FROTHINGHAM, OCTAVIUS BROOKS: Rationalist; b. in Boston Nov. 26, 1822; d. there Nov. 27, 1895. He was graduated at Harvard in 1843, and at the divinity school in 1846. He filled charges at Salem, Mass. (1847-55), Jersey City, (185Fr-59), and New York City (1859-79), resigned on account of ill health in 1879, and after 1881 lived in Boston. He founded the Free Religious Association (q.v.) in 1867 and was its president till 1878. He was noted for eloquence and scholarship, but was extreme in his religious views. His New York church was originally called The Third Unitarian but it separated from that denomination in 1874 and was called The Independent Liberal Church of New York. He published lives of Theodore Parker (Boston, 1874), Gerritt Smith (New York, 1878), George Ripley (Boston, 1882), and William Henry Channing (1886); The Religion of Humanity (New York, 1873); A History of Transcendentalism in New England (1876); Boston Unitarianism, 1820-50, a study of the life and work of his father, Nathaniel Langdon Frothingllam (1890).


FROUDE, frud, RICHARD HURRELL: The English theologian remembered chiefly for his connection with the beginning of the Oxford Move ment, and brother of James Anthony Froude, the historian; b. at Dartington (2 m. n. of Totnes), Devonshire, Mar. 25, 1803; d. there Feb. 28, 1836. He was educated at Eton and at Oxford (B.A., 1824; M.-A., 1827). In 1826 he won a fellowship at Oriel, of which he was also tutor from 1827 to 1830. He took deacon's orders in 1828 and priest's in 1829; but symptoms of consumption soon ap peared, and he was obliged to pass a large part of the few years that remained to him in the south of Europe and the West Indies. Though he died at such an early age, his force of intellect and character made a deep impression on all who knew him. and contributed not a little to influence the course of the Oxford Movement. Thomas Mozley, who was intimately associated with the whole group of men, says of these early days (Reminiscences, i., London, 1882, p. 225) that " if there could ever be any question as to the master spirit of this movement . it lies between John Henry Newman and Richard Hurrell Froude." He wrote three of the Tracts for the Times, and contributed to the Lyra Apostolica the charming verses signed p. Two volumes of his Remains were published in 1837, with a preface by Newman. See Tractarianism.

Bibliography: Consult, besides the Life prefixed to the Remains: J. H. Newman, Apologia, pp. 75, 77, 84-87, 95, 109-110, et passim, London, 1864; T. Mosley, Reminis cences, i. 224-228, 291-305, ib. 1882; J. B. Mosley's Let ters, pp. 75, 102, ib. 1884; DNB, xx. 290-291.


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