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RA'AMAH (trembling), a commercial country which traded with Tyre. Eze 27:22. This land furnished spices, gems, and gold, and was probably named after a son of Cush, whose descendants are believed to have settled upon the south-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The Septuagint renders Raamah by Regma, a place mentioned by Ptolemy in the territory of the Nariti, an Arabian tribe settled in the above locality.

RAAMI'AH (whom Jehovah makes tremble), Neh 7:7, or REELAI'AH (id.), Ezr 2:2, one of the chiefs who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

RAAM'SES. Ex 1:11. See Rameses

RAB'BAH (greatness).

  1. The chief city and capital of the Ammonites. Jos 13:25. Its full name is "Rabbath of the children of Ammon." Deut 3:11. It is also called "Rabbath of the Ammonites." Eze 21:20. Greek and Roman writers call it "Philadelphia," a name given by Ptolemy Philadelphus, by whom it was rebuilt. Its modern name is Amman. Rabbath was situated in the valley of the upper Jabbok and between two mountains, about 22 miles east of the Jordan, 14 miles north-east of Heshbon, and 19 miles south-east of Es Salt.

History. - Rabbah is first mentioned as the place of the "bed," or sarcophagus of Og, king of Bashan. Deut 3:11 Joab besieged it, and, by order of David Uriah was here slain. 2 Sam 11:1-17 Joab took the "city of waters" - that is probably, the lower city, through which the stream flowed - while the citadel held out until David came with reinforcements. 2 Sam 12:26-31; 1 Chr 20:1-3. Afterward, when David fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim, a citizen of Rabbah gave him provisions. 2 Sam 17:27-29. At a later period the Ammonites regained their independence, but the overthrow of Rabbah was predicted. Jer 49:23; Eze 21:20; Eze 25:5; Am 1:14. Under the Ptolemies it continued to be a city of importance, having a garrison for repelling the attacks of Bedouins and it supplied water for travellers across the desert. In N.T. times Rabbah was one of the cities of Decapolis, under the name of "Philadelphia," and it continued as an important town until the fourth century, being the seat of a Christian bishopric; it was finally overthrown by the Saracens. Earthquakes have contributed to its ruin.

Present Appearance. - The ruins of Rabbah are among the most imposing on the east side of the Jordan. Among them are those of a theatre - the largest known in Syria - capable of holding 6000 spectators, a smaller theatre, or odeum, baths, a beautiful Grecian temple, large basilicas, or Greek churches, a vast public building with arches still standing, and the citadel on a hill; the remarkable ruins are strewn over a space of several acres. Most of them, however, belong to the Graeco-Roman period. A paved Roman street is quite perfect, the wheel-ruts being distinctly visible. Eight Corinthian columns of the theatre remain. The coins of the city bear the image of Astarte and the word "Heracleion," from "Hercules," the idol which followed Moloch. Immense flocks and herds of the Arabs come to Rabbah for water and for shelter from the noonday heat, giving to the place the appearance and odor of a farm-yard, strikingly fulfilling the prophecy, "I will make Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couching-place for flocks." Eze 25:4-5.

  1. A town of Judah in the hill-country, noticed with Kirjath-jearim. Jos 15:60. Conder suggests that it may be identified with the present ruin Rubba, in the hills near Beit Jibrin.

RABBATH-AM'MON. Deut 3:11. See Rabbah.


RAB'BI, a title of dignity, literally signifying "my master." It was given by the Jews to distinguish teachers of their Law, and frequently applied to our Lord by the disciples and the people. Matt 23:7-8, Gen 26:25, Matt 26:49; Mark 9:5; Jer 11:21; Mark 14:45; John 1:38, Lev 14:49; 2 Sam 3:2, Gal 3:26, etc. The usual Greek word in the 721 Gospels as the title of Christ is "teacher." Matt 8:19; Eze 9:11, etc. The Jews distinguished between Rab, "master," Rabbi, "my master," and Rabboni, "my great master." The last was the most honorable title of all.

RAB'BITH (multitude), a town of Issachar, apparently in the southern limit of the tribe, Jos 19:20. Drake would identify it with Arrabeh, but Conder locates it at the present village Raba, on the watershed south of Gilboa.

RABBO'NI. John 20:16. See Rabbi.

RAB'-MAG (perhaps the master of the magi) signified an officer of great power and dignity at the Babylonian court. Jer 39:3, 2 Kgs 11:13.

RAB'SARIS (chief eunuch), the title of a high Assyrian or Babylonian officer. 2 Kgs 18:17; Jer 39:3, 2 Kgs 11:13.

RAB'SHAKEH seems to be the name, not of a person, but of an officer - the chief butler or cupbearer - who was sent with Rab-saris, the chief of the eunuchs, and Tartan, messengers of the king of Assyria, to Hezekiah, summoning him, in the most indecent and blasphemous manner, to surrender his capital. 2 Kgs 18:17-37.

RA'CA (worthless), a term of contempt. Matt 5:22.

RACE. Heb 12:1. See Games.

RA'CHAB, the Greek form of "Rahab." Matt 1:5.

RA'CHAL (traffic), a place in Judah to which David sent some of his spoils. 1 Sam 30:29. Its site is unknown.

Tomb of Rachel, near Bethlehem. (After a Photograph.)

RA'CHEL (a ewe), the daughter of Laban, the wife of the patriarch Jacob, and the mother of Joseph and Benjamin. Her history is given in Gen 29-35. The incidents of her life - her beauty, the passion with which she was loved, etc. - are of a charming impressiveness, but her character - her theft of Laban's idols, her shrewdness in concealing the fact - does not command our respect. She died after giving birth to Benjamin, and on her grave, near the road from Bethlehem to Jerusalem, Jacob set up a pillar. Gen 35:19. At the time of 722 Samuel and Saul the pillar was still standing. 1 Sam 10:2. At present a small white mosque, erected by the Mohammedans, indicates the place. Jeremiah, Jer 31:15-17, represents Rachel as weeping in her grave when her children pass by on their way to Babylon, and Matthew, Matt 2:17-18, applies this to the massacre of the innocents.

RACHEL'S TOMB. Gen 35:19-20. The traditional site of the tomb of Rachel is on the road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, about half a mile from the latter place. An insignificant building with a dome in the Muslim style marks the spot. The building has been repeatedly restored, and is not older than the fifteenth century. The tomb is revered by Muslims, Christians, and Jews and visited by pilgrims. (See cut, p. 721.)

RAD'DAI (treading down), a brother of David, the fifth son of Jesse. 1 Chr 2:14.

RA'GAU, the same person as Reu, one of the ancestors of our Lord. Luke 3:35; Gen 11:20-21.

RAGU'EL (friend of God), the father of Jethro, Num 10:29; called Reuel in Ex 2:18.

RA'HAB, a woman of Jericho who kept a public-house, and, as most suppose, was of depraved character. She had heard of the Israelites and of the favor of God toward them. Josh 2:8-11; and when the two spies sent out by Joshua came to Jericho to explore the land of promise, she concealed them from the officers who were sent in search of them, and at a convenient time let them down by a cord upon the outside of the city wall, to which her house joined. It was agreed between her and the spies that she should take a scarlet thread and fasten it in the window or aperture through which they had escaped, and when the city was destroyed her house and all that were in it should be protected. Josh 2:17-23. When the city was taken and burnt, Rahab and her family were preserved. Josh 6:17-25, and it is supposed she married into a noble family of the tribe of Judah. She is called Rachab, Matt 1:5, and her faith is commended among the worthies in Heb 11:31.

RA'HAB (violence), a symbolical term for Egypt. Isa 51:9-10, 2 Sam 20:15. It may also apply to its king. Eze 29:3; Eze 32:2.

In Job 26:12 the same word is translated "the proud," and there is a similar reference in Isa 30:7, translated "strength," but rendered by Gesenius "violence."

RAIN. The force of the various allusions to this subject cannot be apprehended without some knowledge of the natural conditions of Palestine. Rain falls very frequently during what we call the cold months, from November to April. Sometimes it rains powerfully for several days, with thunder and lightning and a strong wind. In the summer season, from May to October, the earth is parched, verdure is destroyed, and vegetation languishes. The first rain after the summer drought usually falls in October, and is called the former or autumnal rain, because it precedes seed-time and prepares the earth for cultivation. The latter rain falls in April, just before harvest, and perfects the fruits of the earth. Deut 11:14; Hos 6:3; Joel 2:23. Storms after this time were regarded by the Jews as unseasonable, and even miraculous. Prov 26:1; 1 Sam 12:16-19. The average present rainfall at Jerusalem is 61.6 inches, which is greater than that of almost any part of the United States. See Palestine.

RAIN'BOW, a seven-colored semicircle produced by the reflection of the sun's rays from the drops of falling water, and appearing in its greatest brilliancy when the spectator is placed between the shining sun on the one side and a raining cloud on the other. It may be formed in waterfalls, fountains, etc., but when formed in the atmosphere it always shows that the rain has passed away. The same laws by which this effect is produced were probably in operation before the Deluge. The rainbow, which had hitherto been a beautiful object in the heavens, was appointed as a sign of the covenant that the earth should not be again destroyed by a flood. The meaning of the covenant would be in substance, "As surely as that bow is the result of established laws which must continue as long as the sun and atmosphere endure, so surely shall the world be preserved from destruction by a deluge." Gen 9:12-17.

RAI'SINS, or grapes dried in bunches, are mentioned 1 Sam 25:18; 1 Sam 30:12; 2 Sam 16:1; 1 Chr 12:40.


RA'KEM (Flower-gardening), a descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr 7:16.

RAK'KATH (shore), a fortified city of Naphtali. Josh 19:35. According to the Rabbins, it stood where Tiberias afterward stood, but there seems little authority for this statement, and no trace of that name has been found in the neighborhood. See Tiberias.

RAK'KON (thinness), a city of Dan, probably not far from Joppa. Josh 19:46. Conder claims to have recovered the site of Rakkon at Tell er-Rakkeit, on the shore north of Joppa. It is a high point covered by an accumulation of blown sand, and situated near the mouth of the turbid river Aujeh, or "yellow water."

RAM (high, exalted).

  1. A descendant of Judah, and son of Hezron, 1 Chr 2:9-10; called Aram in Matt 1:3-4; Luke 3:33.

  2. A descendant of Judah, and son of Jerahmeel. 1 Chr 2:25, 1 Chr 2:27.

  3. One to whose kindred Eliphaz belonged. Job 32:2; identified by some with Aram. Gen 22:21.

RA'MA, a Greek form of "Ramah." Matt 2:18.

RA'MAH (high place), the name of several towns in Palestine.

  1. A city of Benjamin near to Gibeah, and occupied once by Saul. Josh 18:25; Jud 19:13; 1 Sam 22:6. It was on a site naturally strong; was fortified by Baasha, but the king of Judah stopped the work through the co-operation of the Syrians. 1 Kgs 15:17-22; 2 Chr 16:1-6. At the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar the captives were placed under guard at Ramah; among them was the prophet Jeremiah. Jer 39:8-12; Jer 40:1. It was here his prophecy was fulfilled, "A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping." Jer 31:15. This prophecy was again illustrated and fulfilled by the slaughter of the innocents at Bethlehem when Jesus was born. Matt 2:17-18. Ramah was reoccupied after the Captivity. Ezr 2:26; Neh 7:30. The town has been identified with er-Ram, about 5 miles north of Jerusalem, where broken columns, many large hewn stones in the houses, and other ancient remains are to be found. The village is a small and miserable one, having only about fifteen families, but the view from it is very extensive.

