v., ut sup.; E. Schreiber, A. Geiger ate Refer des Judenthums, LSbau, 1880; JE, v. 584-587.


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