We're making big changes. Please try out the beta site at beta.ccel.org and send us feedback. Thank you!
« Prev H. Next »


HAAHASH'TARI (the courier), a Judite. 1 Chr 4:6.

HABA'IAH (whom Jehovah hides), a priest, the ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezr 2:61; Neh 7:3.

HAB'AKKUK, or HABBAK'KUK (embrace), one of the twelve minor prophets, of whose birth we know neither the time nor the place. He lived in the reign of Jehoiakim or of Josiah.

Prophecy of, relates chiefly to the invasion of Judaea by the Chalditans, Hab 1, and the subsequent punishment of the Chaldajans themselves, ch. Hab 2. The passage Hab 2:4, "the just shall live by his faith," furnished to Paul the text for his Epistle to the Romans. Rom 1:17; comp. Gal 3:11.

The third chapter is an eloquent and sublime psalm upon the majesty of God. Bishop Lowth says, "This anthem is unequalled in majesty and splendor of language and imagery."

HABAZINI'AH (light of Jehovah), a Rechabite. Jer 35:3.


HA'BOR (perhaps rich in vegetation), a river of Gozan, 2 Kgs 17:6; 1 Chr 5:26; probably identical with the modern Khabour, the Aborrhas and Chaboras of ancient writers, and a branch of the Euphrates.

HACHALI'AH (whom Jehovah afflicts), the father of Nehemiah. Neh 1:1; Dan 10:1.

HACH'ILAH, HILL OF (the darksome hill), a place in Judah near Ziph, and where David with his 600 followers hid. 1 Sam 23:19; comp. 1 Sam 23:14-15, 1 Sam 23:18; 1 Sam 26:3. Conder was inclined to locate it at the ruins now called Yekin: "The hill Yekin is a bold promontory standing just at the edge of the plateau. It looks over the whole desert; the cliffs of En-gedi, the Dead Sea, and the heights of Moab are in full view. Just beneath the crest of the hill is a hollow, with another knoll beyond. It is the head of a great valley, which soon becomes precipitous, running down into the desert. In this hollow are a spring and a cave. This I imagine is what is meant by the 'trench.' 1 Sam 26:5. David is said to have crossed over to the other side, and we may imagine him standing on one or other of the hill-tops and looking down on the king and his sleeping party in the hollow."

HACH'MONI, SON OF. The Hachmonites Jehiel and Jashobeam are so spoken of 1 Chr 27:32; 1 Chr 11:11. Hachmon was their ancestor.

HA'DAD (sharpness), one of the sons of Ishmael, 1 Chr 1:30; he is called Hadar in Gen 25:15.

HA'DAD (a different name in Hebrew, meaning brave).

  1. King of Edom, who won a great victory over the Midianites on the field of Moab. His capital was Avith, which see. Gen 36:35; 1 Chr 1:46.

  2. Another king of Edom, with Pau for his capital, 1 Chr 1:50; called Hadar in Gen 36:39.

  3. A member of the royal house of Edom. In the general massacre of the males of Edom by Joab, 1 Kgs 11:15, he escaped, and fled into Egypt. Pharaoh received him with peculiar marks of favor, giving him his daughter in marriage. Subsequently, Hadad returned to Edom, and won for himself the reputation of an "adversary" of Solomon by the border-warfare he carried on against Israel. 1 Kgs 11:14, 1 Kgs 11:25.

HADADE'ZER, or HADARE'ZER (Hadad's help), a king of Zobah. He was twice defeated bv King David's armies. 2 Sam 8:3; 2 Sam 10:16. On the first occasion 20,000 of the enemy were slain and 1000 chariots were taken. Amongst the spoil were shields of gold, 1 Chr 18:7, which David took to Jerusalem.

Some years afterward. Hadadezer and three other Syrian princes formed an alliance to assist the Ammonites against David; but the whole Syrian army was defeated on the east bank of the Jordan by the Israelites under the command of Joab. Between 40,000 and 50,000 of the enemy were killed, including their 349 principal general, and they thenceforth became tributary to David. 1 Chr 19:16-19.

HA'DAD - RIM'MON, a place probably named from two Syrian idols, Hadad, the sun-god, and Rimmon. It was in the valley of Megiddo, Zech 12:11, and the scene of a great lamentation over the death of Josiah. 2 Kgs 23:29; 2 Chr 35:20-25. It is identified by Van de Velde with Rummaneh, 4 miles south of Lejun. Conder favors this.

HA'DAR (room).

  1. Gen 25:15. See Hadad.

  2. Gen 36:39. See Hadad, 2.

HADARE'ZER. See Hadadezer.

HAD'ASHAH, or HADA'SHAH (new), a town in the plain of Judah, Josh 15:37; probably the Adasa of the Maccabaean history, and corresponding well in name and position to modern Abdas.

HADAS'SAH (myrtle). See Esther.

HADAT'TAH(new), a town named as in the extreme south of Judah. Josh 15:25. Fuerst proposes to read Hazorhadattah (New Hazor), as distinct from the Hazor in v. Acts 15:23; Wilton would identify it with an imposing ruin called Kaer el-Adadah.

HA'DES (the unseen world, the spirit-world) occurs eleven times in the Greek Testament (Matt 11:23; 1 Cor 16:18; Acts 2:31; Rev 1:18, etc.), and ought to have been retained in the English Version (as it probably will be in the Revision) to distinguish it from Gehenna ("hell"). The word is used in Homer as a proper noun for Pluto, the god of the unseen or lower world, next brother to Zeus (Jupiter). In later writers it signifies a place, viz., the unseen spiritworld, the realm of the departed, the abode of the dead.

  1. The Greek view of Hades and the Roman view of Orcun is that of a place for all the dead in the depths of the earth -dark, dreary, cheerless and shut up, inaccessible to prayers and sacrifices, ruled over by Pluto.

  2. The Hebrew Sheol is the equivalent for the Greek Hades, and is so translated in the Septuagint. It is likewise the subterranean abode of all the dead, but only their temporary abode till the advent of the Messiah or the final judgment, and is divided into two departments, called paradise or Abraham's bosom for the good, and Gehenna or hell for the bad.

  3. The N.T. Hades does not differ essentially from the Hebrew Sheol, but Christ has broken the power of death, dispelled the darkness of Hades, and revealed to believers the idea of heaven as the state and abode of bliss in immediate prospect after a holy life.

The English Version translates Hades and Gehenna by the same word ("hell"), except in 1 Cor 15:55 ("grave"), and thus obliterates the important distinction between the realm of the dead or spiritworld and the place of torment. Hades is a temporary jail or prison-house; heaven and hell are permanent and final. Since Christ's descent into Hades, or the unseen, the spirit world, believers need not fear to enter this realm through death. Christ declares, "I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell [Hades] and of death." Rev 1:18.

HA'DID (sharp), a place near Lod or Lydda. Ezr 2:33; Neh 7:37; Neh 11:34. Its site is probably that of the modern village el-Haditheh, 3 miles east of Lydda. See Adida.

HAD'LAI (resting), an Ephraimite, father of the chief of a tribe in the reign of Pekah. 2 Chr 28:12.

HADO'RAM (fire-worshippers ?). 1. The fifth son of Joktan. Gen 10:27; 1 Chr 1:21. The tribe which sprang from him were probably the Adramitae, who lived on the south coast of Arabia.

  1. The son of Tou or Toi, king of Hamath, 1 Chr 18:10; called Joram in 2 Sam 8:10.

  2. The tax-collector stoned after Jeroboam's rebellion, 2 Chr 10:18; called Adoniram, 1 Kgs 4:6, and Adoram, 2 Sam 20:24.

HA'DRACH, LAND OF (perhaps enclosure), a country of Syria, Zech 9:1-2, and conjectured to be the region about Damascus, including, perhaps, all of Coelo-Syria; or it may refer to the region around Hamath.

HA'GAB (locust), one whose descendants returned from Babylon under Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:46.

HAG'ABA (locust), one whose sons were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel, Neh 7:48; called Hagabah in Ezr 2:45.

HA'GAR (flight), an Egyptian woman 350 who lived in the family of Abraham as bond-woman. At Sarah's own suggestion, she became the concubine of Abraham. When she conceived, her mistress was "despised in her eyes." Gen 16:4. In consequence of it, Hagar was harshly treated and fled away from the house of Abraham. She made her way toward Egypt, her native country, through the wilderness of Shur, and while resting herself near a fountain by the wayside she was visited by an angel, who promised her an innumerable seed and a son whose name was to be Ishmael. The angel at the same time directed her to return home and submit herself to her mistress. The place of this manifestation was afterward known as Beer-lahai-roi, "well of the living and seeing [God]." Gen 16:14.

We lose sight of Hagar entirely from this time on till the festival of Isaac's weaning. On that occasion Sarah saw Ishmael mocking or making sport of her child. She immediately demanded the banishment of Ishmael and his mother from their home. Abraham was pained by the demand; but being divinely admonished to comply, he rose up early in the morning, and supplying Hagar with bread and a bottle of water sent her and her child away. She found her way to the wilderness of Beer-sheba; but her supply of water was exhausted. Placing the child under one of the shrubs that she might not see it die, she mingled her prayers with its cries. God heard the prayer, and disclosed to her a fountain. She at the same time received again the promise (fulfilled in the Arabs) that Ishmael would be the father of a great nation. Gen 21:9-21.

Paul refers to Hagar, Gal 4:25, as a type of the Law and its bondage.

HAGARENES', or HA'GARITES (Flight), a people dwelling east of the Jordan. 1 Chr 5:10, 1 Chr 5:19-20; 1 Chr 27:31. They seem to be distinguished from the Ishmaelites, Ps 83, but are usually regarded as having been named after Hagar, though some identify them with the Agrei. in the north-east of Arabia.

HAG'GAI (festive), a prophet whose prophetic activity fell after the Captivity, in the second year of Darius Hystaspes, or b.c. 520, Hag 1:1. Nothing is known of his life.

The Prophecy of, which is prosaic in style, concerns the repair of the temple, Hag 1:1-12; Hag 2:10-20, the glory of the second temple, Hag 2:1-9, and the triumph of Zerubbabel over his enemies. Hag 2:20-23. The prophet severely rebukes the people for their neglect to build the house of the Lord, and for their selfishness in living in the luxury of ceiled (or panelled) houses, while the temple was neglected. Hag 1:4. The people obeyed the prophet, and received the promise of God's presence. Am 1:13. The second chapter contains a Messianic reference, and alludes to Christ as the "Desire of all nations," Hag 2:7, or, as others render the passage, "the desirable things of all nations." The Hebrew reads, "They shall come, the desire of all nations, and I will fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of hosts."

HAG'GERI (wanderer), one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr 11:38.

HAG'GI (festive), the second son of Gad, Gen 46:16; Num 26:15; founder of the Haggites.

HAGGI'AH (festival of Jehovah), a Merarite Levite, 1 Chr 6:30.

HAG'GITH (a dancer), one of David's wives, and the mother of Adonijah. 2 Sam 3:4; 1 Kgs 1:5, etc.

HAI (heap of ruins). See Ai.

HAIL. When a very cold current of air encounters a hot and humid one, the vapor of the latter is suddenly condensed into drops, and sometimes these are frozen into irregular spheroids of porous ice, which fall to the earth as hail. This phenomenon is more frequent in temperate than in tropical regions, and usually occurs in summer and at the hottest hour of the day. Hail rarely falls except during thunderstorms; and hence the Bible commonly mentions it in connection with fire (lightning), as in Ps 148:8. As rain was always rare in Egypt, the fall of hail mentioned as the seventh plague, Ex 9, must have been singularly frightful, as it was greatly destructive to man, beast, and herb. God used a storm of hailstones to utterly rout and destroy the Amorites who fought with Joshua at Gibeon, Josh 10.

In modern times stones of ice have been known to fall of half a pound in weight, and even eighteen ounces; and were it not that hail-storms are 351 exceedingly local and rarely continue more than five or ten minutes, incalculable destruction would result. The largest hail falls in hot countries, where hail is less frequent.

Inspiration often uses this agency figuratively to picture the awful judgments of God. In Rev 16:21 hail-stones are mentioned of a talent in weight, or, if the language were literal, of 55, and perhaps 11 1/2, pounds, according as the Attic or Jewish talent be intended; in all probability the former.

HAIR. The difference between the Hebrews and their neighbors, the Egyptians, in the matter of wearing their hair is early, though incidentally, alluded to in the Bible. Thus Joseph, on being summoned into the presence of Pharaoh, "shaved himself," while in most other countries it would have been sufficient to comb his hair and trim his beard. But the Egyptian men -out of notions of cleanliness perhaps- shaved their heads; the priests shaved their whole bodies every third day. The women, however, wore their natural hair long and plaited. In place of the

Egyptian mode of wearing the hair. (From a painting. British Museum.)

natural hair, wigs were worn by the men; and these were so constructed as to afford more protection against the sun than the more modern turbans.

The Assyrians, and the Asiatics generally, the neighbors of the Hebrews on the east, had opposite customs in regard to the hair of men. On the Assyrian sculptures the hair appears long and combed closely down upon the head; the beard is also full length. False hair seems to have been plaited in to make the greater show. Much care was given to the hair.

The Greeks were great admirers of long hair in both men and women. Their manner of wearing it varied. The Roman men at the time of Christ wore their hair short. Shaving was also customary, and a long beard was regarded as slovenly.

The Hebrews were accustomed to cut the hair very much as we do, and must have used a kind of scissors, 2 Sam 14:26. But in the case of a vow or religious obligation they let it grow, as in the case of the Nazarites. Num 6:5; Jud 13:5. See Nazarites. The precept to the priests, Eze 44:20, requires an avoidance of extremes; so that the "Israelites" should neither resemble the priests of the heathen gods, who shaved their hair close, nor yet the Nazarites, who did not cut the hair at all. It was prohibited, Lev 19:27, to round the corners of the head -that is (as it is generally understood), to shave off the hair about the temples. The hair (especially black or dark hair) was considered an ornament, and it was anointed with aromatic oil, particularly on festivals and other joyous occasions. Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam 14:2; Ps 23:5; 92:10: Eccl 9:8; Luke 7:46. Combs and hair-pins are mentioned in the Talmud as in use among the Jews.

The hair is spoken of by the apostle as a natural veil or covering to women, which it is a shame to put off, 1 Cor 11:15. It was plaited or braided, as is the custom at this day among the Asiatic women. The excessive care bestowed upon the head-dress led to the apostolic rebuke. 1 Tim 2:9; 1 Pet 3:3. See Head-dress.

The practice of shaving the head in token of great affliction and humiliation for sin was common among the Hebrews even as early as Job's day, Job 1:20. So that the exhortation to cut off the hair is equivalent to an exhortation to begin a course of deep mourning and sorrow, Jer 7:29. A change in the color of the hair was one of the earliest indications of the leprosy, and hence, after recovery, the removal of the hair as the seat of disease was particularly enjoined. Lev 13:4, Num 13:10, Lev 13:31-32; Lev 14:8-9. See Leprosy. Baldness disqualified for the priesthood; 352 artificial baldness was forbidden, Lev 21:5. See Baldness.

Hair was employed by the Hebrews as an image of what was least valuable in man's person, 1 Sam 14:45:2 Sam 14:11; Matt 10:30; Luke 13:7; Acts 27:34, as well as of what was innumerable Ps 40:12; Ps 69:4, or particularly fine. Jud 20:16).

HAK'KATAN (the small, or young), the father or chief of the sons of Azgad, Ezr 8:12.

HAK'KOZ (the thorn), the head of the seventh course of priests. 1 Chr 24:10.

HAKU'PHA (bent), one mentioned Ezr 2:51; Neh 7:53.

HA'LAH, a place in Assyria to which the ten tribes were carried captive. 2 Kgs 17:6; 2 Kgs 18:11; 1 Chr 5:26. It is now identified, with great probability, as the Chalcitis of Ptolemy, and in the north-west of Gauzanitis. Layard found a remarkable mound near the Khabour called Gla or Kalah, "castle," which covers the site of an ancient fortress or town. The Septuagint and Vulgate versions appear to regard Halah as a river, and it may have been the name of a river and of a town. The river was perhaps the Nahr al Huali, which is a branch of the Khabour.

HA'LAK, THE MOUNT (the smooth or the bald mountain), the name of a mountain marking the southern limit of Joshua's conquests. Josh 11:17; Acts 12:7. It has been variously identified with the range of hills parallel with Beer-sheba, with the modern Jebel el-Mukrek, 60 miles south of the Dead Sea, and with the range of white hills 8 miles south of the Dead Sea, and which divides the Ghor, to the north, from the Arabah, to the south.

HALE means to haul, to drag by force, before magistrates. Luke 12:58; Acts 8:3.

HAL'HUL (trembling), a town in the mountains of Judah, Josh 15:58. Its ruins, having the same name, Halhul, are found on the eastern slope of a hill 4 miles north of Hebron, where is also an old mosque dedicated to Neby Yunas, the prophet Jonah.

HA'LI (necklace), a town in Asher, Josh 19:25; now 'Alia.

HALL, in Luke 22:55, was the court of the high priest's palace.

HALLELU'JAH. See Alleluia.

HALLO'HESH (the enchanter),one who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:24.

HAL'LOW means to make holy, to consecrate.

HALO'HESH (the enchanter), one who helped repair the wall, Neh 3:12.

HAM (hot, or multitude), the son of Noah. He is known for his irreverence to his father. Gen 9:22, and as the parent of Gush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan, Gen 10:6, who became the founders of large nations. Cush seems to have been the father of the peoples dwelling in Babylonia, southern Arabia, and Ethiopia; Nimrod was his son. Gen 10:8. Mizraim, the Hebrew word for Egypt, was the ancestor of the Egyptians. Phut was also the ancestor of an African people, as appears from the association of his name with the descendants of Cush and the Lydians, Jer 46:9; see margin. Canaan was the ancestor of the Phoenicians and other tribes inhabiting Palestine.

Egypt is called "the land of Ham," Ps 78:51; Ps 105:23-27; Ps 106:22.