  2. The birthplace, home, and burial-place of the prophet Samuel, the word being a contraction of "Ramathaim-zophim." 1 Sam 1:1; 1 Sam 2:11; 1 Sam 7:17; 1 Sam 8:4; 1 Sam 15:34; 1 Sam 16:13; 1 Sam 19:18; 1 Sam 25:1; 1 Sam 28. Stanley says that the position of this Ramah is the most complicated and disputed problem of sacred topography. The place was on an eminence south of Gibeah, the birthplace of Saul, and is also said to be "of Mount Ephraim," a district, however, without defined boundaries. 1 Sam 1:1, 1 Sam 1:19. The following sites for Ramah have been proposed:(1) Neby-Samwil, 4 miles north-west of Jerusalem, where it is placed by the common tradition of Muslims, Jews, and Christians, and Grove is inclined to favor it; (2) Er-Ram, which is the same as Ramah, No. 1; (3) Ramleh, 2 miles south-west of Lydda; (4) Ramah, a short distance above Bethlehem; (5) the "Frank mountain," 3 miles south-east of Bethlehem, a site favored by Gesenius; (6) Ramet el-Khalil, a group of ruins a little north of Hebron, favored by Walcott and Van de Velde; (7) Rama, a village 3 1/2 miles west of Sanur, favored by Schwarze: (8) Ram-allah, 5 miles north of Neby-Samwil, favored by Ewald; (9) Seba, 6 miles west of Jerusalem, proposed by Robinson. In the seventeenth century Neby-Samwil was pointed out as the site of Ramathaim-zophim, which would connect it with this Ramah, but in the fourteenth century Ramathaim-zophim was shown at Ramleh.

  3. A place on the border of Asher, probably not far from Tyre. Josh 19:29. Robinson places this Ramah at the modern village Rameh, about 13 miles south-east of Tyre, which the Pal. Memoirs call Ramin, and accept it as the site of Ramah.

  4. A fortified place of Naphtali. Josh 19:36. It may be identical with the modern village of Rameh, 10 miles north-west of the Sea of Galilee and on the road to Akka.

  5. A name for Ramoth-Gilead, which see. 2 Kgs 8:28-29.

  6. A place mentioned in Neh 11:33 as reinhabited by Benjamites after their return from exile.

RAMATHA'IM-ZO'PHIM (double height of the watchers), the full 724 name for Ramah, No. 2, which see. 1 Sam 1:1.

RA'MATHITE, a native of Ramah. 1 Chr 27:27.

RA'MATH-LE'HI (hill of Lehi), the place where Samson slew a thousand Philistines with a jaw-bone. Jud 15:17. Probably Ayun Kara. See Lehi.

RA'MATH-MIZ'PEH (height of the watch-tower), a frontier-town in Gad. Jos 13:26. Dr. Merrill identifies it with Kalat er Rabad, a ruin on Wady 'Ajlun, about 10 miles east of the Jordan and between the two seas.

RA'MATH OF THE SOUTH, a place in the southern border of Simeon. Josh 19:8; 1 Sam 30:27. In the latter passage it is called "South Ramoth" to distinguish it from Ramoth beyond Jordan. It has been identified with Jehel Barabir, a hill 45 miles south-west of Beer-sheba, and also with Kurmul, 20 miles south-east of Beer-sheba; and lastly, with Tell el-Lekiyeh, near Beersheba.

RAM, BATTERING. Eze 4:2; Eze 21:22. See Battering-ram.

RAME'SES (son of the sun), a province and city in Egvpt; called also RAAM'SES. Gen 47:11; Ex 12:37; Num 33:3, 1 Chr 6:5. It was without doubt identical with Goshen as a district. If a city, Rameses was in the valley which extends from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile to the Red Sea or the Bitter Lakes of Suez, and was probably the capital of Goshen. See Gen 45:10. Its precise location has not been determined. It has been proposed to identify it with - (1) Letopolis, now Baboul, a few miles south of On; (2) with On; (3) with Heroopolis, about 20 miles north-west of the Bitter Lakes; (4) at Zoan, or the modern San, a theory maintained by Dr. Brugsch; (5) with a ruin near Abbanah.

RAMI'AH (Jehovah exalted), one who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:25.

RA'TIOTH (heights), one who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:29.

RA'MOTH. 1 Sam 30:27. See Ramath and Remeth.

RA'IVIOTH-GIL'EAD (height of Gilead), a city of the Amorites, and afterward a chief city of Gad, east of the Jordan, and given to the Levites, and also made a city of refuge. Deut 4:43; Josh 20:8. It was also called Ramah. 2 Kgs 8:29; 2 Chr 22:6. It was the headquarters of one of Solomon's commissariat-officers. 1 Kgs 4:13. It came into possession of the Syrians, and Ahab and Jehoshaphat formed an alliance to recover it, but Ahab was mortally wounded. 1 Kgs 22:2-36; 2 Chr 18. Later, Joram was wounded at the same place, and the city was taken. Jehu was in command, and anointed king of Israel by order of Elisha. 2 Kgs 8:28; 2 Chr 22:5-6. Ramoth-gilead has been identified by many travellers with Es-Salt, though this has been questioned. Es-Salt is situated about 25 miles east of the Jordan, and 13 miles south of the Jabbok. It is now the most important and populous place in that district, and is the capital of Belka and the residence of a Turkish governor of the third rank. The place lies 2740 feet above the level of the sea, has a healthy climate, and a large population, given chiefly to agriculture, among which are 300 to 400 Arab families and a few nominal Christians. There are some ruins of the Roman period, and a castle on the top of a hill. The hills around it bear many traces of ancient rock-tombs. Three miles to the north-west is Jebel Jelad, 3650 feet in height, and said to be the highest eminence in Gilead. Dr. Merrill, however, identifies Ramoth Gilead with Gerosh, about 25 miles north-east of Es Salt.

RAMS' HORNS. See Trumpet.

RANG'ES, 2 Kgs 11:8, 2 Kgs 11:15; 2 Chr 23:14, means "ranks of soldiers."

RAN'SOM, the price paid to purchase the freedom of a captive or slave. Matt 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Cor 6:19-20; 1 Tim 2:6. Under the Levitieal law, an offering was required of every Israelite over twenty years of age at the time the census was taken. This offering is called a ransom or atonement-money. Ex 30:12-16. It amounted to half a shekel, or about twenty-five cents. It was to be made upon penalty of the plague; and every person, rich or poor, was required to give that sum, and neither more nor less. 1 Pet 1:18-19.

RA'PHA (tall).

  1. A descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:2.

  2. A descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:37.

RA'PHAEL (the divine healer) is, according to Jewish tradition, one of the four angels who stand around the 725 throne of God (Michael, Uriel, Gabriel, Raphael). The name is not in the Bible.

RA'PHU (healed), father of the Benjamite spy. Num 13:9.

RA'VEN (black). Song 6:11. Under this term are evidently included the various birds of the crow family, some eight or more species of which are found in Palestine.

The raven, like most of its congeners, feeds principally on carrion. It resembles our crow in size, shape, and color, and is ceremonially unclean. Lev 11:15. When about to feed upon a dead body, it is said to seize first upon the eyes. Hence the allusion, Prov 30:17, implying the exposure of the body in the open field, than which nothing was regarded as more disgraceful. See Burial. Ravens live in desolate regions, Isa 34:11, and it is only by restless flight over large areas that they are able to obtain even an uncertain living. Job 38:41; Ps 147:9; Luke 12:24. But

Raven. (Corvus Corax. After Houghton.)

they do not, as has been believed, turn their young from the nest before they are able to supply themselves with food.

Whether the raven sent out of the ark by Noah ever returned to him is not agreed: according to the literal reading of the Hebrew, also of the Samaritan text, and the Chaldee, it did; but a different opinion is supported by the LXX., the Syriac, the Latin, and most of the Fathers. Gen 8:7.

There is no reason for questioning the simple statements of 1 Kgs 17:4-7 concerning the miraculous feeding of Elijah at the brook Cherith by these birds.

RA'ZOR. The usage of shaving the head after completing a vow must have established the barber's trade quite early among the Hebrews. The instruments used were exactly the same as in our days - the razor, the scissors, the basin, and the mirror. Razors are mentioned in Num 6:5; Jud 13:5; 1 Kgs 16:17; 1 Sam 1:11; Eze 5:1, and figuratively in Ps 52:2; Isa 7:20. See Hair.

REAI'A (whom Jehovah cares for), a descendant of Reuben, and son of Micah. 1 Chr 5:5. The name is identical with -


  1. A descendant of Judah through his son Shobal. 1 Chr 4:2.

  2. One whose children returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:47; Neh 7:50.


REAP'ING, See Agriculture.

RE'BA (the fourth), one of the five Midianite kings whom the Israelites slew. Num 31:8; Josh 13:21.

REBECCA. Rom 9:10. See Rebekah.

REBEK'AH (a cord with a noose, enchaining), the daughter of Bethuel, sister of Laban, and wife of Isaac. The circumstances of her marriage with Isaac constitute one of the most charming and beautiful passages of the sacred history. Gen 24. After she had been married twenty years without children, she became the mother of Jacob and Esau. When they grew up Jacob became the favorite of his mother, and this undue partiality was the source of much mischief. She persuaded him to obtain his father's blessing by practising a deceit, and he had to flee for fear of his brother's revenge. She died before Isaac, and was buried in Abraham's tomb. Gen 49:31.

RECEIPT OF CUS'TOM. Matt 9:9. See Publican.

RE'CHAB (horseman).

  1. The father or ancestor of Jehonadab. 2 Kgs 10:15, 2 Kgs 10:23; 1 Chr 2:55; Jer 35:6-19.

  2. One of the captains who conspired to murder Ish-bosheth. 2 Sam 4:2.

  3. One who assisted in repairing the walls of Jerusalem. Neh 3:14.

RE'CHABITES, THE, were a tribe of Kenites or Midianites, 1 Chr 2:55, descended from Jonadab, or Jehonadab, the son or descendant of Rechab, 2 Kgs 10:15, from whom they derive their name. They were worshippers of the true God, practised circumcision, and stood within the covenant of Abraham, but they were not reckoned as children of Israel, and perhaps they did not feel themselves bound by the Mosaic Law and ritual. The introduction of the worship of Baal by Jezebel and Ahab was a horror to them.

Jonadab appears to have been very zealous for the pure worship of God, and was associated with Jehu in the destruction of the idolatrous house of Ahab. He established a rule for his posterity that they should possess neither land nor houses, but should live in tents, and should drink no wine or strong drink. In obedience to this rule, the Rechabites continued a separate but peaceable people, living in tents and removing from place to place as circumstances required. When Judaea was first invaded by Nebuchadnezzar they fled to Jerusalem for safety, where it pleased God, through the prophet Jeremiah, to exhibit them to the wicked inhabitants of Jerusalem as an example of constancy in their obedience to the mandates of an earthly father. Jer 35:2-19.

Some highly -interesting facts are known respecting the present condition of the Rechabites. They still dwell in the mountainous tropical country to the north-east of Medina. They are called Beni Khaibr, "sons of Heber," and their land is called Khaibr. They have no intercourse with their brethren, the Jews, who are dispersed over Asia, and are esteemed as "false brethren "because they observe not the Law.

RE'CHAH (utmost part), a place, apparently in Judah. 1 Chr 4:12.

RECONCILE, Eph 2:16, RECONCILIATION. Heb 2:17. These terms imply the restoration of man to the favor and grace of God through the atonement made by Jesus Christ. Reconciliation is a change of relation of two parties from enmity to peace. It is twofold - man-ward and God-ward. God is reconciled to man by the satisfaction of his justice through the atoning sacrifice of Christ; man is reconciled to God as his loving Father, as exhibited in the sacrifice of his Son, which removes distrust and creates gratitude and love. Both sides are combined in 2 Cor 5:18-20; comp. Rom 5:11, where the English Version renders the Greek word by "atonement" (which is etymologically correct, but not according to modern theological usage).

