FLIESTEDEN, PETER. See Klarenbach, Adolf.

FLINT, ROBERT: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Dumfries, Scotland, Mar. 14, 1838. He was educated at Glasgow University (1852-59) and was parish minister at East Church, Aberdeen (1859-1862), and at Kilconquhar (1862-64). He was professor of moral philosophy and political economy at St. Andrews University (1864-76) and professor of divinity at Edinburgh University (1876-1903). He was also Baird Lecturer (1876-77), Stone Lecturer at Princeton (1880) and Croall Lecturer at Edinburgh (1887-88). He has written: Christ's Kingdom on Earth (Edinburgh, 1865); Philosophy of History in Europe (1874); Theism (1877); Anti-Theistic Theories (1879); Vico (1884); Historical Philosophy in France, Belgium, and Switzerland (1894); Socialism (London, 1894); Sermons and Addresses (Edinburgh, 1899); Agnosticism (1903); Philosophy as Scientia Scientiarum and History of Classification of Science (1904); and On Theological, Biblical, and other Subjects (1905).

FLODOARD, flo"do"br', OF REIMS: French writer of the tenth century; b. at Apernay (17 m. s.s.e. of Reims) 893 or 894; d. 966. He studied in Reims, which in the tenth century formed the center of French politics and of the higher studies of Lorraine, and under Archbishop Herivaeus (90(1-922) became canon in the cathedral. Owing to political disturbances, he lost his position and joined Bishop Artold (932-961). The latter sent him in 936 to Rome where he was favorably received by Pope Leo VII. and consecrated priest. When Artold lost his bishopric, Flodoard fled with him to Archbishop Rotbert of Treves (931-956). Flodoard took part in the Synod of Ingelheim in 948, at which Artold was reinstated by Pope Agapetus II. As a recompense for his faithfulness Art-

old gave him the position of keeper of. the records in the church of Reims. In 751 he was entrusted with a mission to King Otho I.; in 952 he was appointed bishop of Tournay, but owing to unfavorable conditions could not enter his new position. In 963 he retired into the monastery of St. Basle. During his stay at Rome Flodoard was induced to write a hexameter poem in three parts on the "Triumphs of Christ and the Saints," which with much show of learning and piety tells of the spread of Christianity and the history of the popes. He compiled a chronicle (Annaks; in MGH, Script., iii., 1839, pp. 363-407; also, ed. P. Lauer, Paris, 1906) of his own time, from 919 to 966, which is a source of valuable information for the history of Lorraine and the relations between the French and Germans of that time, and is indispensable for dates of numerous events. He also wrote a reliable and extensive Historia Remensis (in MGH, Script., xiii., 1882, pp. 40rr599) up to~ 948.

Wilhelm Altmann.

Bibliography: A3M, v. 325-332' Hoatoore Littéraore de la France, vi. 313 Paris. 1742 J. C. F BBhr, GeaaAddad der römischen Litteratur im karolingiaden Zeitalter, p· 274, Carleruhe, 1840; Wattenbaeh, DGQ, i (1885), 378-380, ii. 490, i (1893), 409-411; P. Scheffer-Boichoret in Mit theilungen des Institute für baterreich'Geachirhufor- 1887.Consult also R. chu viii. 423-430, Innsbruck, Ceillier. Auteurs sacrés, xii. 841-844. Florensians into their order on account of the comparative laxity of the Cistercian rule, thus rousing the envy, and enmity of the monks of Cftesux. The Florensians maintained their high position, however, until the appointment of abbots in commendam, the first in 1470. The order then declined, and the majority of its monasteries, like the mother house in 1505, became incorporated with the Cistercians, although a few joined the Dominicans and Carthuaians. The habit of the Florenaiana was of coarse gray cloth and closely resembled that of the Cistercians. The monks went barefoot, and in choir wore a cowl over their habit.

(O. Zöckler) .


Bibliography: Helyot, Ordres monastiquea, v. $92 sqq.; Heimbucher, Orden und %onpreoationen, i. 267-288.


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