HA'MAN (celebrated), prime minister of Ahasuerus, the Persian monarch. Esth 3:1. His pride being hurt because Mordecai, the Jew, refused to bow and do him reverence, Esth 3:2, he secured a royal decree for the extermination of all Jews in the Persian dominions. He was, however, thwarted through the influence of Esther, and executed on the very gallows he had prepared for Mordecai. Esth 7:10. The Jews, on the mention of his name on the day of Purim, hiss. Like Sejanus in Roman history, his name will always suggest the contrast of power and disgrace.

HA'MATH (fortress, citadel), one of the most important cities of Syria, and one of the oldest in the world. It was founded by a son of Canaan, Gen 10:18; Num 34:8, and was situated in the valley of the Orontes, between its source and the site of the city of Antioch. It thus commanded the route to the Euphrates from Phoenicia, and may be called the "key" of northern Palestine. It was 165 miles in a straight line north of Jerusalem, and was the capital of a kingdom or province of which little is known. It was visited 353 by the spies, Num 13:21, and it is frequently noticed as the northern boundary of Palestine. Num 34:8; Josh 13:5. Its king, Toi, blessed David for his victory over Zobah, 2 Sam 8:9-12; Solomon extended his kingdom to Hamath, 1 Kgs 8:6; 2 Chr 8:4, and built store-cities in that region; afterward the city and country became independent, but were again subdued by Jeroboam II., 2 Kgs 14:25, 2 Kgs 14:28. It was taken by the Assyrians, 2 Kgs 18:34; Isa 10:9; Amos calls it "Hamath the great," and speaks of its desolation. Am 6:2.

Later History-The name of Hamath was changed by Antiochus Epiphanes to Epiphania, though the old name does not appear to have been lost, since it was known as Hamath in the time of Jerome. The place was taken by the Moslems, a.d. 639; by the Franks, a.d. 1108; by the Turks, a.d. 1115; was destroyed by an earthquake in which 15,000 persons perished, a.d. 1157; and taken by Saladin, a.d. 1178. Its modern name is Hamah, and it is now a place of 30,000 inhabitants. Porter regards it as a town where life has been at a standstill for 30 centuries. It, how

Inscription discovered at Hamath. (From a report of the Am, Palestine Exploration Society.)

ever, has large bazaars, baths, mosques, and hydraulic works, and carries on an active trade with Aleppo and other towns of Asia and Africa. The Persian water-wheels, which creak and groan as they raise the water for the supply of the city, are great curiosities. The Hamath inscriptions, which have in late years excited the attention of scholars, were first seen by Burckhardt, but attracted little notice until 1870. The stones are four in number, and are inscribed in hieroglyphics of a very ancient character; they have not yet been satisfactorilv deciphered.

HAMATH-ZOBAH (fortress of Zohah), a city which Solomon conquered, 2 Chr 8:3, which cannot have been Hamath, "the great," but must have been another Hamath, not yet identified.

HAM'MATH (warm springs), a fortified city in Naphtali, Josh 19:35, and probably identical with Hummam, or "Warm Springs," about 1 mile south of Tiberias. It is still noted for its hot, sulphurous waters, which are too nauseous to drink, but are used for bathing and are regarded as possessing great medicinal qualities. The walls of an old town can be traced near the baths. Hammath is probably Ihe same 354 as Hammon, No. 2, and as Hammothdor.

HAMMED'ATHA (double ?), Haman's father, Esth 3:1.

HAM'MELECH (the king), the father of Jerahmeel and Malchiah. Jer 36:26; Eze 38:6.

HAM'MER, the English translation of four different Hebrew words. The hammers mentioned by Isaiah, Is 44:12 "seem to have been the heaviest instruments of the kind for hard blows." Jael's hammer, Jud 4:21, was properly a mallet, such as the Bedouin use at the present day to drive the wooden tent-pins into the ground. The "battle-axe," Jer 51:20, and the "maul," Prov 25:18, were species of hammers used for warlike purposes. The tool probably resembled that of the present day. The word "hammer" is also used symbolically for mighty force. Jer 23:29; Jer 50:23.

HAMMOL'EKETH (the queen), the sister of Gilead, 1 Chr 7:17-18.

HAM'MON (warm springs).

  1. A place in Asher, near Zidon, Josh 19:28. It is identified with 'Ain Hamul, 10 miles below Tyre.

  2. A Levitical city in Naphtali, 1 Chr 6:76; probably the same as Hammath and Hammoth-dor; now el ?Hummdm?.

'HAM'MOTH-DOR(warm springs, dwelling), a Levitical city and a city of refuge in Naphtali, Josh 21:32. See Hammath and Hammon, No. 2.

HAM'ONAH, or HAMO'NAH (multitude), a city apparently near where the multitudes of Gog should be buried, Eze 39:16.

HA'MON-GOG (multitude of Gog), a name given to a ravine or valley in which multitudes of the slain of Gog were to be buried, Eze 39:11, Eze 39:15. The Targums regard it as near the Sea of Galilee, and probably on the great road from Syria and the East to Egypt.

HA'MOR (ass), the father of Shechem, who ravished Dinah, Gen 33:19. He was killed by Jacob's sons, Gen 34:26. He is called Emmor in Acts 7:16.

HAMU'EL (wrath of God), a Simeonite, 1 Chr 4:26.

HA'MUL (pitied), the younger son of Pharez, and ancestor of the Hamulites. Gen 46:12; 1 Chr 2:5; Num 26:21.

HAMU'TAL (akin to the dew), daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, a wife to King Josiah, and mother of Jehoahaz and Zedekiah. 2 Kgs 23:31; 2 Kgs 24:18; Jer 52:1.

HANAM'EEL (whom God has given), son of Shallum, and Jeremiah's cousin, Jer 32:6-12.

HA'NAN (merciful).

  1. A prominent Benjamite, 1 Chr 8:23.

  2. A descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:38; 1 Chr 9:44.

  3. One of David's guard, 1 Chr 11:43.

  4. One of the ancestors of the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:46; Neh 7:49.

  5. A Levite who assisted Ezra in explaining the Law, Neh 8:7, and sealed the covenant, Jud 10:10.

  6. A chief who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:22.

  7. Another sealer, Neh 10:26.

  8. The tithe-keeper appointed by Nehemiah to represent the laity, Neh 13:13. The four storekeepers represented the four classes of the people — priests, scribes, Levites, and the laity.

  9. One whose sons had a chamber in the temple, Jer 35:4.

HANAN'EEL (graciously given of God), a tower which formed a part of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 3:1; Neh 12:39; Jer 31:38; Zech 14:10. It appears to have been between the fishgate and the sheep-gate, but can scarcely be identified with the tower of Meah, as some have proposed. Dr. Barclay suggested that in the projection at the northeast corner of the harem enclosure are to be found the remains of the tower of Hananeel.

HANA'NI (gracious).

  1. A son of Heman, appointed by David to share with his eleven kinsmen the charge of the eighteenth division of the Levitical musicians, 1 Chr 25:4, 1 Chr 25:25,

  2. A seer who rebuked King Asa for neglect to trust in God. He was imprisoned for his boldness, 2 Chr 16:7-10. He was probably the father of Jehu the prophet, 1 Kgs 16:1-2; 2 Chr 19:2.

  3. A brother of Nehemiah, who brought him the melancholy report of the condition of Jerusalem which induced Nehemiah to make his journey thither, Neh 1:2. Hanani was afterward appointed by Nehemiah to have charge of the city gates, b.c. 446, Neh 7:2.

  4. A priest who had a foreign wife, Ezr 10:20.


HANANI'AH (whom God hath given).

  1. A false prophet and contemporary with Jeremiah. He prophesied that the vessels of the Lord's house would be brought back from Babylon two years after the date of the prophecy, Jer 28:3. In token of deliverance from the bondage of Babylon, he broke the wooden yoke which Jeremiah wore in accordance with the divine command. Jeremiah was deceived by his pretensions, but subsequently called him a deceiver to his face, and prophesied his early death. He died that year, Jer 28:17. Hananiah's case is an instance of the false prophets with whom the true prophets came into conflict.

  2. A Benjamite chief, 1 Chr 8:24.

  3. One of the sons of Heman, 1 Chr 25:4, 1 Chr 25:23.

  4. One of Uzziah's captains, 2 Chr 26:11.

  5. One who had a foreign wife, Ezr 10:28.

6, 7. Two repairers of the wall of Jerusalem, Neh 3:8, Neh 3:30.

8, The "ruler of the palace," whom Nehemiah appointed to share with his brother the charge of the gates of Jerusalem, Neh 7:2.

9, One who signed the covenant, Neh 10:23.

10, 11, Two priests, Neh 12:12, Ex 12:41.

12, A son of Zerubabbel, 1 Chr 3:19, 1 Chr 3:21.

13, The father of one of Jehoiakim's princes, Jer 36:12.

14, Grandfather of the captain who arrested Jeremiah, Jer 37:13.

15, Original Hebrew name of Shadrach, Dan 1:6-7.

HAND is a symbol of human action; "pure hands" are pure actions; "unjust hands" are deeds of injustice; "hands full of blood," actions stained with cruelty; and the like. Ps 24:4; Eze 23:37. It is likewise a term for the vengeance of God exercised upon any one, 1 Sam 5:6-7. "To pour water on any one's hands" was to serve him. So Elisha is said to have done for Elijah, 2 Kgs 3:11. "To wash one's hands" in public was a way of expressing innocency, Deut 21:6-7; Matt 27:24; "to kiss one's hand" is an act of adoration, Job 31:27; "to lift up one's hands" is to take an oath. Gen 14:22. Also it is a posture in blessing, Lev 9:22; also, to rebel, 2 Sam 20:21. "To stretch out the hand" is sometimes a gesture that denotes mercy, Isa 65:2; "to put it forth unto anything" is to steal, Ex 22:8, Ex 22:11. "To smite the hands together over the head" was a gesture of despairing grief. 2 Sam 13:19; Jer 2:37. Hand in general is the symbol of power and strength — the right hand particularly so. "To be on one's right hand" is to be in one's favor. The Hebrews, in reckoning the four quarters, faced the east; consequently to "the right hand" signified to the south, the southern quarter; "to the left hand" signified to the north, the northern quarter. Job 23:9; 1 Sam 23:19, see margin; 2 Sam 24:5. These are a few out of the many uses of the word hand. One more use will be given: "To lay the hands upon any one," or the imposition of hands, was at an early period "a part of the ceremonial observed on the appointment and consecration of persons to high and holy undertakings." In Num 27:18 we read that Moses was commanded to lay his hand upon Joshua. This act did not confer any new grace upon Joshua, but merely gave formal and public confirmation of Jehovah's choice, and confirmed and strengthened the spiritual gifts already bestowed. Comp. Deut 34:9. The phrase is not used in the N.T. in exactly the same sense. Acts 8:15-17; 1 Tim 4:14; 2 Tim 1:6. The apostles confirmed the grace the convert had received, as in the case of Cornelius, Acts 10:44-48, and in other cases conferred spiritual gifts and qualifications.

HAND-BREADTH, the palm; used as a measure of four fingers, equal to about 4 inches. Ex 25:25; 1 Kgs 7:26. In Ps 39:5 the expression "Thou hast made my days as an hand-breadth" means "very short."

HANDICRAFT. The following is in the main a condensation of the article in Ayre's Treasury of Bible Knowledge:

The primitive condition of man being that of agriculturists, his wants were few and easily supplied. Yet even he would want some tools, and as the race became older and extended itself its necessities would stimulate it to greater inventiveness. Hence we find that the Cainites, who were more progressive 356 than the Sethites, early possessed iron articles, Gen 4:22. See Tubal-cain. From this incidental biblical notice we are able to form an idea of that early mode of life. Our notices are, however, extremely scanty. Still, by putting them together, we get this enumeration of tradesmen among the Hebrews and the other peoples mentioned in the Bible.

  1. Apothecaries, or, rather, perfumers. Ex 30:25, Ex 25:35; 2 Chr 16:14; Neh 3:8; Eccl 10:1.

  2. Bakers. See Bake, Bread, Oven.

  3. Barbers. Eze 5:1; Num 6:5, Gen 6:19.

  4. Carpenters. The building of Noah's ark implies considerable knowledge of this trade. The various structures ordered by the Lord for his service, such as the tabernacle and its contents, Ex 25:10, etc., and the houses of the people, prove that this useful trade was early practised and afterward maintained among the Hebrews. But when particularly fine work had to be done, foreign artists were employed. 2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:6. Yet it is doubtless true that many of the Hebrew carpenters were good and skilful workmen. Isa 44:13-17; Ezr 3:7. Among the carpenters' tools are mentioned in the Bible the rule, the measuring-line, the plane, the compass, the hammer, nails, the saw, the axe, Isa 10:15, the awl, Ex 21:6. Our Lord's reputed father, Joseph, and our Lord himself were carpenters. See Carpenter.

  5. Carvers in wood and stone. Bezaleel and Aholiah, who were proficient therein, are individually mentioned in Exodus as leading in the building of the tabernacle in the wilderness, Ex 31:5. So a man sent by Huram is credited with the superintendence of the carved work of the temple, 2 Chr 2:13, etc.

  6. Dyers were also known. This fact is easily inferred from the prevalent use of colored fabrics on the part of the early Hebrews.

  7. Engravers, both upon stone and metal, Ex 28:9-11. See Engrave.

  8. Fullers were probably numerous, in consequence of the prevalence of white in dress. See Fuller.

  9. Masons. Cities antedate the Flood, Gen 4:17. The Israelites built cities for their Egyptian master (Rameses), Ex 1:11. It is reasonable to conjecture that the Phoenician masons mentioned as building Solomon's temple were the master-masons, but that Hebrew workmen were also employed, 1 Kgs 5:17-18. The skill of these masons is shown in so exactly fitting the stones of the. temple that the building rose without the sound of a hammer, 1 Kgs 6:7. Plastering was customary within and without, mortar being used. Lev 14:40-42; Matt 23:27. The untempered mortar was perhaps mere mud, Eze 13:10-15.

  10. Mining must have been early practised, Job 28:1-6. See Metals.

  11. Potters are frequently spoken of; e.g. Jer 18:2-6. See Potter.

  12. Ship-builders. This trade was perhaps only carried on for a short period. The Tyrians were the prominent ship-builders, and were the teachers of other nations. 1 Kgs 10:22; 1 Kgs 22:48-49. See Commerce.

  13. Smiths or workers in metal were of various kinds, from the diggers or smelters of ore to the skilled artificers in gold and silver. They existed before the Flood, Gen 4:22. Much work of this sort was done in the wilderness. Ex 25:11-13; Gen 26:6,Ex 26:21. Bronze was the metal most employed — iron much less so. The jewelry worn so commonly, the vessels of the tabernacle, the gold and silver utensils, the ornamentation so profusely used, — all show that the smiths of the various sorts were much employed by the Hebrews.

  14. Tanners and dressers of leather were found in all parts of the land. It was at a tanner's house that Peter lodged when in Joppa, Acts 9:43.

  15. Tent-makers. This trade seems to have been a lucrative one. Paul followed it, and supported himself by it, Acts 18:3.

  16. Weavers, particularly women, are mentioned frequently. 2 Kgs 23:7; 1 Chr 4:21; Prov 31:13, Num 31:19.

A trade was indispensable to a Jewish citizen after the Captivity, but all trades were not held in equal honor. It is probable that as in the East at the present day, so formerly, each trade had its own special locality. Be it ever remembered to the honor of the Jews that they, almost alone among ancient nations, regarded a trade as a fit occupation of a freeman, that therefore their 357 highest citizens could earn their bread if necessary, and that slaves were not depended upon, as in Greece, for the doing of all manual work. Trades among the Jews were also not necessarily hereditary. It was a saying of the Rabbins: "He who does not teach his son a trade makes out of him a footpad."

HANDKERCHIEF, NAPKIN, A'PRON, These articles were pretty much alike, differing mainly in use. See Clothes.


HAND'STAVES, darts or javelins. Eze 39:9.

HA'NES, a city of Egypt, Isa 30:4, and generally identified with Heracleopolis, "Hercules' city," in middle Egypt, on the west of the Nile; but the Chaldee paraphrast reads Tahpanhes, thus identifying it with that city.

HANG'ING. According to Jewish law, the criminal was first strangled and then hanged. Num 25:4; Deut 21:22. The body was to be taken down before sunset. It was a special mark of infamy and a curse, Deut 21:23. Jesus is said to have been "hanged on a tree;" literally, "on a beam of wood." Acts 5:30; Gal 3:13. But the expression refers to his crucifixion.

HANGING, HANGINGS. The words are not the singular and plural of the same word in the Hebrew, but are translations of quite different words.

  1. The "hanging" — literally, "a cover" — is the word for the curtain before the door of the tabernacle, Ex 26:36-37; Ex 39:38, and for the curtain before the entrance of the court. Ex 27:16; Ex 38:18; Num 4:26. The same Hebrew word is several times translated correctly in the expression, "veil of the covering." Ex 35:12; Ex 39:34; Ex 40:21; Num 4:5.

  2. The "hangings"—literally, "that which is in motion" — were the coverings upon the walls of the court of the tabernacle. Ex 27:9; Ps 35:17; Ex 38:9; Num 3:26; Song 4:6, Num 4:26.

  3. The word "hangings" is used in 2 Kgs 23:7, but the Hebrew word may more properly be translated "tents," such as were used in the impure rites of Ashtoreth.

HAN'IEL (grace of God), a son of Ulla, and a prince of Asher, 1 Chr 7:39.

HAN'NAH (grace), one of the wives of Elkanah, and the mother of Samuel, whom she received in answer to prayer. Her song of praise on this occasion, 1 Sam 2:1-10, is a magnificent hymn to the holiness and justice of Jehovah, and has been compared with the song of Mary. Luke 1:46-55.

HAN'NATHON (graciously regarded), a place on the north-eastern border of Zebulon, Josh 19:14. Conder proposes to identify it with Kefe Anan, the Caphar Hananiah of the Talmud.