RECORD'ER, the annalist of the king, and also his councillor, and an officer who stood thus very high in the kingdom, as is manifest from the commissions entrusted to him, such as representing the king and superintending temple-repairs. Compare 2 Sam 8:16; 2 Sam 20:24; 1 Kgs 4:3; 2 Kgs 18:18, 2 Kgs 18:37; 2 Chr 34:8.

RED HEIF'ER. See Offering.

RED SEA, a long, narrow arm of the ocean separating Asia from Africa. It was called by the Hebrews "the sea," Ex 14:2, Gal 1:9, Ex 17:16, 2 Chr 11:21, Acts 20:28; Ex 15:1, Ex 6:4, 1 Kgs 15:8, 1 Kgs 16:10, Acts 1:19; Josh 24:6-7, etc.; the "Egyptian Sea," Isa 11:15, but especially the "Sea 727 of Suph," apparently so named from the wool-like weeds growing in it.Ex 10:19; Gen 13:18; Ex 15:4, Ex 15:22; Eze 23:31; Num 15:25; Num 21:4, etc. The Greeks applied "Eruthra Thalassa" or "Red Sea" to it in common with the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean; in the N.T. it is applied to the western gulf, now known as the "Red Sea." Acts 7:36; Heb 11:29. This name is derived, perhaps, from the red coral or zoophytes in the sea, or, as some conjecture, from Edom, which signifies "red." The Egyptians called it the "Sea of Punt" or Arabia, and the Arabs "Bahr el Hejaz," or "El-bahr el-Ahmar." See Map of Sinai, at the end of this volume.

Physical Features. - The Red Sea consists of a long, narrow arm of the Indian Ocean, projecting north-west inland a distance of 1450 miles. It is connected with the ocean by the narrow strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, only 18 miles wide. The sea, at its greatest breadth, is 221 miles; toward its northern end it gradually contracts, and then divides into two arms - the Gulf of Akabah on the east, and the Gulf of Suez on the west, the latter extending to within 70 miles of the Mediterranean. Between these two arms is the Sinaitic peninsula. The Red Sea covers an area of about 180,000 square miles, and is at some places 1000 fathoms deep, but its average depth is from 400 to 600 fathoms. The shores are flanked by a network of submerged coral-reefs and islands extending a long way from the coast and rendering the navigation of the sea perilous, especially in its narrower parts. The western of the two arms, now called the Gulf of Suez, is 150 miles long, and about 20 miles in average breadth. An ancient canal once connected the Nile with this arm of the Red Sea. It was built, as some suppose, by the Pharaohs, and is certainly known to have been in use for navigation in the fourteenth century before Christ. It was about 62 Roman miles in length, 54 feet wide, and about 7 feet deep. It has been recently utilized in the construction of a modern canal. A greater ship-canal, opened in 1869, now connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea at Suez. The eastern arm, called the Gulf of Akabah, is 105 miles long and about 15 miles wide.

No rivers fall into the Red Sea, but a large number of rain-torrents run into it. The water is a blue color, remarkably clear, and changing to green near the shoals or reefs. Notwithstanding assertions to the contrary, the sea has been shown to be subject to the tides, the difference between high and low tide being from 3 to 7 feet. The north wind prevails in summer in the northern part of the sea; the south-east wind in winter, especially in the southern part of the sea; but the north-west is most prevalent in this part of it in winter.

The coasts of the Red Sea are chiefly barren rock or sand, and therefore generally destitute of inhabitants. A short distance inland the mountains are from 4000 to 7600 feet high. There are only two or three towns of consequence in the entire 1400 miles of its African side. Suez, a town of 14,000 inhabitants, Koser, the harbor of Upper Egypt, with 1200, Sanakim, a seaport of Soudan, with 10,000, and Masau'a, a port of Abyssinia, with 5000, are the only towns of any size on the African shore. There are few also on the Arabian side, the most important being Jedda, where the Muslims point out a stone structure called "Eve's Tomb," a building of comparatively recent times. The mother-of-pearl shells were once very abundant, but have diminished of late, from the eagerness of fishermen in prosecuting their trade. Many curiously-colored shells are also gathered and sold as curiosities to travellers - among them the murex, the "porcelain shell," the pink wardam - and black, purple, and white coral is very abundant.

One of the most important questions in regard to the physical features of the Red Sea is the extent of its northern extremity. Formerly it was maintained that the land at the head of the Gulf of Suez had gradually risen and the sea retired. How much farther north it extended in historic times was not definitely determined, but it was estimated at not less than 50 miles, which would narrow the land at the isthmus to about 20 or 25 miles in width. The repeated explorations of the isthmus seemed to show that in the times of Moses the sea included the "Lake of the Crocodile " and the more southern of the "Bitter Lakes," as then the northern 728 end of the Red Sea, but this is now sharply disputed.

Scripture Reverences. - The grand event associated with the Red Sea is- the passage of the Israelites and the overthrow of the Egyptians. Ex 14-15. This miraculous event is frequently referred to in the Scriptures. Num 33:8; Deut 11:4; Josh 2:10; Judg 11:16; 2 Sam 22:16; Neh 9:9-11; Ps 66:6; Isa 10:26; Acts 7:36; 1 Cor 10:1-2; Heb 11:29, etc. The place of the crossing has been a matter of much controversy. It should be remarked, as preliminary to this discussion, that the head of the gulf is probably at least 50 miles farther south than it was at the time of the Exodus. If the Red Sea then included the Bitter Lakes of Suez and the Birket el-Timsah ("Lake of the Crocodile"), the crossing may have been farther north than would now appear possible. Thus the predictions of Isaiah, Isa 11:15; Isa 19:5, "The Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian Sea," "The waters shall fail from the sea," are fulfilled.

Stanley says that the place of passage has been extended by Arab tradition down the whole Gulf of Suez.

The following are the principal theories respecting the place of crossing of the Red Sea:

  1. The modern theory of Schleiden, revived by Brugsch, that the Israelites did not cross the Red Sea, but the Serbonian bog. This conflicts with the plain narrative of Scripture, which says they crossed the Red Sea. And it also requires that Rameses be transferred to Zoan, about 40 miles farther north than Brugsch had positively fixed it from the inscriptions, in his earlier works.

  2. The tradition of the peninsular Arabs, which places the crossing south of Jebel Atakah. But the physical features of the country are against this place, for the mountains shut down to the sea, leaving only a foot-path impracticable for such a host to pass, and this mountain extends for about 12 miles.

  3. M. de Lesseps puts the passage between the Crocodile Lake and the Bitter Lakes, while M. Ritt finds it along the dike at Chaloof. If the Red Sea extended to these points, its depth and breadth then have not been proved sufficient to meet the scriptural conditions.

  4. Others, as Niebuhr, Laborde, Wellsted, Robinson, Hengstenberg, Tischendorf, Ewald, Kurtz, Keil, Schaff, Bartlett, place the crossing in the neighbourhood of Suez. This general locality seems to meet the requirements of the narrative. Robinson made a thorough investigation, and concluded that the place of passage was near the small arm of the sea which runs up from Suez. A strong north-east wind, acting upon the ebb-tide, would drive out the water from the shallower part, while the deeper portions would still remain covered, thus constituting a wall (or defence) to the Israelites on the right hand and on the left. Others insist upon the likelihood of the crossing from Wady Tawarik, farther south, since it is argued that a sea at least 12 miles broad would have been needed to overwhelm the whole army of the Egyptians.

But so many have been the changes of this region in the lapse of ages that it will not probably be possible to decide with certainty upon the exact spot. Either of the two points last suggested, in Robinson's opinion, "satisfies the conditions of the case; in either the deliverance of the Israelites was equally great and the arm of Jehovah alike gloriously revealed."

After crossing, the Israelites marched down and encamped on the east side of the Red Sea (Gulf of Suez). Num 33:10. From the way of the Red Sea came locusts, Ex 10:12-19, and the quails which supplied them with food came from the same source. Num 11:31. They journeyed by the way of the Red Sea (the eastern arm or Gulf of Akabah) to compass Edom. Num 21:4. In the prosperous reign of Solomon he "made a navy of ships" at Ezion-geber and Elath, which were ports at the head of the Gulf of Akabah. 1 Kgs 9:26; 1 Kgs 10:22; 2 Chr 8:17-18.

RED SEA, PASSAGE OF. See Exodus, Route of, and Red Sea.

REDEEMS', REDEEM'ER, REDEMP'TION. In the O.T. these terms are specially applied to the repurchase of an estate, a field, which had come into some stranger's possession. According to the Mosaic Law, the original owner of such an estate or his descendants, or even his nearest kinsmen, still retained a right of proprietorship, which 729 they could enforce after ransoming the estate - that is, by paying back the sum for which it had been sold. Hence arose a number of metaphorical applications of the terms referring to this relation between God and his people, the children of Israel, whom he redeemed from the bondage of Egypt. Ex 6:6; Isa 43:1; Isa 44:22; Isa 48:20.

In the N.T. the terms generally refer to the repurchase of the freedom of a person. To purchase a person's liberty for him is to redeem him, and the price paid is called the ransom. Sinners are in bondage to sin, but Christ, having given bis blood or his life as a ransom for them, redeems them, and is therefore called their Redeemer. Matt 20:28; 1 Pet 1:18. This ransom has an infinite value, being the work of the God-man, and is sufficient to redeem all men from captivity; but it is efficient and available only for the redemption of such as accept and appropriate it by a living faith in Christ Jesus, and walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

REED, used generically for various tall plants of the grass or sedge order. See Bulrush, Flag, Rush. Fishpoles, canes, and rods, Matt 27:29, are formed of it. These plants flourish in marshes or in the vicinity of water-courses; hence the allusion, Job 40:21. It is often used by the sacred writers to illustrate weakness and fragility. 2 Kgs 18:21; Isa 36:6; Isa 42:3; Eze 29:6; Matt 12:20.

Reeds were also used to make pens of (see Pen), and also as measuring-rods. Eze 40:5. See Measures. From their height and slender shape, plants of this kind are moved by the slightest breath of wind, 1 Kgs 14:15, and hence nothing could be more unimportant in itself than such a motion, and nothing more strikingly illustrative of fickleness and instability. Comp. Matt 11:7 and Eph 4:14.

The true reed of Egypt and Palestine (Arundo donax) has a slender jointed stalk like bamboo, about 12 feet in height, with a fine large brush of bloom at the top. This flexible stalk often lies prostrate before the wind, ready to rise again at the first lull. About the perennial waters of the Holy Land there are often dense canebrakes of this plant, in the midst of which wild beasts find their lairs. With one or more hollow tubes of reed, musical instruments are constructed by the youth of the country, and it is likely that David first learned to play on a similar primitive reed-organ.

REED, MEASURING. Eze 40:5. See Measures.

REELA'IAH (whom Jehovah makes tremble), one who returned with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:2; identical with Raamiah, in Neh 7:7.

REFIN'ER. This word is often used figuratively by the sacred writers. Its peculiar force in the passage Mal 3:3 will be seen when it is remembered that refiners of silver sit with their eyes steadily fixed on the furnace that they may watch the process, and that the process is complete and perfected only when the refiner sees his own image in the melted mass. Similar passages occur. Isa 1:25; Zech 13:9; Jer 6:29, etc.

REFUGE, CITIES OF. Num 35. See City.

RE'GEM (friend), a descendant of Judah, and son of Judah. 1 Chr 2:47.

RE'GEM-ME'LECH (friend of the king), one of the persons who were sent by those in captivity to make inquiries at the temple. Zech 7:2.

