3. In the Byzantine and Middle Ages

faith, and conduct of service. In the West the concern was for a practical Middle use of the material of science, Ages. and in this direction Augustine was the leader. Under his influence Cassiodorus wrote his Institutiones divinarum litterarum, which was followed by the more systematic seventh and eighth books "On God, Angels and the Orders of the Faithful" of Isidor's Originum sive etymologictrum. In the Middle Ages the monastic schools and universities arose, the latter with their trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic) and quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music). The De institutions clericorum of Rabanus Maurus (c. 850), the Capitula. ad presbyteros of Hincmar, and the Capitulare of Hatto of Basel are specimens of the work done for the schools of the monasteries, when the monks and clergy were the leaders in the Western world. During the heyday of scholasticism appeared the Speculum doctrinale of Vincent of Beauvais, part of an Omnium scientiarum encycloPcedia (4 vols., Douai, 1624). In opposition to this dialectic discipline arose a mystical type of instruction which partook more of the theological than the philosophical, illustrated by such works as the Didascalion of Hugo of St. Victor (d. 1141), the Epistohe of Jean Gerson (d. 1429), and the De studio theologico of Nicholas of Cl6menge (d. 1437).

The Reformation and Humanism created a new science through the study of linguistics and of history. Study of language gave to theology firm standing-ground and new forms and purposes, the first results of which were attention to Scripture. Erasmus (Ratio sea methodus Pervertiendi ad veram

theologiam), Melanchthon (Brevis dis 4. In Hu- cendte theologise ratio), and Luther manism sad (in his maxim: oratio, meditatio,

the Refor- tentatio faciunt theologum) showed the mation. way, followed by Theobald Thamer

(Adhortatio ad theologise stadium, 1543), David Chytrzeus (De studio theologico, 1557), and John Gerhard (Methodus studii theologici, 1617). Interest in questions of encyclopedia was livelier in the Lutheran Church than in the Reformed, as shown by Bullinger's Ratio studii theo-

Ibgici and Konrad Gessner's Pandectce universales (1548-49). Nevertheless the father of a systematic and thorough encyclopedia was the (Reformed) professor Andrews Gerhard of Marburg in his De theologo sea de rations studii theologici, (Strasburg, 1562-82), in which the division of theological science into exegetical, historical, dogmatic, and practical theology was first made. But the development of theological encyclopedia proceeded without well-formed plane; materials and methods were not carefully distinguished. Polemics too had its influence in the unfolding, and the science divided into exegetical, didactic, and polemical theology. Historical criticism had not yet come to its own, the linguistic methods of Humanism were yet dominant, and the contests between externals and internals dragged dogmatic, practical, and polemic interests into the foreground. Meanwhile philosophy, which among the Reformers had remained wedded to theology, received new impetus from Bacon and Descartes, and a new idea of the world came into existence through Copernicus and Kepler. For Bacon, theology is a positive science, independent of reason, which, however, it takes into its service. A great step had been taken toward insight into religion and toward the formation of a new basis.

The factors which next entered into conflict with rigid scholasticism were Pietism and rationalism, different in origin and purpose, yet united in emphasis upon individualism. Under Pietism theology took on a practical-ascetic phase, it became piety. Spener gave direction to this in his Pia desideria (1675) and in the preface to his De imPedimentis studii theo-


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