HA'NOCH (initiated).

  1. A son of Midian, Gen 25:4; called Henoch. 1 Chr 1:33.

  2. Eldest son of Reuben; founder of the family of the Hanochites. Gen 46:9; Ex 6:14; Num 26:5.

HANOCHITES, THE, the descendants of Hanoch, Num 26:5.

HA'NUN (gracious).

  1. A king of Ammon who is known for the indignities he showed to the messengers sent to him by David to comfort him at the death of his father, 2 Sam 10:1-6.

  2. A man of Jerusalem. Neh 3:13.

  3. Another repairer of the wall. Neh 3:30.

HAPHRA'IM (two pits), a city of Issachar, apparently near Shunem. Josh 19:19. Eusebius and Jerome place it 6 miles north of Legio. About 6 miles northeast of Lejun and 2 miles west of Solam (Shunem) is the modern village of el-Afuleh, which may represent Haphraim.

HA'RA (mountain-land), a place, evidently in western Assyria, to which the Israelites east of the Jordan were carried captive, 1 Chr 5:26. It is generally regarded as a variation of Haran. From the connection in which it is named, it must have been on or near the Khabour River.

HAR'ADAH (fear), a desert-station of the Israelites, Num 33:24-25, and may be identical with Jehel-Aradah, in Wadi el-'Ain, a day's march from 'Ain Huderah.

HA'RAN (a mountaineer).

  1. The brother of Abraham, and the father of Lot, Gen 11:26.

  2. A Levite, 1 Chr 23:9.

HA'RAN (parched), a son of Caleb by his concubine Ephah, 1 Chr 2:46.


HA'RAN (parched, dry), called also CHAR'RAN, Acts 7:2, Acts 7:4, the place to which Terah removed from Ur of the Chaldees, taking with him his two sons, Abram and Nahor, and his grandson, Lot. Terah died there, Gen 11:31-32; Abram and Lot moved to Canaan, Gen 12:4, while Nahor remained at Haran, which was called the city of Nahor, Gen 24:10. It was the early home of Rebekah, and Jacob afterward resided there with Laban, Gen 27:43. The city was in Mesopotamia, and more definitely in Padan-aram, Gen 24:10; Gen 25:20, and also in western Assyria. It is generally identified with the modern Haran, the Roman Carras, situated on the river Belik (the ancient Bilichus), about 50 miles above its entrance into the Euphrates. It is now a small Arab village, containing within its ruined walls the traditional tomb of Terah, the father of Abraham. About 20 miles distant is Orfak, which some claim to be Ur of the Chaldees.

There is a Harran on the border of Lake Antcibeh east of Damascus, which Dr. Beke would identify with Haran of Abram, but his view is not accepted by biblical scholars.

HA'RARITE, THE (the mountaineer), the designation of three persons in connection with David's guard.

  1. Agee, 2 Sam 23:11.

  2. Shammah, 2 Sam 23:33.

  3. Sharar, 2 Sam 23:33; called Sacar, 1 Chr 11:35.

HARBO'NA (ass-driver), a eunuch of Ahasuerus, Esth 1:10.

HARBO'NAH, the same person as above, Esth 7:9.

HARE, Deut 14:7. Of the hare, which resembles the rabbit, five species or varieties are found in Palestine. This animal was declared unclean by the Jewish law, Lev 11:6, "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof." For popular guidance this description was better than a more scientific one, and is explained under Coney.

HA'REPH (plucking off), a son of Caleb. 1 Chr 2:51.

HA'RETH (thicket?), a forest of Judah to which David fled from Saul, 1 Sam 22:5. Conder supposes that by a transposition of letters it should read "the city of Hareth" (?), as in Josephus and in two important manuscripts, and finds the site of the place in the small modern village of Kharas, on the north side of Wady Arneba, near Kilch (Keilah).

HARHAI'AH (Jehovah is angry), father of a repairer of the wall, Neh 3:8.

HAR'HAS (very poor), an ancestor of Shallum, 2 Kgs 22:14; called Hasrah in 2 Chr 34:22.

HAR'HUR (inflammation), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:51; Neh 7:53.

HA'RIM (flat-nosed),

  1. a priest who headed the third course of priests. 1 Chr 24:8. His descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:39; Neh 7:42. Some of them had foreign wives, Ezr 10:21. The name was signed to the covenant, Neh 10:27. The name occurs again Neh 12:15.

  2. One whose son repaired part of the wall of Jerusalem, Neh 3:11.

  3. A non-priestly ancestor of others who returned, and whose strange wives were discarded. His sons signed the covenant. Ezr 2:32; Neh 7:35; Ezr 10:31; Neh 10:27.

HA'RIPH (plucking off), ancestor of some who returned with Zerubbabel, Neh 7:24.

HAR'LOT. The first mention of harlots is in the case of Tamar, Gen 38:15, but we frequently meet with them later in the books of the Bible. The Mosaic

Hare of Mt. Sinai.

Law forbade fathers to hire out their daughters as harlots, Lev 19:29, and the severe punishment by burning was 359 ordained for the priest's daughter guilty of fornication, Lev 21:9. The harlot was regarded as unclean, and is mentioned in the same breath with the dog, Deut 23:18. The book of Proverbs compares the harlot to a deep ditch and a narrow pit, Prov 23:27, and represents in strong language the perils attending an association with her, Prov 7:10-27.

The term is also used of wicked cities; as Nineveh, Nah 3:4, and Jerusalem, Isa 1:21; of Israel, to represent her alienation from God. The marriage relation is looked upon as subsisting between it and God, The nation became a harlot when she practised idolatry. Jer 2:20; Dan 3:1; Eze 16:15; Hos 2:2; Gal 4:15.

In the N.T. harlots are classed with publicans. Matt 21:32, and Paul admonishes against the sin of fornication, especially in his Epistle to the Corinthians. 1 Cor 5:1; 2 Cor 12:21. In the book of Revelation, (heathen) Rome, under the mystic name of Babylon, is called "the mother of harlots," Rev 17:5.

HAR'NEPHER (panting ?), an Asherite chieftain, 1 Chr 7:36.

HARDNESS, 1 Kgs 20:11. In this passage and some others the word denotes armor. The phrase "made ready his chariot," Ex 14:6, literally means, in modern phraseology, "tackled," or "put to, his horses." That bridles with bits were very early known as part of the harness of a horse is obvious from Isa 37:29; Prov 26:3; Ps 32:9. The ancient harness was often very elaborate, as the monuments testify.

HA'ROD (trembling), a well or spring by which Gideon and his army encamped before the battle with the Midianites, and apparently where the Lord caused to be applied the test of the warriors by their mode of drinking. Jud 7:1. Saul may have encamped there. 1 Sam 28:4; 1 Sam 29:1. Stanley located it at 'Ain Jalud, a spring 2 miles south-east of Jezreel; Conder at 'Ain Jendin, a copious spring from a rock, 3 miles west of Scythopolis (Beisdn). The name Jendin means "Two companies."

HATRODITE, THE, the designation of two of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:25.

HAR'OEH (the seer), or REAI'AH, a name, 1 Chr 2:52.

HA'RORITE, 1 Chr 11:27. See Hakodite.

HARO'SHETH (working in wood, etc.) OF THE GENTILES, so called from the mixed people who dwelt there. A place in the north of Palestine, the home of Sisera, Jud 4:2, Jud 4:13, Jud 4:16, and the place of assembling of Jabin's army. Dr. W. M. Thomson locates Harosheth in the pass between the plain of Esdraelon and Acre, at the base of Mount Carmel, where the Kishon flows through the ravine. A village and mound covering ruins, both bearing a name very similar to Harosheth, are found in this vicinity. Conder proposes with greater probability to identity it with El-Harothieh, a miserable mud hamlet about 11 miles west of Nazareth.

HARP, a musical instrument invented by Jubal, and used by the Jews in seasons of thanksgiving to God, mirth, and joy. Gen 4:21; Gen 31:27; Ps 81:2; Isa 24:8. The instrument suggested any other thought than mourning and sorrow. In the hour of captivity the harp is hung upon the willows, Ps 137:2. David was particularly skilful in the use of it, 1 Sam 16:16,1 Sam 16:23. See Psaltery.

The harp was played with the fingers, 1 Sam 16:23, but perhaps also with a; key, as Josephus suggests. The same

Egyptian Harp.

author ascribes ten strings to the harp, which would lead us to infer its identity with the "instrument of ten strings," Ps 92:3. Sometimes it had only eight strings, and was called "the harp on the Sheminith." 1 Chr 15:21; Ps 6:12, title. Harps were of different sizes, for some played on them while walking, 360 1 Sam 10:5, David played before Saul. 1 Sam 16:23; 1 Sam 18:10. There are different accounts of the shape of the harp. The preceding cut is found represented on Egyptian monuments.

HAR'ROW. The verb meaning "to break the clods" is employed in Job 39:10; Isa 28:24; and Hos 10:11, and is believed to indicate the use, occasionally at least, of an instrument analogous to our harrow. This may have been a plank or log of wood, upon which stones were heaped and the laborer sat, and which was drawn over the ground by oxen, to break in pieces the clods and level the surface; or the present custom may have been employed: "In modern Palestine oxen are sometimes turned in to trample the clods, and in some parts of Asia a brush of thorn is dragged over the surface, but all these processes, if used, occur (not after, but) before the seed is committed to the soil." -Smith: Bib. Diet. The word rendered "harrow" in 2 Sam 12:31; 1 Chr 20:3, means a Threshing-instrument, which see.

HAR' SHA (deaf), ancestor of some who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:52; Neh 7:54.

HART, HIND, Ps 42:1. The former is the male stag, one of the most graceful and beautiful of all animals. It was clean by the Levitical law, Deut 12:15; Deut 14:5, and the grace and agility of its motions are alluded to in Song 2:9; Isa 35:6. The stag lolls or pants like the dog, and is soon exhausted by hunger. Jer 14:5; Lam 1:6.

It is uncertain whether this word denotes the true fallow-deer, the red deer, or the Barbary deer, or whether it embraces all of them. These three species doubtless formerly lived in Palestine or adjoining districts. The fallow-deer alone is still seen, and that rarely, in the wooded districts of the country.

The hind is the female stag. She is smaller and weaker than her mate, the hart, and has no horns. She is sure and swift of foot, and leaps fearlessly among the rocks and precipices. 2 Sam 22:34; Ps 18:33; Hab 3:19. The instinctive affection of the hart and hind is alluded to Prov 5:18-19, and Song 2:7; Song 3:5.

The figurative prediction of Jacob respecting Naphtali, Gen 49:21, would be more appropriately rendered, "Naphtali is a deer roaming at large; he shooteth forth noble antlers." The antlers or horns indicate the strength and health of the stag, and the whole metaphor expresses the increase of the tribe and the fertility of their portion in Judaea. See Fallow-deer, Roe.

HA'RUM (lofty), a Judite, 1 Chr 4:8.

HARU'MAPH (slit-nosed), one whose son helped to repair the wall, Neh 3:10.

HAR'UPHITE, THE, a name of Shephatiah, 1 Chr 12:5.

HA'RUZ (zealous), the maternal grandfather of King Amon, 2 Kgs 21:19.

HAR'VEST occurred in the months of March and April, and the term is frequently employed to designate this season of the year. Josh 3:15; Prov 6:8. The harvests of the different grains happened in regular succession, and are known as the "wheat-harvest," 1 Sam 12:17, and the "barley-harvest," Ruth 1:22. The grain was reaped with sickles, Jer 50:16, gathered in handfuls, Ruth 2:16, and done up into sheaves. Ps 129:7. It was then conveyed to the barns or threshing-floors, sometimes in carts. Am 2:13, where it was threshed or winnowed. One mode of threshing was by the treading of oxen, which it was forbidden to muzzle, Deut 25:4. Harvest was a season of great joy and merriment, Isa 9:3. In the book of Ruth we pass through it as in a panoramic vision.

In the N.T. our Lord refers to the end of the world under the term of harvest. Matt 13:39, whose reapers will be the angels. The angel is represented figuratively as at that time thrusting in his sickle, "for the harvest of the earth is ripe," Rev 14:15. Feast of. See Pentecost.

HASADI'AH (whom Jehovah loves), a descendant of the royal line of David, 1 Chr 3:20.

HASENU'AH (the hated), a Benjaniite, 1 Chr 9:7.

HASHABI'AH (whom Jehovah regards).

1, 2, Merarite Levites. 1 Chr 6:45; 1 Chr 9:14.

3, The head of the twelfth course of Levitical musicians, 1 Chr 25:3, 1 Chr 25:19.

4, A Hebronite Levite, 1 Chr 26:30, 361 5. Prince of the tribe of Levi in David's time, 1 Chr 27:17.

  1. A chief Levite in Josiah's time, 2 Chr 35:9.

  2. A Merarite Levite who accompanied Ezra from Babylon, Ezr 8:19.

  3. A priest in the same company, Ezr 8:24,

  4. A repairer of the wall, Neh 3:17.

  5. A Levite who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:11.

  6. A Levite, Neh 11:22,

  7. A Levite, Neh 11:15,

  8. A priest, Neh 12:24.

HASHAB'NAH (whom Jehovah regards), one who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:25.

HASHABNI'AH (whom Jehovah regards).

  1. One whose son repaired the wall, Neh 3:10.

  2. A Levite, Neh 9:5.

HASHBAD'ANA (considerate judge?), one who stood on Ezra's left while he read the Law to the people, Neh 8:4.

HA'SHEM (fat), father of some in David's guard, 1 Chr 11:34, or Jashen, 2 Sam 23:32-33.

HASHMO'NAH, a station of the Israelites near Mount Hor, Num 33:29, and probably identical with Heshmon, which see.

HA'SHUB (intelligent).

1, 2, Two of the repairers of the wall, Neh 3:11, Neh 3:23.

  1. One who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:23.

  2. A Merarite Levite, Neh 11:15; called Hasshub 1 Chr 9:14,

HASHU'BAH (intelligent), a descendant of David, 1 Chr 3:20,

HA'SHUM (rich).

  1. One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:19; Neh 7:22. Several of these descendants had married foreign women, Ezr 10:33. Representatives of them sealed the covenant, Neh 10:18.

  2. One who stood on Ezra's left hand while he publicly read the Law, Neh 8:4.

HASHU'PHA (stripped), one of the ancestors of the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. Neh 7:46, In Ezr 2:43 more accurately Hasupha.

HAS'RAH (very poor). See Habhas,

HASSENA'AH (thorn-edge), Neh 3:3, one whose sons built the fish-gate. If the name of a town, which is not certain, it must be identical with Senaah. See Senaah.

HAS'SHUB. See Hashub, No, 4.

HASU'PHA. See Hashupha.

HAT. See Head-dress.

HA'TACH, a Persian eunuch, Esth 4:5-6, Ruth 4:9-10.

HATE, Gen 24:60. To hate is to regard with a passion contrary to love, Jer 44:4. God's hatred is toward all sinful thoughts and ways. It is a feeling of which all holy beings are conscious in view of sin, and is wholly unlike the hatred which is mentioned in the Scripture among the works of the flesh, Gal 5:20. We must hate the evil, but love and bless our enemy, Matt 5:43. To hate sometimes means to love in a less degree. When our Saviour says that he who would follow him must hate father and mother, he means that even these dearest earthly friends must be loved in a subordinate degree; and in the same sense the follower of Christ is to hate his own life, or be willing to sacrifice it for the love and service of the Redeemer. A careful examination of the passages and the connection in which these words occur will best show their true force and meaning.

HA'THATH (fearful), a son of Othniel, 1 Chr 4:13.

HAT'IPHA (captive), one of the ancestors of the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:54; Neh 7:56.

HAT'ITA (exploring), one of the ancestors of temple-porters who returned. Ezr 2:42; Neh 7:45.

HAT'TII, (wavering), one of the ancestors of the Nethinim who returned, Ezr 2:57; Neh 7:59.

HAT'TUSH (assembled).

  1. One of David's descendants, and another descendant who returned with Zerubbabel. 1 Chr 3:22; Ezr 8:2.

  2. A repairer of the wall, Neh 3:10.

  3. A priest who accompanied Zerubbabel and afterward sealed the covenant, Neh 10:4; 1 Kgs 12:2.

HAU'RAN (caves, caverns), a country east of the Jordan; the north-eastern boundary of Palestine, Eze 47:16, Eze 47:18, and the Auranitis of the Greeks, and now known as the Hauran. For situation of the country see Map at end of this volume.

History. — Little was known of the Hauran previous to 1854. The works of Porter, 1855, Graham, 1858, Wetzstein, 1860, Burton and Drake, 1872, and Selah Merrill of the Am. Pal. Explor. Soc., 1877, 362 have thrown much light on its extent, nature, and history, but a thorough exploration of the country yet remains to be made. When the Israelites conquered the land, the whole of this region appears to have been subject to Og, the king of Bashan, Num 21:33-35; Deut 3:1-5, and a large portion of it was allotted to Manasseh. The district would then include the Argob, the slope of the Hauran Mountains, where the Israelites found 60 fortified cities with walls and gates and a fertile tract. See Bashan. In the Roman period the country was divided into 5 provinces, Ituraea, Gaulanitis, Batanaea (applied also to the whole region), Trachonitis, and Auranitis. The ruins scattered over the region are very extensive and remarkable; those built in the caverns are regarded by Wetzstein as the most ancient, and possibly reaching back to the times of the Rephaim, Gen 14:5; Gen 15:20, and Deut 3:11. The villages are chiefly of stone houses, having gates and doors of large slabs of dolerite; the gateways of the larger buildings are ornamented with sculptured vines and inscriptions. The Arabs, according to Wetzstein, from near Yemen settled in the Hauran at about the beginning of the Christian era; later, a second immigration from south Arabia took place, and these controlled the country for five centuries, and they probably erected most of the stone buildings now in so good a state of preservation. A large number of inscriptions in various characters are yet to be deciphered, which will throw much light, no doubt, upon the ancient history of this wild region. Wetzstein states that the eastern section of the Lejah and the slopes of the Hauran Mountains contain at least 300 ruined cities and towns. Selah Merrill says that an important ruin is found in every half hour of travel, and that among these ruins he has himself visited and examined 60 ruined churches, and eleven of thirteen theatres, including one vast naumachia where mock sea-fights were held. And he concludes a paper read before the American Geographical Society in New York, Nov. 8, 1877 (Bulletin, No. 5), with the following remarks: "In every age previous to the Moslem conquest in a.d. 635 — running clear back to the time of the giants — this land has been thickly inhabited, generally by intelligent and wealthy people. Churches, theatres, palaces, temples, castles, baths, porticos, splendid roads, a multitude of inscriptions, remains of a perfect system of irrigation, historical notices of cathedrals, bishops, and a widespread Christian influence, notices of conquests and vast spoils falling into the hands of the victors, authentic notices of many successive and powerful races that have flourished here, and the surface of the whole country dotted with ruined towns, cities, and villages, — are convincing proofs that the statements found in the O.T. respecting the numbers of their armies and people may be accepted, so far as the capacities of the soil for supporting such a population are concerned, as the literal truth." See also Argob, Bashan, and Gilead.