REGENERA'TION. This term occurs only in Matt 19:28 and Tit 3:5. As used by Matthew, it refers to the renovation or consummation of all things at Christ's second advent, when there shall be "new heavens and a new earth." "The washing of regeneration," in the latter passage, signifies the new birth from above or from the Holy Spirit, who makes us new creatures in Christ Jesus. Other words conveying precisely the same idea are of frequent occurrence. Our Saviour says to Nicodemus, "Except a man be born again" (or rather, "from above," "from God"), "he cannot see the kingdom of God." John 3:3. Christians are described as born of God, John 1:12-13; 1 John 2:29; 1 John 5:1, 1 John 5:4. They are also represented as begotten of God or by the word of God. Jas 1:18; 1 Pet 1:3, 1 Pet 1:23. And the same thing, in substance, is presented under the idea of a new creation, 2 Cor 5:17; a renewing of the mind, Rom 12:2; a renewing of the Holy Ghost, Tit 3:5; a resurrection from the dead, Eph 2:6; a being quickened, etc. Eph 2:1, 1 Chr 6:5. Regeneration, then, may be regarded as 730 the communication of spiritual life to a soul previously dead in trespasses and sins by the almighty energy of the Holy Spirit, making use of the word of truth as an instrument; in consequence of which divine operation, the soul begins to apprehend spiritual things in a new light, to believe them in a new manner, to love them with an affection not before felt, and to act henceforth from new motives and for new ends.

REHABI'AH (whom Jehovah enlarges), a descendant of Moses. 1 Chr 23:17.

RE'HOB (street, broad place).

  1. The father of Hadadezer, king of Zobah. 2 Sam 8:3, 2 Sam 8:12.

  2. A Levite who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. Neh 10:11.

RE'HOB (broad place), the name of three towns.

  1. The extreme place reached by the spies. Num 13:21. It is named also Beth-rehob. 2 Sam 10:6, 2 Sam 10:8. According to Robinson, it was near Tell el-Kady, at the castle of Hunin, in the mountains west of the marsh of the Huleh, and in the upper Jordan valley. Thomson suggests that it was at Banias.

  2. A place in Asher. Josh 19:28. It was probably near to Sidon.

  3. Another town of Asher, given to the Gershonite Levites. Josh 19:30; Josh 21:31.

REHOBO'AM (enlarger of the people), a son of Solomon by the Ammonite princess Naamah, 1 Kgs 14:21; ascended the throne after the death of his father, at the age of forty-one, and reigned seventeen years, b.c. 975-957. It appears that the taxes which Solomon had laid on the people had become an onerous burden; and when Rehoboam went down to Shechem to be anointed and crowned, the representatives of the ten tribes met him with a unanimous demand for relief in the taxation. It is also probable that this proceeding of the ten tribes was influenced by the strong jealousy which reigned between Ephraim and Judah. The accession of David to the throne, and the transference of the ark and the royal residence to Jerusalem, had given the tribes of Judah and Benjamin a decided prominence, and Ephraim felt very sore. The situation was critical, and Rehoboam showed himself utterly incapable of managing it. Following the advice of his younger courtiers, he gave a most insolent answer, the effect of which was that the ten tribes revolted, leaving Judah and Benjamin alone in their allegiance to him. He at once proposed to employ force for the purpose of reducing the rebels, but was admonished

Rehoboam. (From Sculptures at Karnak.) The inscription has been read, "Kingdom of Judah."

by the prophet Shemaiah to forbear. 1 Kgs 12:24. Continual wars, however, prevailed between the two parties, and a still greater calamity soon fell on the head of the unhappy king. Allured by the enormous riches which Solomon had accumulated in Jerusalem, and probably also instigated by Jeroboam, the Egyptian king Shishak, the founder of the twenty-second dynasty, invaded Judah. Jerusalem was taken, and Rehoboam had to buy an ignominious peace by surrendering all the royal treasures. This victory of Shishak is found commemorated by artistic representations on the side of the great temple of Karnak.

REHO'BOTH (wide places), a name for three places.

  1. A well belonging to Isaac, and the third dug by him. Gen 26:22. It has lately been identified, 16 miles south of Beersheba, at the head of the great Wady Refah, and is now known as er-Ruheibeh. Near some stone ruins is an ancient well, the troughs and other masonry which still

remain being of immense proportions, and apparently of very great antiquity. One of the troughs is round and the other circular, and cut in solid blocks 6 feet by 5 feet and 5 feet high. Palmer states that the appearance of the masonry, which is more massive and antique than any other in the neighborhood, renders it probable that it is the well which Isaac dug. Though Robinson could not find it, Stewart and Rowlands each found it, as an ancient well and 12 feet in circumference; but it was so built over and filled with rubbish that neither Palmer nor Drake could at first discover it.

  1. " Rehoboth by the river," mentioned as the home of Saul or Shaul, an early king of the Edomites. Gen 36:37; 1 Chr 1:48. The "river" is supposed to be the Euphrates. The name is represented by Rahabah, attached to two places on the Euphrates, one 28 miles below the junction of the Khabour and 3 miles from the western bank; the other lower down, on the eastern side. The former is perhaps the true site of ancient Rehoboth.

  2. The "city Rehoboth," one of the four founded by Asher or Nimrod. Gen 10:11-12. The text has been variously explained. Some regard it as denoting, not a separate city, but the "streets of the city" - that is, of Nineveh; others prefer to regard it as a distinct city. Rawlinson would identify it with Selemiyah, near Kalah, which has extensive ruins.

RE'HUM (compassionate).

  1. One who returned with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:2, called Nehum in Neh 7:7.

  2. The chancellor who wrote to Artaxerxes in order to prevent the rebuilding of the walls and temple of Jerusalem. Ezr 4:8-9, 2 Sam 21:17, Heb 12:23.

  3. A Levite who assisted in repairing the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 3:17.

  4. One who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. Neh 10:25.

  5. A priest who returned with Zerubbabel, Neh 12:3; called Harim in Neh 12:15.

RE'I (friendly), one who remained true to David when Adonijah rebelled. 1 Kgs 1:8.

REINS. The reins or kidneys were considered by the Hebrews to be the seat of certain affections and emotions which we attribute to the heart. Hence a number of peculiarly Hebrew expressions. Ps 7:9; Jud 16:7; Jer 17:10; Jer 20:12.

RE'KEM (variegation, flower-garden).

  1. One of the Midianite kings who were slain by the Israelites. Num 31:8; Josh 13:21.

  2. A descendant of Judah, and son of Hebron. 1 Chr 2:43.

RE'KEM (flower-gardening), a city of Benjamin. Josh 18:27. Its site is unknown.

REMALI'AH (whom Jehovah adores), father of Pekab. 2 Kgs 15:25, 2 Kgs 15:27, 2 Kgs 15:30, 2 Kgs 15:32, 2 Kgs 15:37; 2 Kgs 16:1, 2 Kgs 16:5; 2 Chr 28:6; Isa 7:1, Isa 7:4-5, Isa 7:9; Isa 8:6.

RE'METH (height), a town of Issachar, Josh 19:21; possibly the same with Ramoth, Josh 1 Chr, 6:73, and the Jarmuth of Josh 21:29, where it is named as a Levitical city. The Pal. Memoirs suggest ??Er Bauteh??, a conspicuous village on a hill, 5 miles north-west of Samaria, as its site. The village is of moderate size, with olives below near the plain.

REM'MON (pomegranate), a city of Simeon. Josh 19:7. See Rimmon, No. 1.

REM'MON-METH'OAR, a landmark of Zebulun. Josh 19:13. "Methoar" is not a part of the proper name, and the clause should read, "Remmon which reaches to Neah." See Rimmon. No. 2.

REM'PHAN, occurring only in Acts 7:43, which is a quotation from Am 5:26, where the corresponding word in the Hebrew is "Chiun." It is probable, therefore, that they are interchangeable names for a god worshipped secretly by the Israelites in Egypt and in the wilderness, answering, probably, to Saturn or Moloch, the star-god. Some refer this worship to the time of Amos.

REND. To rend the garments, or "tare" them, 2 Sam 13:31, was from the earliest period a sign of grief or penitence. Jacob and David did it on various occasions, and so did Joshua, Josh 7:6, and Hezekiah. 2 Kgs 19:1. The high priest was forbidden to rend his clothes, Lev 10:6; Lev 21:10, probably meaning his sacred garments. Perhaps those referred to in Matt 26:65 were such as were ordinarily worn, or merely judicial and not pontifical garments. Sometimes "rending" denoted 732 anger or indignation mingled with sorrow.

REPENT' REPENT'ANCE. The Greek word so translated means literally "to perceive afterward," hence "to change one's mind." In the Bible it designates the turning from sin to God, or conversion. It is the beginning of the preaching of John the Baptist and of Christ. Matt 3:2; Matt 4:17; Mark 1:15. It implies, 1. A knowledge of sin and guilt; 2. A deep sorrow for it; and 3. A determination to break with it and to begin a new life of obedience and holiness. This is "repentance unto life." Acts 11:18; Acts 26:20.

Dr. A. A. Hodge thus distinguishes between repentance and conversion: "1. Conversion is the more general term, and is used to include the first exercises of faith, as well as all those experiences of love of holiness and hatred of sin, etc., which are consequent upon it. Repentance is more specific, and expresses that hatred and renunciation of sin and that turning unto God which accompanies faith as its consequent. 2. Conversion is generally used to designate only the first actings of the new nature at the commencement of a religious life, or at most the first steps of a return to God after a notable backsliding, Luke 22:32, while repentance is applied to that constant bearing of the cross which is one main characteristic of the believer's life on earth. Ps 19:12-13; Luke 9:23; Gal 6:14; John 5:24. "- Outlines of Theology, enlarged ed., p. 489.

God is said to repent. Gen 6:6; Jon 3:9-10. This, however, is merely attributing to God human ideas. He cannot truly repent, since he never does wrong and is unerring wisdom. But God's actions, looked at from earth, may appear to indicate a change of purpose.

The "repentance" of Judas, Matt 27:3, shows that one may sorrow over sin and its terrible consequences without thereby gaining spiritual life. This is the sorrow which leads to despair.

RE'PHAEL (whom God heals), a Levite porter. 1 Chr 26:7.

RE'PHAH (riches), a descendant of Ephraira. 1 Chr 7:25.

REPHAI'AH (whom Jehovah healed).

  1. A descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:21.

  2. A Simeonite chieftain in the reign of Hezekiah. 1 Chr 4:42.

  3. A descendant of Issachar. 1 Chr 7:2.

  4. A descendant of Saul, 1 Chr 9:43; called Kapha in 1 Chr 8:37.

  5. The son of Hur, and ruler of the half part of Jerusalem. Neh 3:9.

REPH'AIM (giants), the name of a race of giants who lived east of the Jordan. Chedorlaomer defeated them. Gen 14:5. Their land was promised to Abraham's seed. Gen 15:20. At some time before Israel's coming they were driven out of their possessions. Deut 2:10 (Heb.), and lived in the West of Palestine, where they had possessions. Josh 15:8. See below.

REPH'AIM, VAL'LEY OF. It is first mentioned in Josh 15:8; Josh 18:16, and there translated "the valley of the giants." It was one of the landmarks of the land of Judah; named after the Rephaim, or "giants," who at an early period were found on both sides of the Jordan. Comp. Gen 14:5; Deut 3:11-13; Josh 13:12; Lev 17:15. David twice defeated the Philistines in this valley. 2 Sam 5:17-25; 2 Sam 23:13; 1 Chr 11:15-16; 1 Chr 14:9-16. The valley was noted for its fertility. Isa 17:5. Its position as a boundary of Judah would indicate it to have been south of the valley of Hinnom. On the road to Bethlehem there is a cultivated plain about a mile long, bordered on both sides by hills, and gradually sloping into a deep valley at the south-west, called Wadi el-Werd, or "the valley of roses." This plain is called Beka'a by the Arabs, and since the sixteenth century an attempt has been made to identify it with the valley of Rephaim. Tobler proposed to identify Rephaim with the Wady der Yasin, to the west-north-west of Jerusalem, but this would contradict the account of Josephus, and the other location is quite generally accepted.

