FRANKENBERG, JOHANN HEINRICH, COUNT OF: German cardinal; b. at Gross Glogau (35 m. n.n.w. of Liegnitz), Silesia, Sept. 18, 1726; d. at Breda (24 m. w.s.w. of Bois-le-Duc), Holland, June 11, 1804. He was educated at the Jesuit college of his native town, at the University of Breslau, and at the German-Hungarian college in Rome and upon his return to Germany, became coadjutor to the apostolic vicar and archbishop of Gorz. On Jan. 27, 1769 Maria Theresa appointed him archbishop of Mechlin and member of the Belgian council of state, and in 1778 Pius VI. invested him with the dignity of a cardinal. When Joseph II. abolished the episcopal seminaries in 1786 and founded state seminaries at Louvain and Luxemburg in their stead Frankenberg was the first to voice the dissatisfaction of the clergy. The emperor, however, further enacted that only those who had completed a five years' course at one of these institutions were eligible for major orders, whereupon the cardinal vainly renewed his objections, maintaining that the new seminary was instituted solely for the propagation of Jansenism. The dissatisfaction of the pupils, however, resulted in open antagonism to the seminary, and the institution. was practically disorganized. Frankenberg, who was suspected of being the instigator of their unrest, was summoned to Vienna to give an account of his actions. and was kept in confinement for a time; but the turbulence in Belgium increased, and he was finally set free, being hailed as a martyr upon his return. He continued his protests against the general seminary, and restored his archiepiscopal institution of learning; but an order was issued forbidding him to teach theology under penalty of a fine of 1,000 thalers. He declared this order invalid, and was thereupon directed to go to Louvain, inspect the general seminary and give an account of his objections against it. He obeyed the order, and on June 26, 1789, framed an opinion in which he declared the professors, the text-books, and the method of instruction unorthodox and Jansenistic. This decision was published and used as a means of agitation. Frankenberg was then accused by the imperial minister Count Trautmannsdorf of having incited the people, but he responded that he had acted only as a true shepherd of the faith, and petitioned the emperor to restore to the Church its privilege of educating the clergy as well as the youth of the land. The disturbances in Belgium at length assumed the character of an uprising, and Frankenberg was accused of being its leading spirit. The minister charged him with conspiracy and ordered him to return his various insignia of honor, whereupon the cardinal appealed to the emperor, but Joseph died before the letter reached him. When the French Revolutionists invaded Belgium, Frankenberg bravely resisted them, and was accordingly sentenced by the Convention to deportation, dying a fugitive.
Bibliography: A. Theiner, Der Cardinal J. H. Ors/ von Prankenberg, Freiburg, 1850; KL, iv. 1609-1702.
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