  1. A son of Cush, Gen 10:7.

  2. A son of Joktan, Gen 10:29.

HAV'ILAH, or HAVI'LAH (circle, district), a country abounding in gold, bdellium, and onyx-stone, Gen 2:11. Havilah is mentioned as a boundary of the children of Ishmael, Gen 25:18. Kalisch supposes that it was a country between the Persian and the Arabian gulfs; others hold that the "country of Havilah" in 1 Sam 15:7 refers to the region about Mount Seir, and that it was not probably identical with the Havilah of Gen 2:11. See Eden.

HA'VOTH-JA'IR(villages of Jair), a title applied to certain villages east of the Jordan which Jair captured and held. Num 32:41; Jud 10:4. The towns of Jair are included with the 60 cities given to Manasseh, Josh 13:30; 1 Chr 2:23; but the word rendered "villages" usually means a small collection of hovels in a country place. These towns were a part of one of the revenue-districts of Solomon, 1 Kgs 4:13.

HAWK, a general name for a well known group of fierce and rapacious birds, unclean by the Levitical law, Lev 11:16; Deut 14:15, but so sacred among the Greeks and Egyptians that to kill one, even unintentionally, was a capital crime. Of the ten or twelve species of these falcons found in Palestine 363 most are migratory, Job 39:26.

Kestrel, or Hawk. (Tinnunculus alaudarius. After Tristram.)

HAY, Prov 27:25. We are not to suppose that this word, as used in the Bible, denotes dried grass, as it does with us. The management of grass by the Hebrews as food for cattle was entirely different from ours. It was never dried and stored for winter use, but was cut green as it was wanted; and the phrase "mown grass," Ps 72:6, would be more properly rendered "grass that has just been fed off." So in Prov 27:25 the word translated "hay" means the first shoots of the grass; and the whole passage might properly be rendered, "The grass appeareth, and the green herb showeth itself, and the plants of the mountains are gathered." And in Isa 15:6 "hay" is put for "grass," and "grass" is put for the "green herb." The tenderness of grass, the rapidity of its growth, and the early period at which it is cut down and consumed afford the sacred writers some striking and beautiful illustrations. Ps 103:15; Isa 40:6; Jas 1:11. See Mowings.

HAZ'AEL, (God sees), an officer in the court of Syria, and subsequently its powerful king. Elijah was commanded to anoint him king but left this duty to Elisha; and so when Hazael was despatched by his king, Benhadad, to Elisha to inquire about the results of the disease with which he was afflicted, the prophet predicted the elevation of Hazael to the throne of Syria, and a series of the most horrible cruelties of which he would be guilty toward the children of Israel,1 Kgs 19:15. Hazael expressed the utmost abhorrence of such conduct, but on the next day he smothered Benhadad to death and ascended the throne, 2 Kgs 8:7-16. He warred against the kingdom of Israel, 2 Kgs 10:32, and against Judah. He took Gath, and was averted from entering Jerusalem only by a rich bribe,2 Kgs 12:17-18. He reigned forty-six years, and was succeeded by his son, Benhadad. The conquests of Hazael's reign were lost during that of his son and successor, 2 Kgs 13:25.

HAZAEL, HOUSE OF, either family or palace of Hazael, Am 1:4.

HAZA'IAH (whom Jehovah sees), a Judite, Neh 11:5.

HA'ZAR-AD'DAR (village of Adar, or greatness), called Adar in Josh 15:3; to the west of Kadesh-barnea, and on a ridge between Canaan and the desert; now 'Ain el-Kudeirat.

HA'ZAR-E'NAN (fountain, village), a boundary of the Promised Land. Num 34:9-10; Eze 47:17; Eze 48:1. Porter would identify it with Kuryetein, 60 miles east-north-east of Damascus, where are large fountains, fragments of columns, and other ruins, but this is too far north; Canon Cook suggests Ayon ed-Dara, a fountain in the heart of the central chain of Anti-Libanus.

HA'ZAR-GAD'DAH (village of fortune), a town in the south of Judah, Josh 15:27, which Wilton would identify with Wady Mubughik, where are extensive ruins of great antiquity; Grove with el-Ghurrah, about 9 miles east of Beersheba; Conder with Judeideh, the name of a spring near Hebron.

HA'ZAR-HAT'TICON (middle village) 364 , a place on the border of the Hauran, Eze 47:16.

HA'ZARMA'VETH (court of death), the third of Joktan's sons. Gen 10:26; 1 Chr 1:20. He was the progenitor of the inhabitants of modern Hadramaut, a province in South-eastern Arabia. This province abounds in frankincense and myrrh, but the climate is very unhealthy; whence its singular name.

HA'ZAR-SHU'AL (village or enclosure of jackals), a town in the southern portion of Judah; given afterward to Simeon, Josh 15:28; Josh 19:3; 1 Chr 4:28, and repeopled after the Captivity, Neh 11:27. Wilton suggested Beni Shail, near Gaza, as its site, but Van de Velde and Conder, with greater pi-obability, locate it at Saweh, between Beersheba and Moladah. The ruins are on a high bluff; a wall built of flint blocks surrounds the site, and justifies the name Hazar ("enclosure").

HA'ZAR-SU'SAH, and HA'ZAR-SU'SIM (village of horses), a city of Simeon, in the southern border of Judah. Josh 19:5; 1 Chr 4:31. Wilton believes it was in Wady es-Sauiek, near Gaza, but Conder proposes Beit Susia, south of Beit Jibrin.

HA'ZEL, Gen 30:37. It is generally supposed that the almond tree is intended in this passage. The original word is thought to be susceptible of this rendering.

HAZ'ELELPO'NI (shade coming upon me), a sister to some descendants of Judah, 1 Chr 4:3.

HA'ZER, same as Hazar; used only in composition.

HAZE'RIM (the villages). In Deut 2:28 we read that the Avim dwelt in Hazerim, even unto Azzeh or Gaza; and the notice of the Avites in Josh 13:3-4, as the most southern of the tribes inhabiting the Canaanitish country clearly identifies their land with the mountains of Azazimeh. See Palmer's Desert of the Exodus (Amer. ed.), p. 360.

HAZE'ROTH (villages, or enclosures), the second station of the Israelites, Num 11:35; Neh 12:16; Num 33:17-18; Deut 1:1, and identified with 'Ain Hudherah, 40 miles north-east of Sinai.

HAZ'EZON-TA'MAR, and HAZ'ANON- TA'MAR (felling of palm trees), the old name of En-gedi,Gen 14:7; 2 Chr 20:2; a city as old as the oldest in Syria, the contemporary of Sodom and Gomorrah, and already a city when Hebron was first founded. See Tristram's Land of Israel, p. 285, and also En-gedi.

HA'ZIEL (vision of God), a Levite in the time of David, 1 Chr 23:9.

HA'ZO (vision), a son of Nahor, Gen 22:22.

HA'ZOR (enclosure).

  1. The city of King Jabin; destroyed by Joshua, Josh 11:1, Josh 11:10-11; given to Naphtali, Josh 19:36; again possessed by the Canaanites, Jud 4:2, who had for its king Jabin — a generic title, probably, like Pharaoh in Egypt — who reigned in Hazor and whose general was Sisera. It was fortified by Solomon, 1 Kgs 9:15; its people were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser. 2 Kgs 15:29. The city appears to have been situated on a hill in the midst of a plain, and was a stronghold. Josh 11:4; Jud 4:3. Several places have been suggested as the site: Tell Khureibeh, a rocky peak near Kedesh, by Robinson, and Conder points out the name Hadireh, the Arabic equivalent of Hazor, near this; modern Hazere, where are ruins, by Thomson; but doubtless it is to be found at Khurbet Hurrah, 2 1/2 miles south-east of Kedesh, as proposed by the Palestine Memoirs. Remains of ancient walls, towers, and a fortress are to be found, and also broken glass and pottery.

  2. A city in the south of Judah; probably should be written Hazor-ithman, Josh 15:23.

  3. Another town of Judah; called Hazor-hadattah, or New Hazor, Josh 15:25. Robinson proposes el-Hudherah; Conder, el-Hazzdrah, near Beit Jibrin, as its site.

  4. Hezron, which is Hazor, Josh 15:25; rendered by Canon Cook "Kerioth Hezron, which is Hazor." He would identify it with el-Kuryetein, where are large ruins seen by De Sauley. It is supposed to have been the home of Judas Iscariot, the man of Kerioth, Matt 10:4; Conder suggested Kheshram, north of Beer-sheba, as the site of this Hazor.

HEAD'-BANDS were perhaps fillets for the hair. Isa 3:20. See Head dress.

HEAD'-DRESS, Hats were unknown 365 to the Hebrews. The attempt of Jason to introduce them was regarded as a grievance, 2 Mace. 4:12. "Coverings for the head were not in ordinary use. Thus, it was a token of mourning to cover the head, 2 Sam 15:30; Jer 14:3-4, and the mantle seems to have been employed for the purpose, 1 Kgs 19:13. The head-dresses that were then used

Head-dress of Assyrian King and Queen. (From Nineveh Marbles.)

were rather for ornament. This was specially the case with the high priest's mitre and the 'bonnets' of the ordinary priests, which are expressly said to have been 'for glory and for beauty.' Ex 28:36-40. And those which were intended by the Hebrew words tzaniph and peer seem to have been worn only by eminent persons or on festive occasions. The former word implies wrapping around, after the fashion of a turban; it is described as used by men, Job 29:14

Syrian Head-dresses. Damascus. (Ayre.)

(in our version 'diadem'); by women, Isa 3:23 ('hoods'); as belonging to kings, Isa 62:3 ('diadem'); to the high priest, Zech 3:5 ('mitre'). The latter, peer, conveying the idea of ornament or beauty, is said to have been worn by priests, Ex 39:28; Eze 44:18 ('bonnets'), by females, Isa 3:20, by a bride-groom, Isa 61:10, and by others in gala-dress. Isa 61:3;Eze 24:17, 1 Chr 24:23."— Ayre.

The Assyrian head-dress is described in Eze 23:15 as consisting of a high turban. The word rendered "hats" in Dan 3:21 properly applies to a cloak.

HEAP. See Stones.

HEART, Acts 16:14. The seat of the affections, desires, hopes, and motives. John 14:1; Esth 1:10. The term is also used by the Bible writers to designate the understanding, 1 Cor 2:9, and intellectual perceptions. It is further a general term for the spiritual nature of man. Isa 1:5; 2 Cor 4:6. In the latter passage the apostle speaks of the light shining in our hearts, teaching us of Christ as the One who reveals God. The heart is declared to be corrupt and full of evil, Eccl 9:3, and deceit, Jer 17:9, the seat of sin and crime. Matt 15:19, as also of faith. Rom 10:10. The Lord "looketh on the heart," 1 Sam 16:7, in contrast to the outward appearance, and we are commanded to cultivate it, as the most important part of our nature, rather than external appearances. Prov 4:4; Joel 2:13. The expression "to speak in the heart," 1 Sam 1:13, is synonymous with "to think."

HEARTH. The Hebrew words so translated do not, any of them, mean what we call a hearth. Thus, the "hearth" of Gen 18:6 was the heap of ashes covering the hot stones on which the bread was baked, according to the Eastern custom. See Bread. The "hearth" of Ps 102:3 means fagot as fuel; in Isa 30:14, not the hearth, but the burning mass. When we read that King Jehoiakim threw the cut leaves of Jeremiah's prophecy into the fire that was on the hearth, we are to understand that before him was a portable furnace or brazier of charcoal, Jer 36:22-23.

HEATH. Jer 17:6; Jer 48:6. No true heath is found in Palestine. There is great probability that the dwarf juniper or savin (Juniperus sabina), which grows in the most sterile and desolate parts of the desert, is the plant intended. "Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its gnarled stems and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet between him that trusteth in man, naked and destitute, and the man that trusteth in the 366 Lord, flourishing as a tree planted by the waters." — Tristram.

HEA'THEN, Ps 2:1. This term (from heath, one who lives on the heaths or in the woods, like pagans, i.e. villagers) is applied in the English Bible to all idolaters or to all nations except the Jews. See Gentile. It now denotes all nations except Christians, Jews and Mohammedans.

HEAVEN The general idea expressed by the word in the Bible is of a realm different from the earth and hell. Under this general realm are included two realms — the one the material, the other the spiritual heaven. The plural is often used in both cases, most frequently in Matthew, and always in the phrase "the Father in the heavens," "the kingdom of the heavens."

  1. The heavens or heaven is contrasted with the earth, Gen 1:1; Ps 115:15; Matt 5:18; Matt 24:35, and is represented as above us. This is the material world of air and the firmament. It is looked upon by the Hebrews as a solid expanse, Gen 1:11, Heb., which has windows, Gen 7:11; 2 Kgs 7:2, 2 Kgs 7:19, and doors. Ps 78:23, The rain descends from it, Jas 5:18; 2 Sam 21:10, and the frost, Job 38:29. The stars are called the "stars of heaven," Nah 3:16, the "host of heaven," Deut 4:19, or the "lights in the firmament," Gen 1:14, and the fowls fly in the midst of it, Rev 19:17. This material and stellar heaven will be dissolved at the final consummation, Rev 6:14; 2 Pet 3:10, and with the earth give place to a new heaven and a new earth. Rev 21:1.

  2. The term refers also to a realm beyond this material universe, and different from it — an invisible realm of holiness and bliss. This heaven is the peculiar abode of God, who is described as the God of heaven and the God in heaven. 1 Kgs 8:30; Dan 2:28; Matt 5:45. Christ is said to be the "Lord from heaven," 1 Cor 15:47, and to have "come down from" or to have descended from heaven, John 3:13, etc. Into this heaven he has again ascended. Luke 24:51; Acts 1:9; Eph 4:8; 1 Pet 3:22. Here God has his throne, here the angels dwell. Matt 22:30. It is the place where God's will is done. Matt 6:10, and where joy, Luke 15:7, and peace reign, Acts 19:38. It is here that Christ has prepared the many mansions, John 14:2, and into which Elijah passed, 2 Kgs 2:1. Believers have an inheritance in this realm, 1 Pet 1:4, and may lay up treasures in it. Matt 6:20. Heaven is in this signification contrasted with hell, Ps 139:8, into which Satan fell, Luke 10:18; 2 Pet 2:4.

The terms "paradise," Luke 23:43, and "Abraham's bosom," Luke 16:22, designate a state of bliss in the other world, but not the highest and ultimate state.

The third heaven, 2 Cor 12:2, into which Paul was rapt in a vision, is probably only another expression for the highest heaven. The later rabbins distinguished seven heavens: the first three belong to the material universe; the other four to the spiritual world, where God, the saints, and angels dwell.

That the believer's heaven is not merely a state, but also a world of space, is abundantly testified to not only by many of the above passages, but also by such expressions as "heavenly places," Eph 1:3. The bliss of heaven is beyond our conception. This is indicated by the many forms and figures used to give us an impression of its joys. John 14:2-3; Heb 4 and Heb 11; Rev 3, Rev 21, Rev 22.

Heaven, Kingdom of. See Kingdom.


HE'BER (alliance).

  1. Grandson of Asher. Gen 46:17; Num 26:45; 1 Chr 7:31.

  2. A Judite, 1 Chr 4:18.

  3. A Gadite, 1 Chr 5:13.

  4. A Benjamite, 1 Chr 8:17.

  5. Another Benjamite, 1 Chr 8:22.

  6. Heber the Kenite, the husband of Jael, who slew Sisera, Jud 4:22. See Jael, Sisera. Heber appears to have led a life apart from the rest of his tribe. He must have been a person of consequence, from the fact that it is stated that there was peace between him and the powerful king Jabin, Jud 4:17.

  7. For Eber, Luke 3:35.

HE'BERITES, THE, descendants of Heber, Num 26:45.

HE'BREWESS, a Hebrew woman. Num Jer. 4:39?.


HE'BREWS. The term is probably derived from the Hebrew verb eber, 367 which means "to pass over," to cross a stream, or from the proper noun Eber, one of the ancestors of Abraham (otherwise unknown). Gen 10:24; Gen 11:13. (Compare our words transalpine, cisalpine, ultramontane, transjordanic.) It was first applied by the Canaanites to Abraham, Gen 14:13, who had immigrated from the east side of the Euphrates (and hence might be called a trans-Euphratian, a stranger come from the other side of the Euphrates), and then to all the descendants of Abraham. The Egyptians, Gen 39:14; Gen 41:12, and the Philistines, 1 Sam 4:6, knew the people by this title, and, as we may infer, all foreigners. But they sometimes use it of themselves, but only when foreigners are thought of. Gen 40:15; Ex 2:7. The favorite name was "Israelites," and after the Captivity the title "Jews" came into vogue, but the title "Hebrews" was still used for the more strict Jews, who preferred the Hebrew language, in distinction from the Hellenists or Greekish Jews.