REPH'IDIM (rests, refreshments), the last station of the Israelites before reaching Sinai, and where Moses smote the rock and the Amalekites were defeated. Ex 17:1, Ex 17:8-16. The location of this station and of the battle-field has been a difficult problem in biblical geography. The members of the British Ordnance party, after a thorough scientific survey of the whole region, concluded 733 that the battle of Rephidim must have been fought in one of two places.

  1. In the Wady Feiran. - This place was approved as the site of Rephidim by all of the party except the Rev. F. W. Holland, and this has been the prevalent view ever since the fifth century. Feiran is rather a broad valley, and would furnish a practicable route for a large body like the Israelites, going from the wilderness of Sin into the mountain-region, where they received the Law. The Amalekites would regard themselves as threatened by such a company, and would attempt to defend their country. The Feiran would be a strong military position. In this deep valley they might defend themselves from invasion, secure from the danger of a flank attack. Palmer discovered an Arab tradition pointing to the rock from which Moses brought the water, Ex 17:1, 1 Kgs 15:8, at a place called Hesy el-Khattatin. Bedouins say of this rock, which is found a few miles before the fertile part of the valley commences, "Our lord Moses smote it, and water miraculously flowed from the stone." Nearly opposite Wady Aleyat, which comes into Feiran from the south, is a mountain, Jebel Tahunah, which the British party consider to be the hill on which Moses sat and surveyed the battle, while Aaron and Hur held up his hands. There are churches and chapels on this hill, which mark it as a very sacred spot in the eyes of the old inhabitants of Paran, and Antoninus Martyr, in the seventh century, mentions a chapel built there in honor of Moses. This spot is 25 miles from Sinai (Jebel Musa), which would be more than a day's journey; but Palmer thinks there was a break in the march, Ex 19:2, and that the operations of "pitching in the wilderness" and "encamping before the mount" were separate and distinct. Rephidim has been located in Feiran by Stanley, Ritter, Stewart, Lepsius, and others. See Sinai.

  2. In Wady es-Sheikh. - This is an easterly continuation of Wady Feiran, and is the site advocated for the battle of Rephidim by Rev. F. W. Holland. It includes the pass of el- Watiyeh, a narrow defile 300 yards long and from 40 to 60 yards wide, having a level bed, but enclosed on either side by perpendicular rocks. A conspicuous hill on the north side of the defile is observed, at the foot of which the Arabs point out a rock that they call "the seat of the prophet Moses." This is about 12 miles from Sinai (Jebel Musa), and hence within a day's journey. Ex 19:2; Num 33:15. Robinson, Keil, Delitzsch, Porter, and others locate Rephidim in some part of this valley en-Sheikh.

RE'SEN (bridle), a noted Assyrian city between Nineveh and Calah. Gen 10:12. Rawlinson, who places Calah at Nimrud and Nineveh immediately opposite Mosul, would locate Resen between the two, near the village of Selamiyeh, about 3 miles north of Nimrud, where are Assyrian ruins. Fergusson identifies Calah with Kalah Sherghat, and Resen with Nimrud. Some have conjectured that the four cities of Gen 10:12 were all afterward combined under the one name "Nineveh," and that "the great city" referred to this united whole. Instances of such consolidation have been numerous enough to render this theory plausible.

RE'SHEPH (flame, lightning), a descendant of Ephraim. 1 Chr 7:25.

RESTITU'TION, an act of justice by which a wrong done is repaired, and that which has been unjustly taken from a person restored to him. The Mosaic Law demanded that, in case of theft, the restitution should be fourfold, and in cases of carelessness the amount was graduated according to guiltiness. Ex 22:1-15.

RESURRECTION. The resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust, is a fundamental doctrine of the Christian faith, and is most fully set forth by St. Paul. 1 Cor 15. It is inseparable from the doctrine of the immortality of the soul, and gives it its necessary completion. If the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised; and if Christ is not raised, then is our faith vain: we are yet in our sins.

No truth is more clearly and forcibly presented in the Scriptures, and no fact is better and more decisively proved in history, than is the resurrection of Jesus Christ. 1. It was prophesied. Ps 16:10-11; Acts 2:25-32. 2. Christ himself repeatedly and distinctly foretold it. Matt 16:21; Matt 20:19. 3. The precautions of his enemies to prevent it, the failure of all these precautions, and 734 the measures taken to disprove the event, prove it. 4. The abundant, decided, and consistent testimony of witnesses who could not be deceived, and who had no inducement to deceive others, and all this in the face of every danger. 5. The change which took place in the minds and conduct of the apostles between the crucifixion and the first Pentecost, and which would be wholly inexplicable if the resurrection had not taken place. 6. The supernatural evidences arising from the fulfilment of the promise that the Holy Spirit should be poured out on them all attest the same truth. 7. The Christian Church could never have been founded without the fact of Christ's resurrection, and is a constant living proof of it.

Thus the resurrection of Christ from the dead is clearly proved; and, being proved, it ratifies and confirms in the fullest manner the truth and divinity of his character and mission, shows the efficacy of his atonement, is an evidence, earnest, and example of the resurrection of his people, John 14:19, and imports that all judgment is committed into his hand. Acts 17:30-31.

Among the Jews, at the time of our Lord, the Sadducees altogether rejected the doctrine of the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the dead, but the Pharisees and the great mass of the people had accepted it; and traces of this doctrine, more or less vague, we find not only among the people of the covenant, but also among the heathen, and from the very earliest times. Indeed, so deep-rooted is the natural conviction of the human mind on this point that no nation, people, or tribe have ever yet been found who do not, in some form, recognize the doctrine of a state of existence after the death of the body; and this conviction is satisfactorily met only by the simple and sublime doctrine of our holy religion, which brings life and immortality to light.

REU (friend), a patriarch in the line of Abraham's ancestors. Gen 11:18-21; 1 Chr 1:25.

REU'BEN (behold a son!) was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah. Gen 29:32. He lost the privileges of birthright in consequence of a grievous sin. Gen 35:22; Gen 49:3-4. In spite of his impulsiveness, however, he was kind of heart, as shows his relation to the conspiracy against Joseph. Gen 37:18-30; Gen 42:37. It was said of Reuben by his father Jacob, "Unstable as water," Gen 49:4, and Deborah and Sisera sang in reproach of Reuben, Jud 5:15-16; the tribe, at times, showed military prowess and extended its boundaries. 1 Chr 5:1-10, 1 Chr 5:18-22. At the first census in the wilderness his descendants, the Reubenites. or the tribe of Reuben, numbered 46,500, Num 1:20-21, but at the second census they had decreased to 43,730. The Reubenites soon became wealthy herdsmen, but they were averse to war, Jud 5:15-16, and were the first who were carried away into captivity.

REUBEN, TERRITORY OF. The region allotted to this tribe in the Promised Land lay on the east side of the Jordan and the Salt Sea. It extended from the river Arnon on the south, beyond the Wady Heshban on the north, reaching to the possessions of the tribe of Gad, and from the Jordan valley it stretched eastward indefinitely to the desert. The allotment is described in Josh 13:15-21; comp. Num 32:37-38. This region had been held by the Moabites, who were driven out by Sihon, king of the Amorites, and he in turn was dispossessed by the Israelites, Num 21:24; Deut 3:16-17; Josh 13:15-28. This district consisted of three parts - the low region along the sea and the river, the mountains, and beyond them, to the east, an extensive rolling plateau known as the Belkah, well watered and abounding with forest and pasture-land well adapted for herdsmen. It included the fertile plains of Medeba, fourteen important towns, besides the "cities of the plain," and the entire kingdom of the Amorites. It was excellent for grazing, having fine pasture-land. Among its prominent towns were Medeba, Heshbon, Dibon, Baal-meon, Beth-peor, Bezer, Jahazah, and Kedemoth. A notice of these cities will be found under their respective titles.

The people of this territory were aided in conquering it by the entire body of the Israelites, and they in turn aided their brethren in conquering Western Palestine when they returned to their own country, erecting a stone memorial, in connection with other tribes east 735 of the Jordan, to note the common inheritance. Josh 22:10-34. For an account of the tribal history, see previous article. Their territory has only been partially explored, but the finding of the "Moabite Stone" at Dibon, and the many ruins with which the surface of the whole region is strewn, give promise of rich results when carefully and scientifically explored.

REU'BENITES, descendants of Reuben. Num 26:7; Josh 1:12 and elsewhere.

REU'EL (friend of God).

  1. One of the sons of Esau by his wife Bashemath. Gen 36:4, 1 Kgs 16:10, 2 Kgs 11:13, 2 Sam 21:17; 1 Chr 1:35, 1 Chr 1:37.

  2. Ex 2:18. See Jethro.

  3. Num 2:14. See Deuel.

  4. A Benjaniite chief. 1 Chr 9:8.

REU'MAH (exalted), the concubine of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen 22:24.

REVELA'TION. God has revealed himself in the works of creation, Ps 19:2; comp. Rom 1:19-20; Acts 14:17; Acts 17:26-28; in the conscience of man, Rom 2:14-15; comp. John 1:9; Rom 8:9; and in the history of nations and of the world. Acts 14:17; comp. John 1:5, 1 Kgs 16:10. But this triple revelation, though a most precious guidance intellectually and morally, never leaving man wholly without testimony, of God, is, nevertheless,- only an indirect revelation, requiring the interpretation of human reason and liable to its mistakes. The full revelation of God is found only in his holy word, Ps 119:105; comp. Ps 19:8-9, and in the person of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 2 Pet 1:19; 2 Tim 3:15-17; Heb 1:1-2; Heb 4:12-13, a direct revelation breaking miraculously through nature and history, and laying hold miraculously in the conscience of man on a new life. This revelation is the foundation of our religion, which is therefore of divine origin and authority. All religions claim to be founded on revelation, but only the Jewish religion of the old covenant and the Christian religion are really revealed by God. All heathen religions are religions of Nature, the outgrowth of the human mind groping in the dark after the unknown God.


  1. Contents. - This is the last and the most mysterious book of the Bible. It is the divine seal of the whole. It is for the N.T. what Daniel is for the O. T. It gathers up all the former prophecies and extends them to the remotest future. It represents the Church in conflict with the great secular powers. It unrolls a sublime panorama of Christ's victorious march through the world's history till the appearance of the new heaven and the new earth, when the aim of creation and redemption shall be fully realized. The theme is the divine promise "I come quickly," with the corresponding human prayer, "Even so, come, Lord Jesus." It gives us the assurance that the Lord is coming in every great event, and overrules all things tor his glory and the ultimate triumph of his kingdom.

  2. Character and Aim. - The beginning and the end of Revelation are as clear and dazzling as the sunlight, but the middle is dark and mysterious as midnight, yet with the stars and the full moon shining from the firmament. The book reminds one of the chiaroscuro of the great painters, and of a mantle of the richest black broidered all over with brilliant jewels. The epistles to the seven churches, chs. 1-3, the description of the heavenly Jerusalem, chs. 20, 21, and the interspersed lyric anthems and doxologies, Rev 4:11; Rev 5:12-14; Num 7:12; Gen 14:13, etc., are as sublime, inspiring, beautiful, and familiar as are any portions of the Scriptures. They are sufficient to prove the divine inspiration of the whole. But the bulk of the book is full of puzzling enigmas which will not be satisfactorily solved before the millennium. In the light of fulfilment we shall understand this prophetic panorama of Church history, but not before. Nevertheless, the Revelation answers an important practical purpose, just as the prophecies of the O.T. (notwithstanding their obscurities, which gave rise to all sorts of conflicting interpretations), did to the Jews, before Christ's first coming, manna in the wilderness and a light shining in darkness. The history of exegesis shows that the situation of the Church materially influenced the interpretation and application of this wonderful book, and that it is in every age of the Church, especially in periods of persecution, a book of hope and comfort to


all who are waiting for the coming of our blessed Lord.

