FRIDUGIS, frf"iii"zllf' (FREDEGISUS, FRIDUGISUS, FREDEGIS, FREDUGIS): French ecclesiastic and statesman; b. in England in the second half' of the eighth century; d. in France 834. He left his native country for France some time before 796 and became a favorite pupil of Alcuin. He was a deacon at the French court in that year, and four years later had become archdeacon and teacher at the academy. After the death of Alcuin in 804, Charlemagne appointed Fridugis abbot of St. Martin's in Tours, later giving him the monasteries of St. Omer and St. Bertin. From 819 to 832 he was chancellor of Louis the Pious, in which office he made a number of praiseworthy innovations, but his career as an abbot was less creditable. Fridugis was the author of an Epistolo ad proceres, in which he discusses light and darkness as positive entities, not as abstract negations. He likewise wrote another work which is lost, although its contents are known from Agobard's L4'ber contra objectiones Fredegesi, which states that in it Fridugis maintained the doctrine of the verbal inspiration of Scripture.
Bibliography: Sources are the Bpistolm of Alcuin, nos. 99, 108, 158, 180, 197, and the Vita Alcuiai (see under ALcuIn); Einhard, Vita Karoli, chap. xxxii. in MGH, script., ii (1829), 426-463; Theodulph, Carmiaa, 25, ed. Dümmler in MGH, Posits Lat. aroi Carolsai, i (1881), 569-573. Consult: C. BRhr, Geschichts der römischen Literahur, Carlsmhe, 1840; H. F. Router, Geschichte der religi- Aujkldtrung, 6ondersbausen, 1875-77; M. Abner Fredepia roon Tours, Leipsic, 1878; Hauck, KD, ii. 137, 148 sqq., 574.
FRIEDBERG, frfd'berg, EMIL ALBERT: German Protestant jurist; b. at Konitz (62 m. s.w. of Danzig) Dec. 22, 1837. He studied in Berlin (Dr.Jur., 1861) and Heidelberg, and was privat-do-
cent at Berlin (1862-6b), associate professor at Halls (186b-68), and full professorat Freiburg (1868-89). Since 1869 he has been professor of canon and German law at Leipsic. Among his numerous writings mention may be made of the following, as of theological interest: De fircium inter ecclxaiam et eivitatem regettdorum judicio quid medii etri doetores et leges atatuerint (Leipsic, 1861); Die evartgelische and katholische Kirche der reeu einverlex3tert tinder in ihren Bexiahungen our 7rroteatantischen Landeakircha and zum Statute (Halle, 1887); Aus deutschen Buaabüchern (1865); Das Veto der Regierung bei Bischofswahl in Preussen und der obey-rheinischen Kirchenprovinx (1869); Agenda mie es in des Churf,araten. zu Sachserl Landen in den Kirchen gehalten taird (1869); Der Stoat und die ktttholische Kirche im Grossherzogtum Baden aeit 1880 (Leipsic, 1871); Akten-Stiicke zum eraterc vatilcareischen Kortxil (1872); Crenzera zloischert Sttutt and Kirche. (3 vols., Tübingen,1872); Johann Baptist Baltzer (Leipsic,1873); Dar Stoat und die Bischafawahlerl in Deutschland (2 vols., 1874); Akten-Stocks die ttltkatholische Bewegung betreffend (Tübingen, 1876); Corpus yuris ednonici (2 vols., Leipsic, 1879-81); Lehrbuch des kotleolischen and evasngelischen Kirchetlrechts (1879); Quiraque compilatiortea antiquae (1882); Die gelte»den Verfaasungageaetze der evartgelischen deutschen Landeakirche (Freiburg, 188b); also four supplementary volumes, 1888-1904); and Conotlea Sammlungen zwischen Grattan and Bernhard van Pavia (189T). From 1864 to 1892 he edited the Zeitschrift für Kirchenrecht in collaboration with R. Dove, and since 1892 he end E. Sehling have edited the successor of this periodical, the Deutsche Zeitschrift für ICirchertrecht.
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