  1. Their Origin. — Abram was chosen by God in Ur of the Chaldees to be the father of this people, and made recipient of the promise to be the founder of a great nation. Gen 12:1. The Hebrew people were descended directly from him through Isaac and Jacob, and are frequently called the "seed of Abraham," Ps 105:6; John 8:37, or "children of Abraham," Gal 3:7, or "children of Israel," Ex 1:13.

  2. Their Government. — (1.) For the first three generations it was a patriarchal form. Jacob and his sons then followed Joseph into Egypt, where for 400 years the Hebrews were subject to the Pharaohs, and, after the first generation, in a state of bondage, which became excessively oppressive, Ex 1:11-14. God finally raised up a deliverer to them in the person of Moses, in whose lifetime the (2) theocracy, or theocratic form of government, was established. Israel was compacted into a nation in the wilderness. Here it first learned its strength; here it received the two tables of the Law and the moral, political, social, and religious institutions peculiar to it: and here it was reassured of the familiar relation of God to it: "I will . . be your God, and ye shall be my people." Lev 26:12; Ex 6:7. The characteristic feature of this form of government is found in God's intimate relation with the affairs of the nation and his special superintendence of them. And although the nation subsequently had its judges and kings, yet God in a peculiar sense presided over its destinies. He guided the nation by the pillar of cloud and fire; he gave them the manna, and the victory over Amalek, Ex 17:14; he gave the Law, Ex 20:1; he led them across the Jordan and into Canaan, Josh 3:7. and appointed Joshua successor of Moses, Josh 1:3; he instructed them how to fight against Jericho and Ai, Josh 8:1; he gave victory to Deborah, Jud 4:14; he called Saul, 1 Sam 10:1, and deposed him, 1 Sam 16:1, etc. God thus presided in a very personal manner over the national affairs of the Hebrews.

  3. Their Religion. — God was the immediate author, by special revelation, of the Hebrew religion. Revealing himself particularly to Abraham and Jacob, he deferred the full revelation of it for the period of Moses. This religion consisted in the worship of God, Deut 6:4, as one and as holy. Ex 15:11; Ps 89:35. The Israelitish nation was thus made the receptacle for two distinct conceptions which were not shared in by any of the surrounding nations, who broke the deity up into fragments and attributed the most flagrant vices as well as human passions to their gods (as the Greeks and Romans). Their religion also taught them that God is the Creator of all things, Gen 1:1; all-wise, Prov 15:3; everywhere present, Ps 139:7; almighty, Ps 115:3; eternal. Ps 90:2. He is also represented as love, Ex 34:6; Isa 63:16, etc., though not as fully as afterward by Christ and his apostles. Their religion taught the spiritual worship of God, without the aid of images of metal, wood, and stone, Ex 20:4. Idolatry was condemned and the practice of it punished, as in the case of the golden calf, Ex 32:35. It further included in its code the moral law and the duty of man to his fellow, Ex 20:12-17. It was, however, not the final or perfect religion, but provisional and temporary. Heb 8:7; Dan 10:1; 1 Pet 1:11-12. it commanded a vast number of merely external and ceremonial rites which were at once typical and symbolical.


The religion of Christ did away with the temple, the sacrifices, etc., and established spiritual ordinances.

Thus looking at the Hebrew religion, we find it, in contrast with the heathen religions, free from falsehood and conserving great eternal truths, which have become the heritage of all modern civilized nations, but, in contrast with the religion of Christ, temporary, imperfect, a typical and prophetical preparation for Christianity.

  1. Their political history may be divided into seven periods:

(1) From Abraham to Moses. This embraces the patriarchal period and the sojourn in Egypt. Abraham's descendants increase in numbers in the land of Canaan till Jacob in his old age goes with his sons to Egypt. Here they spend 400 years, first under the favor, and then under the oppressive tyranny, of the Pharaohs.

(2) From Moses to Saul. The marvellous deliverance from the bondage of Egypt, the founding of the theocracy at Mount Sinai, and the life in the wilderness. After wandering 40 years in the wilderness, the people cross over the Jordan into the land of their fathers. Moses dies after seeing it from Mount Pisgah, but without having trodden it. Joshua is appointed the successor of Moses, and becomes their military captain. The most of the land is taken after hard fighting, and apportioned between the twelve tribes. Fourteen judges follow Joshua, among them a woman — Deborah. Lawlessness reigned to a greater or less extent, and might was right, Jud 17:6. The last and the greatest of the judges was Samuel, whose life marks the transition to the third period. See Judges.

(3) From Saul to the Division of the Kingdom (about 120 years). — This period includes the greatest prosperity Israel ever attained, under the reigns of David and Solomon. Her territory was extended, foreign nations acknowledged her glory, 1 Kgs 5:1; 1 Kgs 10:1, and literature and the sciences were cultivated, 1 Kgs 4:33. The reign of Solomon (40 years) marks the highest prosperity, but also the beginning of the decline. See Saul, David, Solomon, the Temple.

(4) From the Division of the Kingdom (975) to the Close of the Canon (about 500 years). — This period is marked by the decline of the nation, and embraces the Exile and the Return. At Solomon's death the kingdom was divided between Rehoboam and Jeroboam, and the history of each would be a monotonous account of falling away and recovery from idolatry if it were not for the periodical appearance of great prophets. The two kingdoms come into conflict with the surrounding nations and grow weaker and weaker, till the upper kingdom is destroyed and the people led away captive in b.c. 721; the lower kingdom, b.c. 588. Subsequently, a part of the nation returns under Zerubbabel and other leaders, Ezr 2:2. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah give an account of the Return and of the subsequent restoration of the temple.

(5) From the Return to the Advent of Christ. — Although many Jews were carried captive into Babylon, many, of their own accord and contrary to the counsel and warning of Jeremiah, went down into Egypt. There they built in Leontopolis a temple, in which the ritual of the Law was observed, and which would act as a damper upon the enthusiasm after the services in Jerusalem. In Alexandria the Jews "were in such numbers as to be known as 'The Tribe.' They were a separate community under their own chief, entitled ethnarch or alabarch, and represented more than a third of Alexandria, with a council corresponding to that which ultimately ruled at Jerusalem." — Stanley. By their scholars the translation of the O.T. into Greek called the Septuagint Avas made, being begun under the patronage of Ptolemy Philadelphus, b.c. 285. The school of philosophers of which Philo is the chief exercised a great influence on Gentile as well as Jewish thought. It answered the useful purpose of mediating between Platonism and Christianity, and thus was a bridge from one to the other. After the Return, b.c. 538, the Jews remained under the yoke of Persia; but when Alexander the Great subverted that monarchy, he granted them many favors. Their prosperity was of short duration. The death of the world-conqueror, b.c. 323, led to the disruption of his empire into four kingdoms, but led likewise to a wrangle which involved all lands. "In this world's debate," says Stanley, "Palestine was the principal 369 stage across which 'the kings of the south' — the Alexandrian Ptolemies — and 'the kings of the north' — the Seleucidte from Antioch — passed to and fro, with their court-intrigues and incessant armies, their Indian elephants, their Grecian cavalry, their Oriental pomp. It was for the larger part of the century and half that succeeded Alexander's death a province of the Graeco-Egyptian kingdom."

In the early part of the third century b.c. the Jews threw off the Egyptian allegiance and put themselves under Antiochus the Great, king of Syria; but Antiochus Epiphanes, his youngest son, persecuted them, proscribing their religion and profaning their temple, erecting an altar in the temple to the Olympian Jupiter, and ordering divine honors to be paid to the idol. But the Jews were monotheists of a positive type. The outrage was not to be silently borne, nor were they to be forced to do what their conscience forbade. War broke out. The romantic period of Jewish history begins. The Jews ranged themselves for the inevitable conflict. On the one side were the infamous priests Jason and Menelaus, their followers the Hellenists, who were renegade Jews backed by Antiochus. On the other side were the great mass of the people, stung into madness by the cruelties of their king, but most of all settled in their determination not to submit to pagan rites. They were led by the Maccabsean family, who were high priests as well as princes, and after a thirty years' struggle they gained their independence. Under John Hyrcanus, of this family, peace was made with Syria, b.c. 133. In b.c. 107, Aristobulus, his son, assumed the royal title. See Maccabees.

But the Jews at last fell, like the rest of the civilized world, under the Roman power. Pompey took Jerusalem in b.c. 63; Antipater, the father of Herod, was made procurator of Judaea in b.c. 47. He was murdered shortly after, and Herod at length became king of Judaea, b.c. 37. For the history of the Jews from this date to the destruction of Jerusalem see the biographies of the successive monarchs.

(6) From the Advent of Christ to the Destruction of Jerusalem. — The Gospels inform us as to the Jews' hatred and rejection of the Messiah. And so they prepared their downfall. Matt 23:37. The long-suffering of God was abused; his offers of mercy were often rejected, and at last the time for their final overthrow came. Josephus tells the story. The city of Jerusalem, whither they had gathered, was besieged by Titus, and after much suffering, borne with fanatical courage, taken. The temple was burnt, the whole city demolished. The prophecy of Christ was literally fulfilled. Matt 23:34-39; Luke 21:20-24. See Jerusalem.

(7) From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. — The Jews were no longer a nation, but their religion remained unchanged, and retained a hostile attitude to Christianity. The people that prepared the way for the coming of the Messiah crucified the true Messiah, and wait in vain for a new Messiah. After the capture of Jerusalem the Jews were sold in large numbers into slavery, and scattered all over the Roman world. Many returned to the ruins of the Holy City. The emperor Claudius admitted them to citizenship, but they were very differently treated by successive emperors. In a.d. 135, under the emperor Hadrian, a fanatical impostor, Bar-cochba, announced himself in Palestine as the Messiah. An immense multitude hastened to his standard of revolt. The Romans, however, completely vanquished them. Jerusalem was again completely destroyed, and became a Roman colony under the name of AElia Capitolina. The Jews were forbidden to enter it. The emperor Julian (a.d. 331-363), from hostility to Christianity, endeavored to rebuild the temple, but in vain. Since the downfall of the Western Roman Empire (a.d. 476) the Jews have had very varying fortunes under different masters, and much cruel persecution. They have spread themselves over all the earth, but have always remained separate and distinct. This remarkable fact is a plain indication of the hand of God. who will yet do great things for and with them. They are a standing proof of divine prophecy and a living argument for the truth of Christianity. For an account of their literary activity, see Talmud. 370 The Jews by their talents and industry exert great influence among Christian nations. They have long been the great bankers of the world. The Rothschild family with its immense wealth has controlled the money-market. The Jews have furnished great scholars and statesmen. Neander, the Church historian, and Stahl, the jurist, were converted Jews: the great musician, Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Lord Beaconsfield, Gambetta, Castelar, are of Jewish extraction. They have distinguished themselves in all the occupations except agriculture and manufactures. They are divided into orthodox, and liberal or reform Jews, who differ from each other as the Pharisees and Sadducees of old. The former prevail in Russia, Poland, and the East; the latter in Germany and America. Many of the Jews to-day are deists, or even atheists. The modern epoch is marked by the name of Moses Mendelssohn (died 1786), whose German translation of the Pentateuch was the groundwork of reform. The infidel Jews exert a pernicious influence on the German political press. The poet Heine was a Jew. In America they enjoy full liberty, which until recently had been denied them in Europe. They are also increasing of late in Jerusalem, where they are strictly orthodox, issue newspapers in the Hebrew language, and bewail every Friday at the foundation of the temple-wall the sins of their forefathers. The number of Jews in the world is estimated at 9,000,000, of whom 50,000 live in New York city, where they accumulate great wealth.

The last word of Christ and the apostle concerning this wonderful people — which, like the burning bush, are never consumed — is a word of promise and hope that their blindness will be removed, and that after the fulness of the Gentiles has come in "all Israel will be saved." Rom 11:26.

Hebrew of the Hebrews, Phil 3:6, denotes that the individual so called had both a Hebrew father and mother — was one whose Hebrew extraction was perfect.

HE'BREWS, EPISTLE TO THE, was written about the years 62 to 64 in Italy, Heb 13:24, and addressed to the believing Jews of Palestine and the East. The design of the author was not, primarily, to make new converts or to console old ones, but to guard them against apostasy and to strengthen their faith by an exhibition of the evidence in favor of the pre-eminence of the religion of Christ over that of Moses, One gets the impression of peculiar temptations to apostasy or a weakening in the faith against which the Hebrew Christians are continually warned in the Epistle, ch. Ruth 2:1; Song of Solomon 4:1, Song 4:14; Ezr 10:23.

The Epistle at once exhibits the unity and the characteristic difference of the Old and the New Testament economy and revelation. Both were alike of divine origin, Heb 1:1-2, but the former was imperfect and defective, chs. Heb 8:6-7; Dan 10:1. This is proved by an extended consideration of the character of Christ, the Mediator of the new covenant, and of the mediators (Moses and Aaron) of the old covenant, and by a consideration of the prophecy of Jeremiah concerning a new covenant, ch. Neh 10:16, and its spiritual character, chs. Heb 9-10. In the comparison thus instituted we discover a marked contrast between the old and new covenants, so far as both their nature and their founders are concerned.

The Epistle exhibits the person of Christ, the Author of the new covenant, as superior in dignity to the angels, ch. Heb 1, and proves it by the O.T. itself. Christ was the very brightness of God's glory and the express image of his person, ch. John 1:3. Therefore the conclusion is drawn that the revelation made by him is of greater authority than that made by angels, which was accepted, ch. Gen 2:2. He is then represented as of superior dignity to Moses, ch, Heb 3:3, and as our High Priest, ch. Dan 3:1, who belongs to the order of Melchisedek, ch. Heb 5:16; Heb 7:21. In order to perform the high priestly functions, it was necessary for him to endure the sufferings and temptations incident to the humanity he intended to save, Heb 2:17; Gal 4:15; 1 Kgs 12:2, and to assume human nature, ch. Num 2:14. He thus becomes the Author of salvation, ch. Heb 5:9, by the shedding of his blood, Gal 2:9; Heb 9:12. The superiority of his high priesthood is shown not only by his super-angelic nature, but in his freedom from sin, Gal 4:15; Heb 7:27, The Aaronic priests were sinful, Heb 7:28. Christ has thus purchased an eternal salvation for all who believe in him in a


View of Hebron fiom the South. (After Photograph by Bonfils.)

Mount Hermon, with Ruins of an Ancient Temple. (After Photograph by Good.) 372 special sense, ch. Heb 7:25, and for every man, ch. Gal 2:9, He has entered into the holy of holies, the divine presence, and is seated on the right hand of God. Eze 10:12.

The latter part of the Epistle is taken up with practical exhortations and a profound definition and telling illustration of faith, ch. Heb 11, The apostle thus establishes, by a remarkably clear and lucid argument, the divine yet temporary character of the old revelation and the super-eminent dignity of the High Priest, Christ, whose manifestation is "the better thing" which God has provided for us, Heb 11:40. The Epistle corroborates the divine origin of the old covenant, and at the same time is calculated to reconcile the Jew to the destruction of his temple, the loss of his priesthood, the abolition of his sacrifices, the devastation of his country, and the extinction of his name, because it exhibits a nobler temple, a better priesthood, a more perfect sacrifice, a heavenly inheritance, and a more durable memorial.

The authorship of this anonymous Epistle is a matter of dispute; some ascribe it to Paul, who for special reasons concealed his name, others to Luke or Barnabas, or to Apollos. It was certainly inspired by the genius of Paul, and may have been written by him in Hebrew and translated or reproduced in its present Greek form by Luke or some other disciple of the great apostle of the Gentiles. This hypothesis would account for the difference of style as well as the unity of sentiment.

HE'BRON (alliance).

  1. A son of Kohath, and therefore grandson of Levi, Ex 6:18; Num 3:19; 1 Chr 6:2, 1 Chr 6:18; 1 Chr 23:12.

2, A name in the genealogical lists of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr 2:42-43.

HE'BRON (friendship), an ancient town of Palestine, about 20 miles south of Jerusalem, and the same distance north of Beer-sheba; first called Kirjatharba, or "city of Arba," the father of Anak. Josh 21:11; Josh 15:13-14; Jud 1:10. Some interpret the name to mean "a city of four," or as having four distinct quarters. It lies about 3OOO feet above the level of the sea, and is one of the oldest towns in the world and mentioned before Damascus, Gen 13:18; Gen 15:2, and was built 7 years before Zoan, or Tanis, in Egypt, Num 13:22.

History. — Hebron is named about 40 times in the 0.T., but nowhere in the New. Abraham pitched his tent under the oaks of Mamre, near Hebron, Gen 13:18, and he bought the cave of Machpelah, as a burial-place. Gen 23:17-20. See Machpelah. Hebron was taken by Joshua, Josh 10:36-37; Neh 12:10, and the region given to Caleb, Josh 14:13; was rebuilt and made a Levitical city and a city of refuge, Josh 20:7; Rev 21:11; was the royal residence of David, 2 Sam 2:1-14; 1 Kgs 2:11; became the headquarters of the rebellious Absalom, 2 Sam 15:10; was fortified by Rehoboam and re-peopled after the Captivity. 2 Chr 11:10; Neh 11:25. Judas Maccabaeus re-captured it from the Edomites; it was destroyed by the Romans; for about 20 years it was the seat of a Latin bishopric, a.d. 1167-1187, but at the latter date it fell into the hands of Saladin, and has since been held by the Moslems. A pool is still shown over which tradition says that David hung the murderers of Ishbosheth, and the tomb of Abner and Ishbosheth is also pointed out within an Arab house.