  1. Authorship.- The ecclesiastical tradition (Papias, Justin Martyr, Melito of Sardes, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen) ascribes the Revelation to John the beloved disciple. This is confirmed by the testimony of the book itself. Rev 1:4, Gal 1:9; John 21:2; Rev 22:8. It is true he does not call himself an apostle, but simply a servant of Christ, but he appears as the superintendent of the churches in Asia Minor, banished, for the testimony of Jesus, to Patmos, and entrusted with the most important visions of the future; all of which is only applicable to John the apostle, and not to some obscure "Presbyter John." It is true there are internal difficulties, especially the discrepancy between the style of the Apocalypse - which is strongly Hebraistic - and the style of the fourth Gospel, which is purer Greek. But we must remember the difference of the subject, the intimate connection of the Apocalypse with the Hebrew prophecies of Daniel and Ezekiel, and the fact that John was "in the spirit" when the Revelation was dictated to him. Moreover, there are, on the other hand, some striking resemblances between the style of the Apocalypse and that of the Johannean writings - e.g., the name "Word" (Logos), as applied to Christ.

  2. Place and Time of Composition. - The visions were received on the island of Patmos, in the AEgean Sea, about 24 miles west of the coast of Asia Minor. See Patmos. The time of composition was, according to the testimony of Irenaeus (about 170), Eusebius and Jerome, the end of the reign of Domitian, about a.d. 95, who banished several Christians to inhospitable climes. This date answers the character of the book, which treats of the last things as if intended for the conclusion of the N.T., but strong internal evidence has led some modern scholars to the conclusion that it must be assigned to a much earlier date - viz. to the year 68 or 69 a.d., before the destruction of Jerusalem (a.d. 70), but they differ as to the particular emperor under whom it was written, whether it was Nero (the supposed Antichrist) or Galba or Vespasianus, and they regard the book simply as a prophetic description of the approaching downfall of ancient Judaism (Jerusalem) and heathenism (Rome), and the succeeding reign of Christianity on earth as the true millennium. John, no doubt, like all the Jewish prophets, took his starting-point from his age and surroundings, but his vision extended to the most distant future of the new heavens and the new earth.

REVENGE' is the most primitive mode in which crime is dealt with in society, and the whole tendency and spirit of the Mosaic Law goes to discourage and check it. This law permitted a man to execute punishment upon the slayer of any of his relatives, but for the purpose of restraining the blood-feuds common in the East at that day. In the N.T. the feeling of revenge is strongly condemned. Matt 5:39.

REVENUE. In its first days, up to the time of the kings, the Hebrew commonwealth knew of no public revenues. Imposts were made for religious purposes, but all public works, properly speaking, such as fortifications, or even the erection of the tabernacle, were made by free-will contributions. With the kings came the revenues. The revenues of Saul and David seem, however, to have consisted principally in war-spoils and presents, but Solomon introduced a regular system of taxation, which was continued under Persian and Roman rule. Ezr 4:13.

RE'ZEPH (stone heated for baking), a city which Sennacherib boasted to the Jews that he had subdued. 2 Kgs 19:12; Isa 37:12. Its site is perhaps at Rasapha, a day's march west of the Euphrates, on the road from Raca to Hums.

REZI'A (delight), a chieftain of Asher. 1 Chr 7:39.

RE'ZIN (stable, firm).

  1. King of Damascus; allied himself with Pekah and defeated Ahaz, but was himself defeated by Tiglath-pileser II., his capital destroyed, and his people carried away into captivity. 2 Kgs 15:37; 2 Kgs 16:5-9; Isa 7:1-8; Isa 8:6; Eze 9:11.

  2. One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:48; Neh 7:50.

RE'ZON (PRINCE), son of Eliadah, revolted from Hadadezer, and, having enlisted a company of adventurers and made several incursions into the country around Damascus, finally succeeded 737 in obtaining the crown, and became a sore vexation to Israel in the days of David and Solomon. 1 Kgs 11:23.

RHE'GIUM (breach), a city on the coast near the south-western end of Italy, and opposite Messina, on the north-eastern point of Sicily, from which it is separated by a strait 6 miles wide. The emperor Caligula proposed to make a port there for the Alexandrian corn-ships, but died before completing it. Paul was detained at this place for a day when on his voyage to Rome. Acts 28:13. It is now called Rheggio, and is a flourishing commercial town and the capital of Calabria, having about 10,000 inhabitants.

RHE'SA (head), a name occurring in the genealogy of Jesus in Luke 3:27; probably not a proper name, but only a title.

RHO'DA (rose, rose tree), a maid in the house of Mary, mother of John Mark. Acts 12:12-15.

RHODES (a rose), a noted island in the Mediterranean, 13 miles from the coast of Asia Minor. It is 46 miles long, 18 miles wide, and has an area of about 420 square miles. The island is fertile, and carries on an extensive commerce. The city of Rhodes, at the western end of the island, was celebrated in the classic age. It was founded about b.c. 400 by the Dorians, and was very prosperous in the reign of Alexander. Jews were among its inhabitants during the maccabaean period. Paul visited it on his return from his third missionary journey. Acts 21:1. He might have there seen fragments of the greatest of the Seven Wonders of the world - the famous Colossus of Rhodes. This was made of brass, and was 105 feet high. It stood at the right of the port as vessels entered, and not astride the channel, as so generally represented in pictures. It was erected b.c. 290, and overthrown by an earthquake b.c. 224. The city had also a beautiful temple of Apollo, built by Herod the Great. In the Middle Ages the city was held by the Knights of St. John; it was captured by the Turks in 1522, and is now under their rule. The modern city is a place of considerable trade, and the island has a population of about 30,000, of which 21,000 are Turks.

RI'BAI (for whom Jehovah pleads), the father of Ittai the Benjamite. 2 Sam 23:29; 1 Chr 11:31.

RIB'LAH (fertility), an ancient city in the north-eastern frontier of Canaan. Num 34:10-11. Some regard it as being the same as Diblath, Eze 6:14, but Condor places Diblath at the modern village of Dibl, while Riblah is identified with the modern town on the east bank of the Orontes 35 miles northeast of Baalbek. The ancient town was upon the great road from Palestine to Babylon, and was a convenient military headquarters for the Babylonian kings and others invading the country. Here the Egyptian king Pharaoh-nechoh put Jehoahaz in chains and made Eliakim king, and here Nebuchadnezzar brought Zedekiah, murdered his sons before his eyes, then put out his eyes and bound him in chains to be carried to Babylon. 2 Kgs 23:29-35; 2 Kgs 25:1-7; Jer 39:5-7. Riblah is now a mean and poor village in the midst of a plain of great fertility, and its position shows that it commanded the roads to Nineveh, Babylon, Phoenicia, and Palestine, making it of great strategic importance. About 10 miles west of Riblah is the great fountain of the Orontes. still called el-Ain, or "the fountain," which is supposed to be indicated by "on the east side of Ain." Num 34:11. Grove thinks the Riblah which marked the boundary of the Promised Land could not have been as far north as Riblah in the land of Hamath, and he would look for the former near the Sea of Galilee, in the vicinity of Banias. No such place has been found in that region, and most authorities agree that there was but one Riblah, and hence that it was on the Orontes, as stated above.

RID'DLE. The Orientals have always been fond of such exercises of ingenuity as were requisite to answer riddles. Hence it was quite in the order of things that Samson should propose one. See Samson's riddle. Jud 14:12-19. Ezekiel's riddle, Eze 17:2, was rather an allegory.

RIGHT'EOUSNESS, Isa 45:23, is an essential attribute of the divine nature, and as it is frequently used is nearly allied to, if not the same with, justice, holiness, and faithfulness. Ps 119:142; Isa 46:13; Isa 51:5-6, Jer 51:8; Isa 56:1. The "righteousness which is of 738 faith," Rom 10:6, is the righteousness which is obtained by the grace of God through faith in Jesus Christ.Rom 3:21-26; Rom 10:4, Jud 10:10; 2 Cor 5:21; Gal 2:21. The word is also used to denote the perfect obedience of the Son of God. Rom 5:18. "Righteousness" is very commonly used for uprightness and just dealing between man and man, as in Isa 60:17, and for holiness of life, as in Dan 4:27; Luke 1:6; Rom 14:17; Eph 5:9.

RIGHT HAND. Ps 21:8. The right hand is the symbol of power and strength, whence the effects of the divine omnipotence are often ascribed to the "right hand of the Most High." Ex 15:6; Ps 77:10. The right hand commonly denotes the south, as the left hand denotes the north. Gen 14:15. It is said to have been the custom among the Jews to swear by the right hand, and that this is implied in Isa 62:8. It was certainly common to swear by the hand. Gen 14:22; Deut 32:40. To give the right hand was a mark of friendship. Gal 2:9. Hence the force of the expression, Ps 144:8: "Their right hand is a right hand of falsehood." The right hand being a most useful member of the body, especially to laboring-men, to cut it off implies the greatest sacrifice. Matt 5:30. To be seated at the right hand is a token of peculiar honor, 1 Kgs 2:19; and when the expression is used respecting Christ, Acts 7:55, it implies his unequalled dignity and exaltation.

RIM'MON (pomegranate).

  1. The name of an idol worshipped in Damascus. 2 Kgs 5:18. Naaman, who was in the habit of attending the king in his idolatrous services in the temple of Rimmon, seems to have been perplexed about a question of duty as to continuing this practice. See Naaman.

  2. A Benjamite, father of the two men who slew Ish-bosheth. 2 Sam 4:2, 2 Sam 4:5, 2 Sam 4:9.

RIM'MON (pomegranate), a name of not less than three places.

  1. A town in Judah, afterward given to Simeon. Josh 15:21, Jud 1:32; Josh 19:7; 1 Chr 4:32; Neh 11:29; Zech 14:10. Some have identified this with the ruin Umm er-Remamin, 13 miles south-west of Hebron, and nearly the same distance north-east of Beer-sheba. On the top of the hill are foundations of important buildings, and also rock-cut cisterns. Two miles south are two other hills, containing ruins and a fine spring with a reservoir.

  2. A Levitical city in Zebulun. 1 Chr 6:77. It is also called Remmon-methoar. Josh 19:13. It is identified with the present village Rummaneh, about 6 miles north of Nazareth.

  3. A rock whither the 600 surviving Benjamites retreated after the slaughter of their tribe. Jud 20:45, Josh 15:47; Josh 21:13. Its site is at the modern village Rummon, about 10 or 15 miles north of Jerusalem, on a limestone hill visible in all directions, having rugged sides difficult of ascent and deep valleys around it. The houses cling to the sides as huge steps. The view from the top of the hill is extensive.

RIM'MON-PA'REZ (pomegranate of the breach), an encampment of the Israelites in the wilderness. Num 33:19-20. The phrase probably refers to some special breaking forth of the wrath of God, as at Korah's rebellion. Reland suggests that it may be found at Jebel Ikhrimm, 75 miles south-southwest of Beer-sheba.

Rings and Signets.

1, 2. Assyrian Rings in the British Museum. 3, 4. Porcelain Rings. 5, 6, 7. Egyptian Rings, with impressions from them.

RINGS were used for ornaments and 739 as seals. "When used for ornament, they were worn not only on the fingers and in the ears, but also around the wrists and ankles and in the nostrils. Isa 3:20-21; Luke 15:22; Jas 2:2. As a seal the ring became a token of authority, and the giving of a ring the sign of imparting authority, Gen 41:42; Esth 3:10, Jud 4:12; Dan 6:17. See Clothes.

RIN'NAH (shout), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:20.

RI'PHATH (a crusher), a son of Gomer. Gen 10:3. His descendants have by some been identified with the Ripheans, the old name of the Paphlagonians; by others they have been located in the Rhiepean Mountains, north of the Caspian Sea.

