FLICKINGER, DANIEL KUMLER: United Brethren in Christ; b. at Sevenmile, O., May 25, 1824. He was educated at Germantown Academy and was elected corresponding secretary of the United Brethren Church Missionary Society in 1857, being reelected quadrennially until 1885, when he was chosen foreign missionary bishop. He has been to Africa twelve times and to Germany five times on missionary tours, and has done much work upon the frontiers of the United States, and also among the Chinese. He is the author of Off-hand Sketches in Africa (Dayton, O., 1857); Sermons (in collaboration with Rev. W. J. Shuey; 1859); Ethiopia: or, Twenty-six Years of Missionary Life in Western Africa (1877); The Church's Marching Orders (1879); and Our Missionary Work from 1853 to 1889 (1889).

Bibliography: D. K. Flickinger, Fifty-five Years of Active Ministerial Life; Preface by Bishop G. M. Mathews, Dayton, 1907.

FLIEDNER, flid'ner, FRITZ: The "apostle of the gospel in Spain," son of Theodor Fliedner (q.v.); b. at Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, June 10, 1845; d. at Madrid Apr. 25, 1901. He studied at Halle and Tübingen, and became teacher in a school at Hilden 1868 and chaplain to the legation of the German Empire at Madrid and evangelist in Spain 1870. Besides editing Blätter aus Spanien, Revista Christiana, and Amigo de la infancia, he published (in Spanish) lives of Livingstone, Luther, his father, John Howard, Elizabeth Fry, a hymn-book for Sunday Schools, and various other books of Spanish Christian literature. He also published Blättter und Blüthen, poems (Heidelberg, 1885-97), Römische Missionspraxis auf den Karolinen (1889); Erzählungen aus Spanien (1895), Aus meinem Leben, Erinnerungen and Erfahrungen (Berlin, 1900).

Bibliography: Consult, besides the last work mentioned above, F. G. J. Grape, Spanien und das Evangelium, Halle, 1896.

FLIEDNER, THEODOR: German philanthropist, founder of the Kaiserswerth Deaconesses' Institute and the modern Protestant order of deacon eases (see Deaconess, III., 2, a); b. at Epstein (7 m. n.e. of Wiesbaden), in Nassau, Jan. 21, 1800; d. at Kaiserswerth (on the Rhine, 6 m. n.n.w. of Düsseldorf) Oct. 4, 1864. He was the son of a clergyman and was himself a plain, unpretending German pastor, of great working power, indefatigable zeal, fervent piety, and rare talent of organization. He studied at Giessen, Göttingen, and Her born and for a year was tutor in a family at Cologne and had begun to doubt his fitness for the ministry, when he received and accepted, in Nov., 1821, what he considered a providential call, from a small Protestant colony at Kaiserswerth, then a Roman Catholic town of 1,800 inhabitants. The failure of a silk manufactory, upon which the town de= pended largely for support, led him to undertake, in the spring of 1822, a collecting tour to keep his struggling congregation alive. By the end of a week he returned with 1,200 thalers. This was the beginning of much greater thihgs. By experience and perseverance he became one of the greatest beggars in the service of Christ. In 1823 he made a tour of Holland and England, which not only resulted in a permanent endowment of his congregation, but suggested to him the idea of his benevolent institutions. " In both these Protestant countries," he relates, " I became acquainted with a multitude of charitable institutions for the benefit both of body and soul. I saw schools and other educational organizations, almhousm, orphanages, hospitals, prisons, and societies for the reformation of prisoners, Bible and missionary societies, etc.; and at the same time I observed that it was a living faith in Christ which had called almost every one of these institutions and societies into life, and still preserved them in activity. This evidence of the practical power and fertility of such a principle had a most powerful influence in strengthening my own faith."

Fliedner made two more journeys to Holland, England, and Scotland (1832 and 1853), in the interest no more of his congregation, but of his institutions. He also visited the United States in 1849 and assisted in founding the Deaconesses' Institute in Pittsburg with Dr. Passavant at its head (see Deaconess, III. 2, d, 1 1; PASBAVANT, WILLIAM ALFRED). Twice he traveled to the East, in 1851 to aid Bishop Gobat in founding a house of deaconesses in Jerusalem, and again in 1857, when he was, however, too feeble to proceed farther than Jaffa. King Frederick William IV. of Prussia and Queen Elizabeth took the most cordial interest in his labors for the sick and poor, furnished him liberally with means, and founded in 1847 the Bethany hospital with deaconesses at Berlin after the model of Kaiserswerth. In the


parsonage garden at Kaiserawerth there still stands the little summer-house, with one room of ten feet square, and an attic over it, which was the first refuge for released female prisoners and magdalen asylum, the humble cradle of all Fliedner's institu- tions. In 1849 Fliedner resigned his pastorate to devote all his time to his institutions. One of his last acts was to consecrate nineteen sisters, the largest number up to that time to go out from Kaiserswerth in a single year. At his death the number of deaconesses connected with Kaisers- werth and its daughter institutions exceeded 400 (see Deaconess, III., 2). Fliedner's most important publications were several books descriptive of his travels and Des Buch der Mdrtyrer der even- gelischen Kirche (4 vols., Kaiserswerth, 1852-60). He founded the Christlicher Volkskalender, which was widely popular.

(Philip Schaff†) D. S. Schaff.

Bibliography: The chief "Life" is by his eon, G. Flied- ner, T. Fliedner, kurser Abrias seines Lebens and Wirkena, 3d ed., Kaiserswerth, 1892. Consult: P. Schaff, Germany, its Universities, Theolo~v, and Religion, chap. aaxund,Pheladelphia. 1857; Dr. T. Fliedner, eon Fharak- ter- and ~eoensbtld, Barmen, 1885; Life of Pastor ~hedner of ~aiearan t1°a7. from the Germ. by Catharine worth, London, 1887; T. Schäfer, Weobliche ~iakonie, 3 vols., 2d ed., Stuttgart, 1887-94. s ,tp,


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