FRIEDLAENDER, MICHAEL: Jewish scholar; b. at Jutroschin (38 m. n. of Breslau), Germany, Apr. 29, 1833. He studied in Berlin and Halls (Ph.D., 1862), and at the Talmud Thorah, of which he was director until 1865, when he became principal of Jews' College, London, resigning in 1907. He has written, edited, or translated The Commentary of Ibn Ezra an Isaiah (3 vols., London, 1873-77); The Guide of the Perplexed of Maimonides (3 vols., 1885); The Jewish Religion (1891); and also a revision of the Authorized Version with the Hebrew text (1882) and the second edition of Lady Katie Magnus, Outlines of Jewish History from B.C. 586 to C.E. 1885 (1888).

FRIEDRICH, JOHANN: German Old Catholic; b. at Poxdorf June 5, 1836. He studied in Bamberg and Munich, and was ordained to the priesthood of the Roman Catholic Church in 1859. He was chaplain of Markscheinfeld until 1862, when he became privat-docent at Munich. In 1865 he was appointed associate professor in the same university and in 1889 was called to Rome as a councilor in theVatican council. He refused to accept the dogma of papal infallibility and in 1871 was ex communicated and was also deprived of his benefice for violating a fundamental principle of the Church in giving the sacrament to a colleague who had fallen pader ecclesiastical condemnation. Notwithstanding the protests of the bishops, be was promoted to the rank of full professor in Munich in


1872, and in 1874-75 was professor of church history at Bern. He then returned to Munich, but in 1882 was transferred, in deference to the protests of the Ultramontane party, from the theological to the philosophical faculty of the university, where he has since been professor of history. He has written Johann Wessel (Regensburg, 1862); Die Lehre des Johann Hus und ihre Bedeutuny für die Enhoicklung der neueren Zeit (1862); As trologic and Reformation (Munich, 1864); Das wahre ZeVadter des heiligen Ruperts (Bamberg, 1866); Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands (2 vols., 1867-69); Tagebuch wdhrend des vatdkanischen Konzila gefuhrt (Nördlingen, 1871); Documenta ad illustrandum concilium Vaticanum (1871); Der Meehanismus der mlikanischen Religion (Innsbruck, 1876); Beiträge zur Kirchen-Geschichte des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1876); Geschichte des vatikanischen Konzils (3 vols., Bonn, 1877-87); Zur dltesten Geschichte des Primots in der Kirche (1879); Beiträge zur Geschichte des Jesuiten-Ordens (Munich, 1881); Die Kondankin-Schenkung (Nördlingen, 1889); Johann Adam Müller, der Symboliker (Munich, 1894); Jakob Froschhammer (Fürth, 1896); and Ignaz von Döllinger (3 parts, Munich, 1899-1901). He likewise published a revised edition of J. J. I. von Döllinger's Jan= under the title Das Pabsttum (Munich, 1892) and prepared the second edition of the same theologian's Pabstfabel des Mittelalkrs (1890).


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