FABRICIUS, JOHANN ALBERT: German theologian and bibliographer; b. at Leipsic Nov. 11, 1668; d. at Hamburg Apr. 3, 1736. He studied theology, philology, philosophy, and medicine in Leipsic, and in 1693 removed to Hamburg, where he assisted Johann Friedrich Mayer, the chief pastor of the city. Six years later he was appointed professor of ethics and rhetoric at the gymnasium, and from 1708 to 1711 was also rector of the Johanneu>p. He possessed a library of some 32,000 volumes, and was an extremely prolific writer. Several of his works are still unsuperseded. Among his bibliographical writings special mention may be made of the following: BibliatheCa latina (Hamburg, 1697; best edition by J. A. Ernesti, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1773-74); Bibli.otheca grceca (14 vols., Hamburg, 1705-28; best edition, though incomplete, by G. C. Harless, 12 vols., 1790-1809); Bibliographia antaquar'la (1713);


Bibliotheca ecclesiastics (1718); and Bxbliotheca latina media et in imm a:tatis (5 vols., 1734-36; completed by J. D. Mansi, 6 vols., Padua, 1754). In theology his work is antiquated, although mention may still be made of his Hydrotheologie (1730) and Pyrotheologie (1732), written to show the goodness of God in creating water and fire; as well as of the Centifolium Lutheranum (2 vols., 1728-30), a somewhat crude bibliography of Luther and the Reformation, and of the Salutaria lux Evangelii toti orbi ezoriens (1731), with a valuable list of over 4,000 bishoprics. He likewise published a number of classical authors, but his only editions of permanent value were his Codex apocryphus Novi Testamenti (2 vols., 1703; enlarged, 1719) and his Codex pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti (1713; enlarged, 2 vols., 1722-23), both of which are still indispensable in a study of their subjects.

Bibliography: S. Reimarus, De vita et scriptie J. A. Fa. bricii, Hamburg, 1737; RL, iv. 1191-82.

FACULTIES: The term applied in canon law to powers conferred by an ecclesiastical superior upon a subordinate. The most important are the papal faculties. These are conferred on missionaries for certain cases of dispensation and absolution, especially ontheheadsof missionary orders; since thesixteenth century on papal nuncios in countries where, as in Germany, the Roman Catholic Church is endeavoring to recover her former footing; and on the bishops and archbishops, who are regarded as missionaries. These powers have always been limited by a regard to the special needs of the region over which they are to be exercised. Those which are conferred upon bishops in certain countries are usually good for a period of five years (hence called facultates quinquennales), and are normally renewed on their expiration. Besides these traditional faculties, there are certain special ones which may be regarded as an extension of them, allowing archbishops and bishops to reduce masses on a foundation, to designate certain altars as privileged, and to nominate synodal examiners. All these faculties are revocable at the will of the people. They are attached to the person of the bishop in respect of his connection with a particular diocese, and terminate by his death or removal from the particular office, but not by the death of the pope who granted them. The bishops in their turn can confer faculties upon their clergy, especially deans and vicars-general, to perform certain functions belonging to the ordinary jurisdiction of the bishop (e.g., absolution in cases reserved to the bishop); and they can also, when this right has been expressly given, subdelegate the exercise of the powers conferred on them in their facultatea quinquennalea to such officials.

(P. Hinschius.)

Bibliography: O. Meier, Die Propapanda, ihre Provinaen und ihr Rech4 i. 39 sqq., ii. 201 sqq., Göttingen, 1852; P. Hinechius. Hirchenrech4 iii. 807 sqq., Berlin, 1882; N. Nilles, in ZHT, xv (1891), 580; A. Konings, Coramentatio in /acultatea apoetoticaa, New York, 1893.


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