Present Condition. — Hebron is in a narrow part of a valley and surrounded by fertile lands, vineyards, olive-groves, and almond and fig trees. The town has many spacious houses, built of stone, and numbers about 10,000 souls, including 500 Jews; but there is not a single Christian family there. The city is divided into several quarters, in one of which is the great mosque, a massive structure, about 200 by 150 feet on the ground and nearly 50 feet high, with two minarets. This mosque is known to conceal the noted cave of Machpelah, the burial-place of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and their wives, except Rachel, The mosque is closed against visitors and guarded with the strictest care by the Moslems. Only three times have Europeans been permitted to enter it — the Prince of Wales in 1862, the marquis of Bute in 1866, and the crown-prince of Prussia in 1869. These visitors were accompanied by Dean Stanley, Fergusson, Rosen, and others, Hebron is a hotbed of Moslem fanaticism.

About two miles west of the city, on the road toward Gaza, is the famous oak of Abraham, a majestic and venerable tree whose trunk measures 32 feet in circumference, 373 and at the height of 19 feet it divides into four huge branches, forming a crown upwards of 275 feet in circumference. The tree is surrounded by a wall, and on the hill above it the Russians have built a fine hospice. A large terebinth or oak was shown there in the days of Josephus which, tradition says, "has continued since the creation of the world." — Jewish War, iv. 9,7. For view of "Abraham's Oak," see under Abraham.

The town carries on a brisk trade with the Bedouins, and manufactures waterskins from goats' hides, and pretty glass ornaments. Glass was made there early in the Middle Ages.

  1. A city of Asher, Josh 19:28; perhaps Abdon of Josh 21:30; now 'Ahdeh.

HE'BRONITES, THE, a family of Kohathite Levites descended from Hebron. Num 3:27; Num 26:58; 1 Chr 26:23.

HEDGE, Hos 2:6. Travellers tell us that such hedges as are mentioned in this passage are often found in Eastern countries at this day, and that they are especially useful as defences against the incursions of the Arabs on horseback. The hedge is sometimes figuratively used to denote protection. Comp. Job 1:10.

HEG'AI, or HE'GE, a eunuch of the court of Ahasuerus, Esth 2:3, Deut 2:8, Esth 2:15

HEIF'ER, Hos 10:11. The figurative allusions of the sacred writers to the wildness, sportiveness, and indocility of this animal, especially when well fed, are very striking. Jer 46:20; Jer 50:11; Hos 4:16. In Isa 15:5 allusion is probably made to the lowing of a heifer — a mournful sound that can be heard at a great distance; so should the lamentation of the Moabites be in the day of their visitation.

The heifer was used in sacrifice on a particular occasion, Num 19:1-10; comp. Heb 9:13-14, the manner and design of which are fully stated in the passage cited.

HEIR. See Inheritance.

HE'LAH (rust), a wife of Ashur, 1 Chr 4:5.

HE'LAM (stronghold), usually regarded as the place where David gained a victory over the Syrians, 2 Sam 10:16-17, and by some identified with Almanethn, west of the Euphrates; but this is merely conjecture. The Latin Version does not regard the word as a proper name, but renders it "army" or "host."

HEL'BAH (fertile), a city of Asher, Jud 1:31, in the plain of Phoenicia; the same as Hebel. Rendered "the coast" in Josh 19:29.

HEL'BON (fertile), a Syrian city celebrated for its wine, Eze 27:18, and formerly identified with Aleppo, but later with Helbon, in a wild glen high up in the Anti-Lebanon. This valley is celebrated for its fine grapes and vineyards. Robinson says "the wine of Helbon" is the best and most famous wine in the country, while Aleppo produces none of any special reputation.

HEL'DAI (worldly).

  1. The chief of the twelfth division of David's forces, 1 Chr 27:15.

  2. One who returned from captivity, Zech 6:10. In v. Zech 6:14 his name is written Helem.

HE'LEB (milk), or HE'LED (transient), one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:29; 1 Chr 11:30.

HE'LEK (portion), the founder of the Helekites, a Manassite family. Num 26:30.

HE'LEM (hammer).

  1. An Asherite, 1 Chr 7:35.

  2. A name mentioned in Zech 6:14.

HE'LEPH (exchange), a place on the borders of Naphtali, Josh 19:33, and which Van de Velde proposes to identify with Beitlif; Clark, with the "white promontory" south of Tyre; but these are conjectural.

HE'LEZ (loins?).

  1. One of David's "thirty." 2 Sam 23:26; 1 Chr 11:27; 1 Chr 28:10.

  2. A Judite, 1 Chr 2:39.

HE'LI (elevation), the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, Luke 3:23. The same word as Eli.

HEL'KAI (whose portion is Jehovah), a priest in the days of Jehoiakim the high priest, Neh 12:15.

HEL'KATH (portion), a Levitical city of Asher, Josh 19:25; Josh 21:31, and called Hukok in 1 Chr 6:75; probably the modern Yerka, a village 7 miles north-west of Acre.

HEL'KATH-HAZ'ZURIM (field of swords), a place near Gibeon; so called from the deadly combat mentioned in 2 Sam 2:13-17. Drake proposes to place it in the broad, smooth valley el-Askar.



  1. The Old Testament.— The Hebrew word for hell is Sheol, which corresponds to the Greek Hades, and means the under-world or the realm of the dead. It is derived by some from the root "to demand" (hence the "grasping" or "insatiable"), by others from the root "to make hollow" (comp. the German Holle with Huble), so as to mean the vast subterranean receptacle and resting-place of the dead. Sheol is variously translated in our English Bible by the terms "hell," "pit," and "grave." In many places it is rightly translated "grave." 1 Sam 2:6; Job 14:13, etc. Sheol is represented as in the depths of the earth, Job 11:8; Prov 9:18, dark, Isa 38:10, all-devouring, Prov 1:12, destitute of God's presence, Ps 88:10-12, a state of forgetfulness, Ps 6:5, insatiable, Isa 5:14, remorseless, Cant. Isa 8:6, and a place of silence, Eccl 9:10. The Hebrew notions about it were vague and indefinite. It was regarded as the place where worldly occupations, good or bad, did not enter. Eccl 9:10; Job 3:13-20. It can by no means be made out that the term refers exclusively or definitely to infernal anguish. But it no less certainly represented terror and repulsiveness to the Hebrew mind.

  2. The New Testament. — The two words translated "hell" are Hades and Gehenna. Hades occurs eleven times, and is once rendered "grave," 1 Cor 15:55; in all other places "hell." It evidently does not refer to the ultimate abode of the impenitent and the final state of exclusion from God, but to the disembodied state between death and the final judgment of the Son of man, when he shall come in his glory, Matt 16:27. After the crucifixion, our Lord descended into hades, Acts 2:27, and this is an article of the Apostles' Creed, where, however, we use wrongly the word "hell." It was in this realm that our Lord "preached to the spirits in prison," 1 Pet 3:19. See Hades.

The term Gehenna, which occurs twelve times, more nearly corresponds to our word "hell." It signified primarily the valley of Hinnom or the deep, narrow valley south of Jerusalem which had been the seat of the worship of Moloch. Jer 7:31; 2 Chr 33:6; 2 Kgs 23:10. It afterward was turned into a place for the deposit of the filth and dead animals of the city. Hence this term was applied to the final state and abode of lost souls. Matt 5:29; Ezr 10:28; Matt 23:15; Jas 3:6, etc. It is here that "their worm dieth not" and the "fire is not quenched," Matt 17:9. Into this realm the rebellious angels were cast, 2 Pet 2:4 (where the word is a derivative from "Tartarus"). At the great day of judgment the cursed shall go away into this abode and receive the everlasting punishment. Matt 25:46.

HELLENISTS, THE, were the Jews who had lost their strict and exclusive spirit by constant intercourse with the Gentiles, who habitually spoke Greek, and who read the Septuagint. They were much better qualified for the larger views of the gospel than were their Jewish brethren who lived in Palestine and spoke the Hebrew language. In the A.V. the term is rendered "Grecians." Acts 6:1; Esth 9:29; Acts 11:20. They were not necessarily outside of Palestine. The class was formed by habits of thought quite as much as by language. The term must not be confounded with Hellens, who were native Greeks in religion as well as language

HELM'ET. See Armor.

HE'LON (strong), father of Eliab, the chief of Zebulon. Num 1:9; Num 2:7; Num 7:24, Num 7:29; Neh 10:16.

HELPS, the translation in the A.V. of a word which occurs only in this place in the N.T., 1 Cor 12:28. The "helps" are a gift of the Spirit. This gift doubtless comprehends the various duties of the deacons and deaconesses of the apostolic Church, especially the care of the poor and the sick. It is found also among the laity, especially the female portion, in all ages and all branches of Christendom.

HELPS, THE, used in the storm, Acts 27:17, were chains, cables, etc., which were passed under the keel of the vessel, in order to bind the planks together.

HEM OF GARMENT. See Clothes.

HE'MAM (exterminating), a son of Lotan, Gen 36:22; called Homam in 1 Chr 1:39.

HE'MAN (trusty).

  1. A son of Zerah eminent for wisdom. 1 Chr 2:6; 1 Kgs 4:31.

2. Grandson of Samuel the prophet. 1 Chr 6:33; 1 Chr 15:17, 1 Chr 15:19; 1 Chr 16:41-42; 1 Chr 25:1, 1 Chr 25:4-6; 2 Chr 5:12; 2 Chr 29:14; 2 Chr 35:15. Ps 88 is attributed to him.

HE'MATH (heat), a person or place mentioned in 1 Chr 2:55.

HE'MATH (fortress). 1 Chr 13:5; Am 6:14. See Hamath.

HEM'DAN (pleasant), the eldest son of Dishon, Gen 36:26; called Amran in 1 Chr 1:41.

HEM'LOCK, Hos 10:4. A well-known bitter and poisonous herb, a species of which is common in the United States. The word rendered "hemlock" in the above passage and in Am 6:12 is elsewhere rendered "gall." The figurative use of it is explained by comparing the above passage with Deut 29:18; Am 5:7; Heb 12:15. The evils of perverted judgment resemble the springing up of useless and poisonous plants where we look for and expect valuable and nutritious vegetation.

HEN (favor), a son of Zephaniah, Zech 6:14.

HEN. The only place in which this word occurs is in our Lord's lament: "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!" Matt 23:37; Luke 13:34. But hens must have been common barnyard fowls, as they are to-day in Syria, where they form a chief article of food. Hen's eggs are probably meant in Luke 11:12, and if so they were very abundant. The rabbinical prohibition to keep fowls in Jerusalem was probably never enforced. The cock is mentioned in connection with Peter's denial. See Cock-crowing.

HE'NA (troubling), a city conquered by a king of Assyria, 2 Kgs 18:34; 2 Kgs 19:13; Isa 37:13; believed to be Anah, on the Euphrates, 20 miles from the site of Babylon.

HEN'ADAD (favor of Hadad), the head of a Levitical family who were prominent in rebuilding the temple and repairing the wall. Ezr 3:9;Neh 3:18, Neh 3:24; Neh 10:9.


  1. 1 Chr 1:3. See Enoch.

  2. 1 Chr 1:33. See Hanoch.

HE'PHER (a well).

  1. A Manassite. Num 26:32-33; Deut 27:1; Josh 17:2-3.

  2. A Judite, 1 Chr 4:6.

  3. One of David's warriors, 1 Chr 11:36.

HE'PHER (well, pit), a district in Palestine, probably in Judah; possibly el-Mesh-hed; taken by Joshua, Josh 12:17.

HE'PHERITES, THE, descendants of Hepher, 1. Num 26:32.

HEPH'ZIBAH (my delight is in her).

  1. The wife of Hezekiah, and mother of Manasseh, 2 Kgs 21:1.

  2. A symbolical name for restored Jerusalem, Isa 62:4.

HER'ALD, one who makes a public and formal announcement. The only reference in the A.V. to this officer is in Dan 3:4; but in the N.T. the familiarity of Paul with the Grecian games induced him to speak of the gospel-preachers as heralds; e.g. 1 Tim 2:7; 2 Tim 1:11. So Peter. 2 Pet 2:5. See Games.

HERB, a plant which, in distinction from the shrub or tree, is without true woody tissue. Herbs die to the ground, if not entirely, during the dry Oriental summer. But those of them that are biennials or perennials revive with the fall rains or in the spring. Six Hebrew words are translated by the general term before us, five of them with unquestionable correctness. The word thus rendered in 2 Kgs 4:39; Isa 18:4; Isa 26:19 involves the idea of brightness, and is perhaps some particular plant. If so, the most probable opinion is that it is colewort or some plant of the cabbage tribe. See Grass.

HERD, HERDSMAN. Nothing more strikingly brings out the contrast between the Egyptians and the Hebrews than their different estimation of the pursuit of cattle-raising. While the latter had large herds and flocks, and considered their possession and keep honorable, the former, quite as dependent upon them for food and labor, despised the herdsman as "an abomination," Gen 46:34. By the influence of Joseph his brethren were made Pharaoh's chief herdsmen, Gen 47:6. The patriarchs were great herdsmen. The occupation was not inconsistent with state honors; thus, Doeg, "the chiefest of th§ herdsmen," was high in Saul's favor, 1 Sam 21:7. David's herdmasters 376 were among his chief officers of state. In Solomon's time, although commerce decreased its relative importance, the pursuit was still extensive. Eccl 2:7; 1 Kgs 4:23. "It must have suffered greatly from the inroads of the enemies to which the country, under the later kings of Judah and Israel, was exposed. Uzziah, however, 2 Chr 26:10; and Hezekiah, 2 Chr 32:28-29, resuming command of the open country, revived it. Josiah also seems to have been rich in herds, 2 Chr 35:7-9. The prophet Amos at first followed this occupation, Am 1:1; Am 7:14."

The wealth of the Jews at all times consisted largely of cattle. The territory of the tribes across the Jordan was particularly adapted for grazing-purposes. West of the river the principal

Egyptian Herdsmen treating sick Animals. (After Wilkinson.)

feeding-grounds were Sharon, 1 Chr 27:29, the Carmel, 1 Sam 25:2, and Dothan, Gen 37:17; but doubtless all the uncultivated lands were used for this purpose. But for food they did not use, as we do, full-grown beeves, but killed the calves. Fattening for beef is indeed not practised in the East. The oxen were broken for service in the third year, Isa 15:5. When the heat had dried up all the pasture, then the oxen were stalled, Hab 3:17. Hence the figure "a stalled ox" for stately magnificence, which is used in Prov 15:17. "Calves of the stall" were watchfully cared for, Mal 4:2. Cattle feed upon foliage as well as upon grass, Ps 50:10. A mixture of various grains, as also chopped straw, is fed when the pasture gives out. See Job 6:5, "fodder;" Isa 30:24, "provender;" Gen 24:25; Isa 11:7; Isa 65:25. See Agriculture. Ox.

HE'RES (sun).

  1. Mount Heres, Jud 1:35; possibly the same as Ir-she-mesh; perhaps at, Kefe Huris.

  2. Heres, Isa 19:18 (margin), but the text reads "city of destruction." Calvin did not regard it as a proper name; Poole regards it as an Egyptian city inhabited by the Jews.

HE'RESH (artificer), a Levite, 1 Chr 9:15.

HER'ESY, Acts 24:14. _ This term, as generally used by the sacred writers, implies no judgment respecting the truth or error of the peculiar tenets but signifies a party or division. It is derived from a word meaning "to choose." The Pharisees, Acts 15:5; 26:5, and the Sadducees, Acts 5:17, as well as the Nazarenes, Acts 24:5, Acts 24:12, Lev 24:14, were denominated heresies. In these passages the word is translated "sects." In Acts 24:14, where Paul speaks of the Christian religion as "the way which they call heresy," he undoubtedly means to imply that the Christian organization was not a separation from the O.T. Church, but the true Church itself. In 1 Cor 11:19; Gal 5:20, and 2 Pet 2:1 heresies are referred to in connection with the apostolic Church, and in the last two cases the implication is that they are departures from the fundamental truth of the gospel, and to be condemned. Early in the history of the Christian Church the word acquired the signification it now has, of a departure from the fundamentals of gospel truth.

HER'MAS (Mercury, the god of gain, and the messenger of the gods), a Roman Christian whom Paul greets, Rom 16:14. Some of the fathers attributed to him the book called "The Shepherd of Hermas," a sort of Pilgrim's Progress, consisting of three parts: the first has 4 visions; the second, 12 spiritual precepts; the third, 377 10 similitudes, each setting forth some truth.

HER'MES (Mercury), according to tradition, one of the Seventy, and afterward bishop of Dalmatia, Rom 16:14.

HERMOG'ENES (begotten of Mercury), one who forsook Paul. 2 Tim 1:15.

HER'MON (prominent summit, peak, or perhaps from a root signifying "unapproachable" or "holy;" by the Sidonians Sirion, "to glitter," and by the Amorites Shenir, and by the Hebrews Sion, Deut 4:48; Ps 133:3), the high southern part of Anti-Libanus, about 40 miles east of north of the Sea of Galilee, and 30 miles south of west of Damascus, and now called Jebelesk-Sheikh, or "the chief mountain." It has three peaks or summits, hence called "the Herinons;" incorrectly rendered "the Hermonites," Ps 42:6. Hermon was the northern limit of the territory of Israel beyond the Jordan, Deut 3:8; Deut 4:48; Josh 11:3, 1 Kgs 11:17; Acts 13:11. Hermon and Tabor are the representatives of all the mountains of the Promised Land, Ps 89:12; Ps 42:6; Ps 133:3. Some of the names of Hermon may refer to different peaks of the mountain, Deut 3:9; Song 4:8; 1 Chr 5:23. Hermon rises to an elevation of 9000 feet above the Mediterranean. The top is partially crowned with snow, or rather ice, during the whole year, which, however, lies only in the ravines, and thus presents at a distance the appearance of radiant stripes around and below the summit. The high ridge Jebel-ed-Duhy, on the north of the valley of Jezreel, is sometimes called the Little Hermon, but Jebel-esh-Sheikh is the true and only Hermon of the Scriptures. See cut p. 371.

