FLEMING (less correctly Flemming), PAUL: German poet; b. at Hartenatein (9 m. s.e. of Zwickau) in the Saxon Vogtland, Oct. 5, 1609 (old style); d. at Hamburg Apr. 2, 1640. When about twelve years of age, he entered the Thomasachule at Leipsic, and in 1628 began his studies at the university. Along with his professional course in medicine, he occupied himself with dialectics, rhetoric, and poetics; and in 1633 became doctor of philosophy. In 1633-39 he made a journey to Persia, as attach6 of an embassy despatched by Duke Frederick III. of Holstein. The travelers' remarkable experiences were described by Olearius in his Beschrerbung der neuen orientalischen Reise (Slezwick, 1647). After his return, Fleming was graduated in Leyden as doctor of medicine. On the way thence to Reval, where he was intending to settle as physician, he fell ill and died at Hamburg, probably in consequence of hardships endured on

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the journey. He is buried in St. Catherine's Church at Hamburg.

Fleming is one of the most noteworthy German poets. His style is influenced by Opita (whom he knew personally at Leipsic), but he is perfectly independent in the contents of his poems. These refer, for the most part, to his personal experiences, and are the natural expression of his deep and genuine sensibilities. They enable us to accompany him through his brief and stirring life, and reveal him as a believing Christian and highly cultivated noble man. He wrote in the Latin language quite as aptly and freely as in his mother tongue. The beat known of his poems is the hymn, In allm meinen Thaten lass ich den H6chsten rathen (Eng. transl. by Miss Winkworth, " Where'er I go, wbate'er my task), which he composed prior to departing for Persia. The edition of Fleming's poems prepared, at his own request, by Olearius after his death (Hamburg, 1641) contains only a small selection of the German poems. So, too, an edition that appeared at L├╝beck in 1642 is very defective. The first accurate edition is by J. M. Lappenberg, Paul Flemings lateinische Gediehte (Stuttgart, 1863). and Deutsche Gedichte (2 vols., 1865).

Carl Bertheau.

Bibliography: J. Moller, Cimbria literate, ii. 193 sqq., Copenhagen, 1744; C. H. Jardene, Lexikon dsuteiier Did6sr, i. 544 sqq., v. 97 sqq., 8 vols., Leipsic. 1806-11; K. A. Varvhagen von Eves, Biographieche Denkmala, iv. 1188, Berlin, 1848 (gives account of Fleming's travels); J. M. Lappenberg, Paul Flemings lateinische Gedirhts, Stuttgart, 1883; idem, Deutsche f)edirhte, ii. 851-894, ib. 1885 (the basis of 71ttmann); J. Tittmann, Gediichde von Paul Fleming, Leipsic, 1870; E. E. Koch, GssahidW des R%rchsalieds and Kirrkenpesanp, iii. 73-82, 8 vols., Stuttgart, 1888-77; ADB, ui.115 sqq.; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 378-379.


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