RIS'SAH (a ruin, a worm), a station of Israel. Num 33:21-22. It has been identified with the Roman Rasa, 30 miles from Elath, near the hill now named Ras el-Kaa, or "head of the plain," north-west of Ezion-geber. Wilton would place it at 'Ain el-Jughamileh, 125 miles south-south-west of Beersheba; Reland locates it at el-Kusaby, 55 miles south-west of Beer-sheba.

RITH'MAH (broom), a station of Israel, Num 33:18-19, named from retem or rethem, "the broom," a species of low bush growing in the wilderness. Some regard it as being the same as "Kadesh" of Num 13:26; Rowlands suggests that it is at Sahel er-Retmah, west of 'Ain Kadesh, which he makes Kadesh.

RIVER OF EGYPT. This phrase is found five times in the English Bible, and is the translation of two Hebrew terms.

  1. Nahar Mizraim, rendered "river" in Gen 15:18, and usually denoting a perennial stream; hence it perhaps refers to the Nile, and to the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, as the eastern limit of the territory promised to Abraham, but which his posterity never occupied, possibly because of its desert character.

  2. Nahal Mizraim. Num 34:5; Josh 15:3-4, Josh 15:47; 1 Kgs 8:65; 2 Kgs 24:7. This phrase does not denote a perennial stream, but usually a torrent bed, either partially or totally dry in summer, and having a running stream only in the rainy season. Nahal, therefore, exactly corresponds with the Arabic word wady, for which we have no English equivalent. Hence "Nahal Mizraim," or "torrent of Egypt," is generally used in Scripture to designate the old boundary between Palestine and Egypt, and is identified with the modern Wady el-Arish, which drains the great central basin of the desert, between the passes of Jebel et-Tik and Sinai. The various wadies of this region unite in one, but without forming a perennial stream, and the torrent-bed reaches the Mediterranean about 40 miles south-west of Gaza, and nearly midway between the Red Sea and the eastern branch of the Nile.

RIZ'PAH, a concubine of Saul who watched day and night for many months (probably from March to October) over the bodies of her two sons, who had been put to a violent death by the Gibeonites. 2 Sam 21:10-11.

ROAD means "raid" in 1 Sam 27:10. Our "road" is, in the A.V., always "path" or "way."

ROBBERS OF CHURCHES. See Churches, Robbers of.

ROB'BERY is one of the chronic troubles in Palestine, where the Bedouin of to-day are robbers. The O.T. reveals a similar state of things during the period of the Judges, when might was right. Some of the inhabitants were "liers in wait," who robbed "all that came along that way." Jud 9:25. Hosea and Micah, by a few touches, paint a sad picture of pillage and robbery in the northern kingdom in their day. The Romans did not improve matters, but rather made them worse; and incidental notices in the N.T. prove the insecurity of person and property in Palestine in the first century. Luke 10:30; John 18:40; Acts 5:36-37; Josh 21:38; 2 Cor 11:26. The "thieves" between whom our Lord was crucified were highway robbers. Matt 27:38.

One of the usual camping-places, a day's journey north of Jerusalem, is called the "Fountain of the Robbers."

ROBE. 1 Sam 24:4. See Mantle.

ROB'OAM, the Greek form of "Rehoboam." Matt 1:7.

ROD means a shoot or branch of a tree, and in this sense it is applied figuratively to Christ, Isa 11:1, and to the tribes of Israel as springing from one root. Ps 74:2; Jer 10:16. Meaning also a staff, it is used as a symbolical 740 expression for that which supports and strengthens, Ps 23:4; Isa 3:1; Eze 29:6; for power and authority, Ps 2:9; Ps 110:2; Ps 125:3; Jer 48:17; Eze 19:14; 1 Cor 4:21; Rev 2:27; and for the afflictions with which God disciplines his people. Job 9:34; comp. Heb 12:6-7. The phrase "passing under the rod," Eze 20:37, originated from the manner in which the Jews used to select the tenth of their sheep. Lev 27:32. The lambs were separated from the dams, and enclosed in a sheepcote with only one narrow way out; the dams were at the entrance. On opening the gate the lambs hastened to join their dams, and a man placed at the entrance touched every tenth lamb with a rod dipped in ochre, and so marked it with his rod, saying, "Let this be holy in the name of the tenth."

ROD'ANIM occurs in some copies, 1 Chr 1:7, instead of "Dodanim."

ROE, ROE'BUCK (beauty), an animal especially fleet of foot, 2 Sam 2:18; 1 Chr 12:8, and elegant in form.

Roe, or Gazelle. (Gazella Dorcas. After Wood.)

Song 2:9, 2 Sam 21:17; Am 8:14. The gazelle (Gazella dorcas) satisfies these and all other requirements, and is still very abundant in Palestine and adjacent regions. The Jews might use the roe as food, Deut 12:15, Josh 11:22; it was hunted, Isa 13:14:" it is amiable, affectionate, and loving, by universal testimony," Prov 5:19; and it has ever been admired for its beauty, which is the meaning of its Hebrew name. "Tabitha" or "Dorcas" means "a gazelle." Acts 9:36.

RO'GELj (a fuller) occurs in the margin to 1 Kgs 1:9 instead of "Enrogel."

ROGE'LIM, a town of Gilead, the home of Barzillai. 2 Sam 17:27; 2 Sam 19:31.

ROH'GAH (outcry), an Asherite chieftain. 1 Chr 7:34.

ROLL. Jer 36:2. See Books.



RO'MAN EM'PIRE. The empire of Rome arose from the republic, or commonwealth, and succeeded the Macedonian empire, which was founded by Philip and Alexander, in extending its sway over the greater part of the then known world. The references to the Roman dominion in the Bible chiefly allude to the empire in its earlier history, including the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero.

The extent and power of the empire 741 during this period were greater than at any earlier, and possibly than at any later, time. It reached to the Atlantic on the west, the Euphrates on the east, the African desert, the Nile cataracts, and the Arabian deserts on the south, the Rhine, the Danube, and the Black Sea on the north. It also conquered Great Britain, leaving Germania on the north and Parthia on the east as semi-independent powers. Gibbon estimates the population of the empire in the reign of the emperor Claudius at 120,000,000. When a country was conquered by Rome it became a subject province, governed by officers appointed by the authorities at Rome. Occasionally, however, the local rulers were left in possession of their territory, subject to the Roman power. Augustus divided the provinces into two classes - 1. Imperial; 2. Senatorial. He retained in his own hand provinces requiring a large military force, giving the more peaceful provinces to the control of the Roman senate. Among the provinces of the imperial class were Gaul, Lusitania, Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt. Among the senatorial provinces were Africa, Numidia, Asia, Achaia and Epirus, Dalmatia. Macedonia, Sicily, Crete and Cyrene, Bithynia and Pontus, Sardinia and Boeotia. Many changes, however, were made in these provinces at various periods; as, for example, Cyprus and Gallia ceased to be imperial and became senatorial provinces, while Dalmatia ceased to be a senatorial and became an imperial province. These divisions of the country are referred to by the N.T. writers, who speak of the rulers of senatorial provinces as anthirpatoi, or "proconsuls;" the ruler of an imperial province is styled hyemon, or "governor." Cyrenius is called "governor of Syria," Luke 2:2; Pilate, Felix, and Festus are spoken of as "governors" - that is, procurators - of Judaea. Matt 27:2; Acts 23:24; Acts 24:27. Three Roman emperors are named in Scripture, Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius. Luke 2:1; Dan 3:1; Acts 11:28; Ps 18:2. The emperor Nero is also alluded to as "Augustus" and "Caesar." Acts 25:10-11, 2 Chr 11:21, Acts 25:25-26; Phil 4:22. When Christ was born at Bethlehem, a general peace prevailed throughout the Roman dominions. The changes effected by that power largely contributed toward giving increased facilities for the spread of Christianity. Piracy and robbery had been suppressed, military roads constructed, efficient governments capable of executing the laws instituted, commerce had increased, the Latin language had spread in the West, as the Greek had already done in the East, and the condition of the people in all the civilized countries offered facilities never before known for the spread of a new religion. Under the preaching of the apostles, Christianity was made known in most of the Roman provinces of Asia Minor, in the south-eastern provinces of Europe, and as far west as Rome, and possibly even to Spain. It was likewise proclaimed in Africa, and eastward as far as Babylon. Thus the gospel was preached in apostolic days throughout the entire extent of the Roman empire. See Rome.

RO'MANS, EPISTLE OF PAUL TO THE, is the sixth in order of the books of the N.T. It was written at Corinth, a.d. 58, just as Paul was leaving that city for Jerusalem, and transmitted through Phoebe. Rom 15:25; comp. Acts 20:2-3,Ex 17:16; Rom 16:1, Heb 12:23; 1 Cor 1:14; 2 Tim 4:20.

It is the most important and most systematic of all the apostolic Epistles. It is the fullest exposition of the great truth that the gospel is a power of universal salvation on the sole condition of faith. In Rome, the mistress of the world, he proclaimed the gospel as the power of God, which alone can save; in Corinth, the city of philosophy and art, as the wisdom of God, which is wiser than all the wisdom of men. Rom 1:16-17 contains the theme. Rom 1:18-3:20 is the negative part, showing the need of salvation or the general depravity of both Jews and Gentiles. Ch. 3:20 to the close of ch. 8 presents the positive part, and exhibits the saving grace of God in Christ, by which the believer is justified, sanctified, and glorified. Chs. 9-11 treat of the historical progress of Christianity from Jews to Gentiles, the rejection of the Jews in consequence of their unbelief, and their ultimate repentance and acceptance after the fulness of the Gentiles has come in. The last five chapters contain practical exhortations of the greatest spiritual power and unction. The Epistle to the Romans is the bulwark 742 of the evangelical doctrine of justification by faith.

The origin of the Roman congregation is involved in obscurity. Its first members may have been converted on the day of Pentecost, since Jews from Rome were among the witnesses of the pentecostal miracle in Jerusalem. Acts 2:10. At all events, it was already a large and flourishing congregation when Paul wrote his Epistle. He had not been there, but intended to visit the metropolis of the world, and wrote this letter to prepare the way for his coming. He did visit Rome afterward, but as a prisoner of Jesus Christ, and sealed his testimony with his blood.

The genuineness of the Epistle to the Romans is beyond all reasonable doubt. No man could have written it but Paul, and he could have written it only by inspiration. Luther called it "the chief part of the N.T. and the purest Gospel;" Coleridge, "the most profound work in existence" Meyer, "the grandest, boldest, and most complete composition of Paul." The Reformation of the sixteenth century was inspired by the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians.

RO'MANTI-E'ZER (I have exalted his help), son of Heman and head of the twenty-fourth course of singers in the reign of David. 1 Chr 25:4, 1 Chr 25:31.

ROME, the celebrated city and capital of the Roman republic and empire, and once the proud mistress of the world. It is situated on the river Tiber, about 15 miles from its mouth. The ancient city was built upon seven hills. It was founded about 754 years before the Christian era; legendary history ascribes its founding to Romulus. The principal interest to the Bible-reader in the history of Rome relates to the N.T. period.