Physical Features. — Schaff calls Hermon "the Mont Blanc of Palestine." The mountain constitutes a part of the great Anti-Lebanon range, running from northeast to south-west for over 30 miles. Its rock-formation is hard limestone, covered at places with soft chalk, while basalt appears in some-spurs. The top of the mountain may be described as consisting of three peaks or summits, of which two are approximately north and south, about 400 yards apart, and of almost equal height, being joined by a flat plateau depressed in the middle.

The third peak, 600 yards to the west, is about 100 feet lower, and divided by a valley-head from the former. This is called El Mutabkhiyat, "place of cooking." The two principal peaks are each 9053 feet above the level of the sea and 11,000 feet above the Ghor or Jordan depression. No ruins are found, except on the southern peak, where is a hollow bounded by an oval enclosure of stones well hewn. At its southern end is a sacellum, or temple, nearly destroyed. — See Our Work in Palestine, p. 245. In winter the snow extends down the mountain-side for about 5000 feet; it melts as summer advances, until in September only a little is left in the crevices and shaded hollows. In November the snow begins to cover the mountain again. Hence the best time for the ascent is from June to early autumn. Bears are frequently seen on Mount Hermon, and foxes, wolves, and various kinds of game abound. Porter describes the sides and top of Hermon as the acme of barren desolation; but Tristram, visiting it at a different season, found "many boreal forms of life both in fauna and flora," and from Hermon added 50 species to his catalogue of plants. — See Tristram, Land of Israel, p. 613. The view from the summit is one of vast extent, embracing a great part of the Holy Land, "which lies far below, spread out like a gigantic relief-map." The traveller may look down upon Sidon, Tyre, the Mediterranean, Mount Carmel, Gerizim, the hills about Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, Gilead and Nebo, the Jordan Valley, Gennesaret, Damascus, Lebanon, etc.

Bible History. — Mount Hermon was a great landmark to the Israelites, as it marked their north-eastern boundary. Deut 3:8; Josh 12:1. Joshua extended his conquest nearly to that point. Josh 11:17. The Hebrews extolled its majestic height, Ps 89:12, and its copious dew, Ps 133:4. Modern travellers note the abundant dews, which drench everything, and from which tents afford small protection. These abundant dews are accounted for by the fact that in the daytime the hot air comes streaming up the Ghor from Lake Huleh, while Hermon arrests the moisture and deposits it congealed at night.

Hermon is not mentioned in the N.T., 378 but it is probably the site of the transfiguration of Christ, Matt 17; Mark 9, and answers the description of "a high mountain apart." Conder notes it as a curious observation that "on the summit of Hermon there is often a sudden accumulation of cloud, as quickly again dispersed, often visible when the remainder of the atmosphere is perfectly clear. . . . We cannot fail to be reminded in this phenomenon of 'the cloud that overshadowed' the apostles." Caesarea Philippi, where Christ was just before the transfiguration, is at the foot of Hermon, and there are several retired places on the mountain-side where it might well have occurred. It fits into the points of the narrative in the Gospels far better than Tabor, where the monastic tradition (Greek and Latin) locates this wonderful event. See Tabor.

HERMONITES, THE, properly "the Hermons," referring to the three peaks of Hermon, Ps 42:6-7.


  1. Herod the Great, king of Judaea, b.c. 40- b.c. 4. In his reign Christ was born. Matt 2:1-18. He was a man of unusual executive ability, of iron will, of consummate shrewdness and cunning, but of violent

Bronze Coin of Herod the Great.

passions, and cruel and unscrupulous in the choice of means to accomplish his designs. He was by descent an Idumaean and the son of Antipater, who had been appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea, b.c. 47. At the age of 25, Herod was made governor of Galilee, subsequently appointed tetrarch of Judaea by Antony, b.c. 40, and afterward, by the Roman senate, king of Judaea. He was obliged to fight for his kingdom, and with the aid of the Romans wrested it out of the hands of his enemies. Antigonus, the high priest, and the last representative of the Asmonaean family in that office, was taken and executed, a.d. 37, Herod's reign was in one sense a most brilliant one. Following the example of the Roman emperor Augustus, he lavished vast sums of money on public works. He founded and built a beautiful city on the coast, which he named, after his royal master, Caesarea. He also rebuilt the city of Samaria, which had been completely destroyed, b.c. 109, and gave it the new appellation Sebaste. In Jerusalem and its vicinity he erected a theatre and an amphitheatre, and on the borders of his kingdom built some strong fortresses, as Herodeion. His magnificence, however, did not confine itself to his own kingdom, but overleaping its boundaries founded temples in various parts of the Roman empire. But the most important building to which Herod gave his money was the temple at Jerusalem. Out of deference to the prejudices of the Jewish people he engaged 1000 priests to work upon the temple itself, while hundreds of other workmen were employed upon the other parts. The work was begun b.c. 20, and continued long after his death. John 2:20. While, by a shrewd respect for the prejudices of his subjects, Herod flattered them into periodical displays of contentment, he was not a popular sovereign. He was, after all, a foreigner, and the Hebrew people could not become reconciled to his dominion and that of Caesar. In many ways he offended them, as by the introduction of the theatre and of games after the model of the Grecian games.

In his family life Herod displayed the most cruel and barbarous nature. He had ten wives and several sons; and in reference to his conduct toward them Augustus made the remark, "I would rather be his swine than his son." He committed the most revolting murders amongst his nearest kin. Among the victims of his rage and suspicion were the brother, grandfather (Hyrcanus, b.c. 30), and mother of Mariamne, his wife, Mariamne herself, b.c. 29, his two sons by her, Aristobulus and Alexander, b.c. 7, and his son by Doris, Antipater, only a few days before his death. To this frightful list must be added the innocent children of Bethlehem, whom he had murdered in the hope to thus do away with Jesus, Matt 2:16. When he was dying he ordered 379 that the chief men of all the cities of Judaea should be killed, in order that there might be some mourning at his death.

After a long reign of 37 years, Herod died a miserable death in Jericho. His feet swelled, and his bowels became the victim of ulcers which gave him intense pain. He removed to Callirhoe, on the other side of the Jordan, hoping to get relief in the baths. All was of no avail, and he died, nearly 70 years of age, and unregretted by his family, much less by his subjects.

The wise men of the East had an audience with Herod on their arrival in Jerusalem, and, alarmed by their interest in One "born King of the Jews," he took the precautions which cunning could suggest, and cruelty execute to do away with his rival. Matt 2:8, Heb 2:16.

  1. Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, Luke 3:1, b.c. 4-a.d. 39. He was the second son of Herod by his fourth wife, Malthace. Like his father, he was ambitious and fond of ostentation. Our Lord refers to his cunning when he terms him "that fox," Luke 13:32. He also lavished large sums of money on public works, and built Tiberias, so called after the Roman emperor Tiberius. Induced thereto by his wife, Herodias, he went to Rome to secure the title of king. Charged, however, with crimes, he was deposed from his office by Caligula, and banished to Lyons.

Herod Antipas is mentioned at least five times in the N.T. He is brought the most prominently forward in the history of John the Baptist. The prophet denounced the adulterous relation in which he was living with Herodias, the legal wife of Herod Philip (not the tetrarch Philip, who married Salome), his brother. Herod listened with pleasure to John, but, instigated by his wife, he put him in prison, and in obedience to a rash oath to Salome, although with hesitating will, had him beheaded, Mark 6:16-28. Herod was also one of the judges before whom our Lord appeared at his trial. He happened to be at Jerusalem for the feast of the Passover, and Pilate sent Christ to him, as he was a Galilean. Herod was very desirous to see Jesus, having heard of him before, Mark 6:14, and asked many questions, none of which, however, were answered, Luke 23:7-12. This incident is again referred to Acts 4:27. From the Gospels we get his character as a votary of pleasure and debauchery, Mark 6:22; superstitious, Mark 6:16; and cunning, Luke 13:32.

  1. Archelaus, b.c. 4- a.d. 6, ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea. He was the son of Herod by Malthace, and elder brother of Antipas. Herod the Great, his father, left the "kingdom" to him, but Augustus refused to ratify the will, and put him off with the inferior title ethnarch. He was tyrannical toward his subjects and regardless of their prejudices, marrying his stepbrother's wife, Glaphyra, in violation of the Mosaic Law. He was accused, and, cited to appear at Rome, was deposed from his office and banished to Vienne in Gaul. There is only one mention of Archelaus in the N.T., Matt 2:22.

  2. Philip, tetrarch of Gaulonitis, Auranitis, etc., b.c. 4-a.d. 34. He was the son of Herod the Great by his fifth wife, Cleopatra, but unlike the rest of his family was distinguished for justice and moderation. He married his niece Salome, the daughter of Herodias and his brother Herod (Philip), who was the young woman that danced before Herod Antipas. Philip is referred to once in the N.T., Luke 3:1.

  3. Herod Philip was the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne, the daughter of Simon the high priest. He was the first husband of Herodias, and is called Philip in Mark 6:17. He seems to have occupied a private station.

  4. Herod Agrippa I., king, a.d. 37-44, first of the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias,

Coin of Herod Agrippa I.

and finally of a dominion equal in extent to that of Herod the Great. He was the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus (murdered b.c. 7). Educated at Rome and thrown into prison by Tiberius, he gained the favor of the emperor Caligula, who made 380 him king. He observed the ceremonial of the Pharisees and affected piety. As the representative of the Jewish spirit,

he persecuted the apostles, beheaded James, and sought to execute Peter, Acts 12:1-19.

  1. Herod Agrippa II., a.d. 50-100, king of the tetrarchies formerly under Philip and Lysanias. He was the brother of Bernice and Drusilla. Paul appeared before him and narrated the history of his conversion. His words in answer to Paul's question have become proverbial: "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian," Acts 26:28.

HERO'DIANS, a Jewish political party, originating probably in devotion toward the Roman emperor and Herod, his deputy. Matt 22:16. They were the court-party and submitted willingly to the government of Rome, and were thus at the opposite pole from the Pharisees. It may be that some of them were among those who regarded Herod as the Messiah. They coalesced with the Pharisees in the attempt to destroy Christ, Mark 3:6; Matt 22:16, and are probably referred to in the expression "leaven of Herod," Mark 8:15.

HERO'DIAS, the granddaughter of Herod the Great, and mother of Salome, Matt 14:3. She first married her uncle, Herod Philip, and afterward Herod Antipas, another uncle, and that too during her first husband's lifetime. For this unlawful and scandalous connection John the Baptist faithfully reproved the parties, and his fidelity cost him his life, Matt 14:3-10. When her husband, Antipas, was banished to Lyons, she shared his banishment with him.

HERO'DION, a "kinsman" of Paul, whom he greets, Rom 16:11.

HEREON. Lev 11:19; Deut 14:18. At least seven species of heron are found in Palestine. These well-known birds frequent marshes and rivers, in which their long legs fit them to wade, and from which they obtain their food of fish, frogs, and insects. Most critics hold that the bird of the above references was not the heron, but Tristram, one of the latest and best, sustains the reading of the A.V.

HE'SED (kindness), the father of one of Solomon's commissariat officers, 1 Kgs 4:10.

HESH'BON (reason, device), a city originally belonging to the Moabites, but taken by Sihon, king of the Amorites, and made his capital; captured and occupied by the Israelites, Num 21:25-26; situated on the boundary 381 between Reuben and Gad; rebuilt by Reuben and made a Levitical city, then being territorially a Gadite city. Num 32:3, Num 32:37; Deut 1:4; Deut 2:24-30; 2 Sam 3:2,Deut 3:6; Deut 4:46; Deut 29:7; Josh 9:10; 1 Kgs 12:2, Josh 12:5; Josh 13:10-27; Acts 21:39; Jud 11:19, Jud 11:26; 1 Chr 6:81. In later times the Moabites regained possession of Heshbon, so that it is mentioned as a Moabitish town in the prophetic denunciations against that people, Isa 15:4; Isa 16:8-9; Jer 48:2, Jer 48:34, Jer 48:45; Jer 49:3.

The ruins of the city still exist some 15 miles east of the northern end of the Dead Sea, on the great table-land of Moab. A small hill rises 200 feet above the general level, and upon this is Heshbon, now called Heshbun. The whole city must have had a circuit of about a mile. The hill is described as "one heap of shapeless ruin." "Jewish stones, Roman arches, Doric pillars, and Saracenic arches are all strangely mingled." -See Tristram, Land of Israel, p. 544. The site was admirably adapted for the capital of a warlike people. It was the key both to the plain of the Jordan and to the mountains of Gilead. East of the city are the remains of water-courses and an enormous cistern, or "fish-pond," which illustrates Cant. Acts 7:4.

HESH'MON (fertility), a town named with others as lying in the south of Judah, Josh 15:27. Wilton connects it with Husham, an Edomite king, Gen 36:34-35, and with 'Ain Hash, perhaps Hashmonah of Num 33:29-30, but Conder identifies Heshmon with a site called el-Meshash ("the pits"), which has two wells and is on the road from Beer-sheba to Moladah.

HES'RON, HES'RONITES. See Hezron, Hezronites.

HETH (terror), one of the sons of Canaan, of the family of Ham, and progenitor of the Hittites. Gen 10:15; Gen 23:3,Gen 23:5,Gen 23:7,Acts 23:10,Gen 23:16,Gen 23:18,Gen 23:20; Gen 25:10; Gen 27:46; Gen 49:32; 1 Chr 1:13. See Hittites.

HETH'LON (hiding-place), the name of a place on the northern border of Palestine, Ezr 47:15; Eze 48:1. In all probability the "way of Hethlon" is the pass at the northern end of Lebanon, and is thus identical with "the entrance of Hamath" in Num 34:8. See Hamath.

HEZ'EKI (strong), a Benjamite, 1 Chr 8:17.

HEZEKI'AH (strength of Jehovah).

  1. A distinguished king of Judah, the son and successor of the apostate Ahaz. He ascended the throne b.c. 726, at the age of 25, and ruled 29 years, till b.c. 697. He was one of the three best kings of Judah, and an eminently godly man. 2 Kgs 18:5; 2 Chr 29:2. He restored the Mosaic institutions to honor. He accomplished the abolition of idolworship in his kingdom, 2 Kgs 18:4, 2 Kgs 18:22, and tore down the high places, which had been dedicated to idolatry. He also broke in pieces the brazen serpent of Moses, which had become the object of idolatrous regard, 2 Kgs 18:4. During his reign the temple was repaired, 2 Chr 29:3 sqq., and the Passover celebrated with festivities that had not been equalled for magnificence and solemnity since the days of Solomon and David, 2 Chr 30:26. A proclamation was sent from Dan to Beersheba inviting the tribes to come to Jerusalem to keep the Passover, 2 Chr 30:5, and as a result of the convocation a national religious zeal broke out, 2 Chr 31:1. Another illustration of Hezekiah's godly zeal in the cause of religion is found in the high esteem in which he held Isaiah the prophet, whom he frequently consulted, 2 Kgs 19:3; Isa 37:2.

The political career of Hezekiah was an active one. He warred against the Philistines, and regained what his father had lost, 2 Kgs 18:8. He rebelled against the domination of Assyria, 2 Kgs 18:7. In the fourteenth year of his reign Sennacherib invaded his kingdom with an immense army. Rabshakeh was sent out in advance, and endeavored to intimidate Hezekiah into submission, and insolently insulted him under the walls, 2 Kgs 18:19 sqq. Hezekiah had recourse to Isaiah, who gave assurance of the assistance of the Lord, 2 Kgs 19:6. The prediction came true, and by a sudden judgment of the Almighty the Assyrian host was decimated and put to flight, 2 Kgs 19:35. This event is referred to by the three historians of Hezekiah's reign as a supernatural event. 2 Kgs 19:35; 2 Chr 32:21; Isa 37:36. Hezekiah formed an alliance with Egypt, 2 Kgs 18:21, and was rich and prosperous. 2 Kgs 18:7; 2 Chr 32:27-29. In the events of his private life, one 382 is noted of peculiar significance. The king became sick unto death, and Isaiah uttered his doom in the words, "Thou shalt die, and not live," 2 Kgs 20:1. Turning his face to the wall, he lamented the event and prayed God to avert it. Isaiah, passing out into the court, was checked by the word of the Lord, and commanded to return and to announce the prolongation of the king's life 15 years, 2 Kgs 20:5. As a sign of the cure the dial was made to go back ten degrees, 2 Kgs 20:10. Another event of note in Hezekiah's life was the punishment pronounced upon his house by Isaiah, 2 Kgs 20:17, for the display he made of his riches to the messengers of the king of Babylon, who had come to congratulate him upon his recovery. Hezekiah died in honor and was buried in the "highest of the sepulchres of the sons of David," 2 Chr 32:33.

  1. A descendant of the royal house of Judah, 1 Chr 3:23.

  2. Ezr 2:16; Neh 7:21. See Ater.

HE'ZION (sight), grandfather of Benhadad, and king of Aram (Syria), 1 Kgs 15:18.

HE'ZIR (a swine).

  1. A priestly chief, 1 Chr 24:15.

  2. One who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:20.

HEZ'RAI (enclosed), one of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:35; called Hezro in 1 Chr 11:37.

HEZ'RON. 1. A son of Reuben. Gen 46:9; Ex 6:14; 1 Chr 5:3.

  1. A son of Phares. Gen 46:12; Ruth 4:18; 1 Chr 2:9.

HEZ'RON, Josh 15:25. See Hazor, 4.


1, 2. Two families in Reuben and Judah, Num 26:6,Num 26:21.

HID'DAI (joyful), one of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:30; in 1 Chr 11:52 called Hurai.