Rome, in the N.T. times, was the capital of the empire in its greatest prosperity, and the residence of its emperors. Among its inhabitants were many Jews. Acts 28:17. They had received the liberty of worship and other privileges from Caesar, and lived in the district across the Tiber, near the Porta Portese. At the time of Paul's visit the city had outgrown the old Servian wall, and consisted of an extensive and irregular mass of buildings unprotected by any outer city wall. This was a period between two noted epochs in its history - the restoration by Augustus and that effected by Nero. It was the boast of Augustus that he found a city of brick and left one of marble. The streets are described as being at that time generally narrow and crooked, flanked by crowded lodging-houses of great height - so great that Augustus made a law limiting them to 70 feet. Gibbon estimates the population of the city at this time as nearly 1,200,000, of which probably one-half were slaves, and the larger part of the remainder were paupers supported in idleness by an unwise system of public gratuities. Paul was kept at Rome two whole years, dwelling in his own hired house with a soldier who had charge of him. Acts 28:16, 1 Kgs 20:30. In accordance with the usual Roman custom of treating prisoners, he appears to have been bound to the soldier with a chain. Acts 28:20; Eph 6:20; Phil 1:16. To those coming to visit him he preached the gospel, no one forbidding him. Acts 28:30-31. An old legend declares that the Mamertine prison was the place where Paul and Peter were confined together as fellow-prisoners, though there is no historic proof of this supposition. This prison still exists under the church of St. Giuseppe; while a chapel on the Ostian road is pointed out by tradition as the place where the two parted when on their way to martyrdom. Some historians deny that Peter ever visited Rome, and it is quite certain, from the silence of the N.T., that he could not have been there till the latter part of his life, but tradition unanimously affirms that he suffered martyrdom in Rome under Nero. It is the prevailing opinion that Paul was acquitted on his appeal to Caesar, but that he was after a time again imprisoned at Rome. Several of his Epistles are believed to have been written from this city, as those to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, Philemon, and the Second Epistle to Timothy, the latter shortly before his death. 2 Tim 4:6. On Paul's approach to Rome he was met by brethren, who came out on the Appian Way as far as the little town of Appii Forum. Acts 28:15. In his letter to the Philippians he also refers to the "palace" or Caesar's court. Phil 1:13. This probably does not refer to the imperial palace, but to the residence of the Praetorian guards


or to a miltary barrack attached to the imperial house. There were Christians also belonging to the imperial household, even during the reign of the cruel Nero. Phil 4:22.

Gardens, Colosseum, and Catacombs. - There are many traditions connecting various other localities in Rome with the visit and residence of Paul, but most of them have very little real historical support. Among the sites which may unquestionably be connected with the Roman Christians at or near the apostolic age are:

  1. The Gardens of Nero, in the Vatican, near St. Peter's. Within these, in the Neronian persecution, a.d. 64, after the great conflagration. Christians, wrapped in skins of beasts, were torn by dogs, or, clothed in inflammable stuffs, were burnt as torches during the midnight games; others were crucified.

  2. The Colosseum. - In this vast theatre games of various sorts and gladiatorial shows were held, and within its arena many Christians, during the ages of persecution, fought with wild beasts, and many were slain for their faith.

  3. The Catacombs. - These are vast subterranean galleries (whether originally sand-pits or excavations is uncertain). Their usual height is from 8 to 10 feet and their width from 4 to 6 feet, and they extend for miles, especially in the region of the Appian and Nomentane Ways. The Catacombs were early used by the Christians as places of refuge, worship, and burial. More than four thousand inscriptions have been found in these subterranean passages, which are considered as belonging to the period between the reign of Tiberius and that of the emperor Constantine. Among the oldest of the inscriptions in the Catacombs is one dated a.d. 71. The names of twenty-four Christians at Rome are given in the salutations contained in the Epistle to the Romans. The house of Clement of Rome, where the early Christians probably met for worship, has recently been discovered beneath the church of St. Clement.

Rome, as a persecuting power, is referred to by the "seven heads" and "seven mountains" in Rev 17:9, and described under the name of "Babylon " elsewhere in the same book. Rev 14:8; Rev 16:19; Rev 17:5; Ps 18:2,Rev 18:21.

Post-Biblical History. - The Christian church at Rome, which appears to have been founded before the visit of the apostle, probably by Roman Jews who had heard the gospel in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:10, was strengthened by Paul, and the metropolitan character of the city gave the church a position of importance and gradually increasing power, until it became the seat of a metropolitan bishopric, and then of the papal see. The earliest religious centres under Christianity were, Ephesus, Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome. Each of these gradually claimed superior powers in the Church, and their decrees were accepted as law. Soon the bishop at Rome, from his position in the capital of the world, and from an assumption that he was the spiritual successor of Peter, claimed supreme power in the Church, and, after long regarding themselves as his equals in rank and authority, the patriarchs of Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople were led to acknowledge the claim of the Roman bishop to a primacy of honor, but not to a supremacy of jurisdiction (about a.d. 451-604). Since the ninth century the great schism divided Christendom into the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Church, independent of the papal power of Rome. The popes ruled Europe with varying degrees of power and ability until the Reformation broke out, in the sixteenth century, since which era the papal power has gradually declined at Rome. The French army entered Italy in 1796, and later the pope became a prisoner, first at Rome, then in France, and Rome was formally governed by France (1806). In 1814 the pope returned to his palace, but in 1848 the people rebelled, and established a republic. France again interfered; the republic ended. The pope returned, but when the French troops were withdrawn in 1870, Italy became united under Victor Emmanuel, Rome was made the political capital of the nation (1871), and the temporal power of the holy see was abolished. The pope still occupies the Vatican, and is supported by contributions of Roman Catholics of France, Austria, Belgium, England, the United States, and other countries. Pius IX. indignantly refused the government 745 pension, and called himself a prisoner in the Vatican. Leo XIII., though firm in maintaining his claim to the "patrimony of Peter," is more peaceable and conciliatory,

ROOF. See Dwellings.

ROOM, in the phrases "uppermost room" or "chief room," Matt 23:6; Mark 12:39; Luke 14:7-9; Luke 20:46; denotes the seat of honor at the table, the first place on the first couch. See Eating.

ROPES, 1 Kgs 20:31, and CORDS. Josh 2:15. The putting ropes upon the neck was significant of great earnestness and distress. The "cords of his sin," Prov 5:22, probably denotes the power of sinful habits. And in Isa 33:20 and Jer 10:20 allusion is made to the construction of a tent. The "silver cord," Eccl 12:6, is beautifully interpreted by Delitzsch as the soul, which holds the body in life, the "bowl" is the body, and the golden oil within it is the spirit. Zech 4:12.

ROSE (acrid bulb). The meaning of the original excludes from our consideration the true rose and several other plants suggested. It is the opinion of some of the best authorities that the polyanthus narcissus (Narcissus tazetta) is intended in Song 2:1 and Isa 35:1, where alone the rose is mentioned. This beautiful and fragrant narcissus grows in the plain of Sharon, as is required by these references, and during its season of bloom is sold in the bazaars of the East and carried by everybody as a specially favorite flower.

The "rose of Sharon" of modern writers is a rose-like species of cistus, while the "rose of Jericho" is a small woody plant with minute cruciferous flowers. True wild roses are rarely seen except in the extreme North of Palestine.

ROSH (head, chief).

  1. A son of Benjamin. Gen 46:21.

  2. As occurring in Eze 38:2-3; Eze 39:1, the word has been translated in our version, but is probably a proper name, denoting one of the three great Scythian tribes of which Magog was the head.

ROS'IN. Eze 27:17, margin. The text correctly reads "balm."

ROWERS. Eze 27:26. See Ship.

RU'BIES. There is much uncertainty concerning this translation. Some would render the word "red coral," and others "pearl" or "mother-of-pearl," both of which latter are often of a ruddy hue. The word occurs in Job 28:18; Prov 3:15; Jud 8:11; Prov 20:15; Prov 31:10; Lam 4:7, but seems never associated with the name of any precious stone.

True rubies are of a red color. They are next to the diamond in hardness, beauty, and value, and once commanded even a higher price. See Stones, Precious.


RU'DIMENTS, the first and simplest principles of a science or literature. The word is translated "rudiments" or "elements" without distinction, as both mean the same thing. Gal 4:3, Gal 1:9; Col 2:20.

RUE, a well-known herb (Ruta graveoleus) which often grows wild in Palestine, and was also cultivated for

Rue. (Ruta Graveolens. After Carruthers.)

its disinfectant and other medicinal properties. It was among the things which the hypocritical and inconsistent Pharisees tithed, though uncommanded, 746 while they neglected to obey the important and positive precepts of the Law. Luke 11:42.

RU'FUS (red), a Christian to whom Paul sent his salutation, Rom 16:13; probably identical with Rufus, the son of Simon the Cyrenian. Mark 15:21.

RU'HAMAH (compassionated, having obtained mercy), a symbolical name applied by Hosea. Hos 2:1.

RU'MAH. 2 Kgs 23:36. See Arumah.

RU'MAH (lofty), the home of Pedaiah, the father of Jehoiakim's mother. 2 Kgs 23:36. Conder proposes to identify it with a ruined village, Rumeh, north of Nazareth. Others have supposed that it was the same as Dumah, near Hebron. See Josh 15:52.

RUSH. The proverbial expression "branch and rush" occurs in Isa 9:14 and 1 Kgs 19:15 in the sense of "top" and "bottom" or "utterly." Another word thus translated in Job 8:11 refers to the famous papyrus or paper-reed, described under Bulrush.

RUTH (a friend, or, according to others, beauty), a Moabitish woman, Ruth 1:4, who married a son of Naomi and showed her strong attachment to her mother-in-law by leaving her own country and following her mother-in-law into Judaea. Her kindness was abundantly rewarded, as she soon found favor in the eyes of a kinsman, who afterward married her, through which event she became the ancestor of the royal family of David.

RUTH, THE BOOK OF, so called, not from the author, but from the chief person, Ruth the Moabitess, is properly inserted between Judges and Samuel, as it is an appendix to the former and an introduction to the latter. The history relates to the time of the Judges, Ruth 1:1, perhaps during the judicature of Gideon, about b.c. 1241 or later, and forms a bright contrast to the dark and chaotic state of society at that time. It is a beautiful episode of domestic life, showing how domestic virtues may be practised and domestic happiness enjoyed even in periods of revolution and anarchy.

By the urgency of famine, Elimelech was obliged to emigrate with his family from Canaan to Moab where he died, leaving a widow, Naomi or Noami, and two sons, who married women of Moab by the names of Orpah and Ruth. On the death of the sons the widowed mother resolved to return to her country, and thereby she put the filial affection of her daughters-in-law to a severe test. But Ruth accompanied her with a devotion that was prepared for every sacrifice: "Whither thou goest, I will go, and where thou lodgest, I shall lodge," etc. Ruth 1:16-17. They arrived at Bethlehem in extreme poverty, and Ruth went out to glean after the reapers in the harvest-field of Boaz, a wealthy kinsman of her deceased father-in-law. Attracted by her personal appearance and filial devotion, he encouraged her return from day to day, and, after redeeming the patrimony of Elimelech, married her. From this union sprang Obed, the father of Jesse, the father of David, and through him our Saviour according to the flesh. Matt 1:6.

The age and authorship of this book cannot be definitely ascertained, but it cannot have been written before the time of David, since he is mentioned as the last in the genealogy. Ruth 4:18-22. It has been variously ascribed to Samuel, Hezekiah, and Ezra.

The practical lessons of the book are manifold and impressive - the sure reward of filial devotion and trust in God; the true use of the calamities of life; the overruling providence of God in the private affairs of a humble family as well as in the palace of princes and the public events of nations. It also shows that God had children outside of Canaan and the Jewish theocracy, and the incorporation of Ruth into the Church of the O.T. may be regarded as an intimation of the future call of the Gentiles to the gospel salvation.

RYE. This word occurs in Ex 9:32 and Isa 28:25. The same Hebrew noun is translated "fitches" in Eze 4:9. Rye being a northern grain and rarely cultivated in the East even in our day, Celsius' view is universally accepted - that in all these passages the reference is to spelt (Triticum spelta), a grass closely resembling wheat and long cultivated in the Levant. Though the flour of its grain is inferior to that of the latter, it is mixed with it for bread. Spelt seems to have been sown later than wheat, on the border or headland of the field, to which there is reference in the word "place" of Isa 28:25.

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