HID'DEKEL (rapid Tigris), a celebrated river of western Asia, the third of the rivers which issued from the garden of Eden. It is said to flow east to Assyria, Gen 2:14; Dan 10:4; is called in the ancient Zend language Teger ("stream"), whence the name "Tigris." Like its twin river, the Euphrates, it has in the Armenian territory numerous sources. The western branches, which form the principal stream, spring from the southern slope of the Anti-Taurus, at no great distance from the sources of the Araxes, the Euphrates, and the Halys, and form a junction not far from Diarbekir. The eastern branch is formed by the union of several streams having their sources in the districts of Mukus and Shattak, and farther eastward, in the mountains of Kurdistan. The eastern and western branches of the Tigris unite at Tilleh, whence the river rushes through a long, narrow, and deep gorge to the low country of Assyria. At Mosul, opposite the site of Nineveh, the river is about 300 feet wide, and when swollen by rains or the melting of the mountain snows becomes impetuous, flooding the lower country, and sometimes destroying the bridges of boats. The river receives several important tributaries, and between Mosul and Baghdad passes over several ledges of limestone rocks, which form rapids of greater or less importance. In the latter part of its course it averages 600 feet in width, frequently 15 or 20 feet in depth, and during a sudden rise flows about 5 miles an hour; but in passing over the alluvial plain, the current is often less than 1 mile an hour. At Kurnah the Euphrates and the Tigris unite; the combined stream receives the name of Shat-el-Arah, which, after a course of about 120 miles, falls into the Persian Gulf. The whole course of the Tigris to its junction with the Euphrates is about 1146 miles. The Tigris is navigable for vessels drawing from 3 to 4 feet of water, from the Persian Gulf almost as far as Tekrit, a distance of nearly 600 miles. There is an active commerce along the river between Basrah and Baghdad by means of the large country-boats, which go in fleets; above the latter city it is chiefly carried on by rafts from Mosul. The Euphrates expedition ascended the Tigris to beyond Dokhalah, and the Euphrates steamer passed from the Euphrates to the Tigris by the ancient canal, which leaves the former several miles below Hit, and enters the latter a short way below Baghdad. The banks of the Tigris, on which stood Nineveh and other populous cities once the seats of high culture and the residence of mighty kings, are now covered with mounds and ruins, the relics of ancient greatness. 383 There is scarcely one permanent settlement on the banks of the Tigris from Jezivah to the immediate vicinity of Baghdad, with the exception of Mosul and Tekrit. See Assyria, Euphrates, and Tigris.

HI'EL (God lives), a Bethelite who rebuilt Jericho in the reign of Ahab, and in whom Joshua's curse, Josh 6:26, was fulfilled. 1 Kgs 16:34.

HIERAP'OLIS(sacred city),a city in Proconsular Asia, Col 4:13, near the river Lycus, and in sight of Laodicea, which was about 5 miles to the south. It stood on a high bluff, with a high mountain behind it. In the city was the famous temple of Pluto, remains of which are still to be seen. The ruins of the city are extensive, among which are the remains of temples, churches, a triumphal arch, a theatre, gymnasium, baths, and highly ornamented sarcophagi. Hierapolis was celebrated for its warm springs, which hold in solution carbonate of lime, depositing incrustations on anything with which the waters come in contact. It is now called Pambouk Kalessi.

HIGGA'ION, a term occurring three times, Ps 9:16; Ps 19:14 (translated "meditation"), and Ps 92:3 (translated "solemn sound"). It probably was originally a musical term which acquired the additional signification of solemn thought or meditation.

HIGH' PLACES. The notion of heaven as the dwelling-place of God led naturally to the thought that the higher one rose above the level ground the nearer one came to God. This deduction lay at the base of the systematic use of hills and mountaintops for religious worship, Trojans sacrificed to Zeus (Jupiter) on Mount Ida; Greeks, Persians, Germans, and many other nations followed the custom. We are therefore prepared to find the Bible containing notices of the "high places," as these altars were called. The patriarchs offered their sacrifices wherever they pitched their tents. Gen 12:7-8; Gen 26:25; Gen 28:18, but even they sometimes sacrificed upon the mountains. Gen 22:2; Gen 31:54. The Moabites, Num 22:41; Num 23:14, Num 23:28; Isa 15:2; Jer 48:35, and the Canaanites. Num 33:52; Deut 12:2, are often mentioned in the Bible as habitual sacrificers upon the high places. But not only these idolaters, but Moses also — although it might seem to be an imitation of the heathen — at the command of God or of his own accord, chose the mountains for religious purposes. Ex 17:15; Num 20:25. It will be remembered that the first altar erected to Jehovah in the Holy Land was upon Mount Ebal. Deut 27:5; Josh 8:30. The Israelites found that all prominent points had been consecrated by the former inhabitants for idol-worship, and they used the same localities in the Jehovah-worship. There was, however, an express direction given in respect to selecting places of worship. Deut 12:11-14. But their course, (though in the beginning innocent) was a fatal snare. It was perhaps impossible to worship Jehovah purely amidst the suggestions of the former impurity which those high places called up, so in the books of Moses we find strict commands to destroy them. Lev 26:30; Num 33:52; Deut 33:29. Israel is directed to repair unto the one altar of burnt-offering. Deut 12:5-6; Deut 16:21. But on the other hand, an earlier law, Ex 20:24 ff., gave the people directions how to build altars, as if there might be really more than one. And it is certain that the Deuteronomic regulation was violated, at least in letter, for Gideon, Jud 6:25-26, Samuel at Mizpeh, 1 Sam 7:10, at an unnamed high place, 9:12, and at Bethlehem, 1 Sam 16:5; Saul at Gilgal, 1 Sam 13:9, David, 1 Chr 21:26, Elijah on Mount Carmel, 1 Kgs 18:30, and other prophets, 1 Sam 10:5, offered sacrifices away from the tabernacle, and even upon high places. To account for this strange anomaly some suggest that the command already alluded to was "prospective, and was not to come into force until such time as the tribes were settled in the Promised Land, and had rest from all their neighbors round about." Others plead the inconvenience, or in all probability at times the impossibility, of coming up to Jerusalem, as an excuse. But it should be borne in mind that in the above-mentioned incidents there was either a divine command or a divine sanction. The Rabbins declare that for the greater part of the time before the building of the temple it was allowable to offer sacrifices upon the high places. 2 Sam 15:32; 384 cf. 1 Kgs 3:2. Whatever may be the explanation, the worship on the high places gratified a popular demand, and God did not punish them for this violation of the command in Deuteronomy. Elijah, indeed, complains because so many altars of Jehovah were thrown down, 1 Kgs 19:10. They formed local centres of religion; indeed, there is a resemblance in this respect between them and the synagogues. Solomon, however, took a step downward in this matter, he gave the sanction of his example to the erection of high places, not only for Jehovah, but for heathen divinities, 1 Kgs 11:7-8. The idolatry of the capital found imitators. When Jeroboam would strengthen himself against the attraction of Jerusalem, he erected calves at the high places of Dan and Bethel, 1 Kgs 12:29-31. From that time the Jews of the northern kingdom used the high places as places of worship, both of Jehovah and of false gods. In Judah the worship of Jehovah on the high places continued. Even the pious kings — Asa, 1 Kgs 15:14, Jehoshaphat, 1 Kgs 22:43, Jehoash, 2 Kgs 12:3, Aniaziah, 2 Kgs 14:4, Azariah, 2 Kgs 15:4, Jotham, 2 Kgs 15:35 — made no attempt to remove it, although their failure to do so constitutes a stock charge against them by the writers of the books of the Kings. But in Chronicles, Asa and Jehoshaphat, 2 Chr 14:3; 2 Chr 17:6; 2 Chr 20:33, are both stated to have taken away the high places. The discrepancy is removed by supposing these kings really did remove the high places used for idolatrous worship, but found themselves unable to remove those dedicated to Jehovah. Meanwhile, the prophets, among whom were Amos 7:9; Hosea 10:8 and Micah 1:5, lifted up their denunciations against the practice. At last Hezekiah set himself vigorously against the high places, 2 Kgs 18:4. But it was reserved to Josiah to uproot the evil. The nation, under the recently-discovered book of the Law (Deuteronomy), for the first time, perhaps, realized how sinful their practice had been, and therefore joined the king in destroying all traces of it. 2 Kgs 23:5. After the time of Josiah there is no mention of Jehovistic high places, although the later prophets speak of idolatrous high places. Jer 17:3; Eze 6:6.

The high places had their particular priests. 1 Kgs 12:31; 2 Kgs 17:32; 2 Kgs 23:8 ff. The worship thereat consisted both in sacrifices and offerings. Upon them was an altar, which is distinguished from the high place, 2 Kgs 23:15, and about them, in some cases at least, a structure called the "house of the high place." 1 Kgs 12:31; 1 Kgs 13:32; 2 Kgs 23:19. This gave them a temple-like appearance. The word for "high place" was occasionally transferred to such a temple or shrine, and therefore a "high place" in a valley, Jer 7:31, or in the city's streets is spoken of. Eze 16:31.

HIGH' PRIEST, the head of the Jewish priesthood, Lev 21:10. Aaron was the first to hold the office, Ex 28:1, and his descendants filled it after him. Eleazar was his immediate successor, Num 3:32; Num 20:28; Deut 10:6, and the priesthood remained in his family till Eli, 1 Chr 24:3, 1 Chr 24:6, who was of the house of Ithamar.

The office of the high priest was originally held for life. This rule was disregarded by Solomon, who appointed Zadok and deposed Abiathar, 1 Kgs 2:35, because he had espoused the cause of Adonijah, 1 Kgs 1:7, 1 Kgs 1:25.

In the years succeeding the close of the canon the office became a tool in the hands of the rulers of the land. Herod particularly and his successors disregarded the tradition of the Jews on this point. This people, who held the ofiice so sacred, now often begged their rulers to remove the incumbents, who were parasites of the throne. Herod appointed no less than five high priests himself, and one of them, Simon, as the price of his daughter in marriage. We consequently read in the N.T. of several high priests living at the same time, and Annas and Caiaphas are particularly mentioned, Luke 3:2.

The services of consecration were prolonged, lasting 7 days, Ex 29:35. and elaborate. They consisted of sacrifices, Ex 29; of anointing with oil, Ex 29:7; Ex 30:22-33; Lev 21:10; and of putting on of garments, Ex 29:5-6, Ex 29:8-9.

The dress of the high priest was much more costly and magnificent than that of the inferior order of priests. It is described Ex 39:1-9. In the cut are seen the robe and ephod, the latter of 385 which is outermost of all, and is curiously wrought with gold wire and blue, purple, and scarlet thread. Upon either shoulder is seen an onyx-stone, on each of which were engraved the names of six of the tribes of Israel. The breastplate is also seen, with a wrought chain of

High Priest. Priest.

gold attached to each corner, and passing under the arms and over the shoulder. See Breastplate.

The mitre, or head-dress, is formed of eight yards of fine linen, in circular folds, and inscribed in front, upon a plate of pure gold, Holiness to the Lord. The fringe or hem of the robe, and the bells suspended from it, are also seen.

The dress of the high priest on the day of expiation was very plain and simple, consisting only of plain linen, with a sash or girdle. Hence these were called by the Jews the priest's "white garments," etc.; the former, "garments of gold."

Functions. — The high priest's most solemn, peculiar, and exclusive duty was to offciate in the most holy place on the great day of atonement, Heb 9:7, Heb 9:25. See Atonement, Day of. In Lev 16 we have a full account of this most interesting service and the imposing ceremonies which preceded it. The high priest might at any time perform the duties assigned to the ordinary priests. He was in general the overseer of the temple, 2 Kgs 12:10, and at the time of our Lord presided over the Sanhedrin. Acts 5:17; John 18:13-14, etc.

Jesus is the great High Priest, who once for all sprinkled with his own blood the threshold of the holy of holies (heaven), where he ever liveth to make intercession for us. Heb 4:14; Neh 7:25; Heb 9:12, etc.

HIGH'WAYS. At the present time there are no roads in Palestine except the remains of those the Romans made. But inasmuch as the ancient Jews used carts and chariots, there must have been roads in that day. Gen 45:19-20; Josh 17:16; Jud 4:13; 2 Kgs 10:16; Acts 8:28. The highways or more frequented tracks are distinguished from the hedges or the narrow paths between the hedges of a vineyard by our Lord in the familiar parable of the Marriage-supper, Luke 14:23. See Hedge, Field.

HI'LEN (place of caves ?), a city of the sons of Aaron in Judah, 1 Chr 6:58; named Holon in Josh 15:51; Josh 21:15.

HILKI'AH (the Lord is my portion).

  1. The father of Eliakim. 2 Kgs 18:18; Isa 22:20; Gen 36:3, Isa 36:22.

  2. The high priest in the reign of Josiah, who accidentally, while "summing up" the silver in the temple, found the book of the Law, 2 Kgs 22:8.

3, 4. Two Merarite Levites. 1 Chr 6:45; 1 Chr 26:11.

  1. One who stood by Ezra during the reading of the Law, Neh 8:4.

  2. A priest who returned with Zerubbabel, Neh 12:7, Neh 12:21.

  3. The father of the prophet Jeremiah, Jer 1:1.

  4. The father of one of Zedekiah's ambassadors to Nebuchadnezzar, Jer 29:3.


HIL'LEL (praise), father of Abdon, one of the judges of Israel, Jud 12:13, Jud 12:15.

HILL, HILLS. There is some confusion in the use of "hill" and "mountain" in the A.V. Thus the "hill country" of Luke 1:39 is the "mountain of Judah," Josh 20:7. Again, precisely the same elevation is called both mountain and hill, Luke 9:28; cf. 1 Chr 9:37. But the original text is exact, employing words of quite different meaning to express the different elevations of hills and mountains. See Palestine, Mountain.


HILL OF ZION. See Zion, Jerusalem.

HIN. See Measures.

HIND. See Hart.

HING'ES. The translation of two Hebrew words. The hinges of Prov 26:14; were probably the pivots inserted in sockets, both above and below, upon which Oriental doors are even now hung. The hinges of 1 Kgs 7:50 were "probably of the Egyptian kind, attached to the upper and lower sides of the door."

HIN'NOM, a valley to the south and west of Jerusalem, called also "the valley of the son," or "children, of Hinnom," or "valley of the children of groaning," a deep and narrow ravine with steep, rocky sides separating Mount Zion to the north from the "hill of evil counsel," and the sloping rocky plateau of the "plain of Rephaim" to the south. The south-eastern portion of the valley was called Tophet, or "place of fire," Jer 7:31; 2 Kgs 23:10, and the "valley of slaughter," Jer 7:32; Jer 19:6.

The earliest mention of the Valley of Hinnom is in Josh 15:8; Josh 18:16, where the boundary-line between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin is described as passing along the bed of the ravine. On the southern brow, overlooking the valley at its eastern extremity, Solomon erected high places for Molech, 1 Kgs 11:7, whose horrid rites were revived from time to time in the same vicinity by the later idolatrous kings. Ahaz and Manasseh made their children "pass through the fire" in this valley, 2 Kgs 16:3; 2 Chr 28:3; 2 Chr 33:6, and the fiendish custom of infant sacrifice to the fire-gods seems to have been kept up in Tophet. To put an end to these sacrifices, Josiah polluted the place by spreading over it human bones and other corruptions, 2 Kgs 23:10, 2 Kgs 23:13-14; 2 Chr 34:4-5, from which time it appears to have become the common cesspool of the city, into which its sewage was conducted, to be carried off by the waters of the Kedron.

From its ceremonial defilement, and from the detested and abominable fire of Molech, if not from the supposed ever-burning funeral piles, the later Jews applied the name of this valley, Ge Hinnom, Gehenna, to denote the place of eternal torment. In this sense the word is used in the Gospels. Matt 6:29; Ezr 10:28; Matt 23:15;Mark 9:43; Luke 12:5. It is now Wadi Rababeh.

The valley has usually been described as beginning at the north-west of Jerusalem and extending south 1 1/4 miles, turns east between Zion and the hill of evil counsel, passing through a deep gorge and joining the Kedron. South of the valley is a steep hillside, rocky and full of sepulchres, the traditional site of Aceldama, or "field of blood." Warren, however, identifies Hinnom with the Kedron valley east of Jerusalem (Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 239), and Stanley accepts this view (Ibid.,p. 14). Prof. Socin in Baedeker's Handbook, 1876 dissents from this location, and holds to the former identification of Hinnom.

HI'RAH (noble birth), an Adullamite, the friend of Judah, Gen 38:1, Gen 38:12, Eze 38:20.

HI'RAM (noble).

  1. A distinguished king of Tyre. He was contemporary with David and Solomon, and on terms of political and personal friendship with them. Under his reign the city of Tyre became celebrated for its wealth and magnificence, and the vast supplies he furnished to the kings of Israel show the greatness of his resources. He aided David with materials for a palace, 2 Sam 5:11; 1 Chr 14:1, and Solomon in the construction of the temple, 1 Kgs 5:1-12; 1 Kgs 9:11-14, furnishing workmen as well as materials. He also allowed Solomon to send ships with the Tyrian ships under Tyrian management. 1 Kgs 9:26-28; 1 Kgs 10:11-28.

  2. An eminent artificer of Tyre who was employed by Solomon on some of the most difficult of the fixtures and furniture of the temple, 1 Kgs 7:13.

HIRE'LING, one who is employed on hire for a limited time, as a day or year, Job 14:6. By the Levitical law such a one was to be paid his wages daily. Lev 19:13. "The years of a hireling" were years exactly reckoned, since the hireling would know the day of his release, and the master would not let him go a day too soon. Isa 16:14; Josh 21:16. The little interest which would be felt by such a temporary laborer, compared with that of the shepherd orpermanent keeper of the flock, furnishes a striking illustration in one of our Lord's discourses, John 10:12-13. 387 HIS is often used in the A.V. instead of its. In one sentence this fact has misled many. Thus: "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness," Matt 6:33. The "his" refers to God, not to kingdom.

HISS. To hiss at one is used as an expression of insult and contempt, 1 Kgs 9:8; Jer 19:8; Eze 27:36; Mic 6:16. and also denotes "to call by whistling." Isa 5:26; Isa 7:18; Zech 10:8.

HIT'TITES, the posterity of Heth, the second son of Canaan. Their settlements were at first in the southern part of Judaea, near Hebron, Gen 23:3, and later, when the spies enter the land, they find them dwelling in the mountains. It was from the Hittites that Abraham purchased Machpelah for a sepulchre. Gen 23:3-13; and in this transaction they are represented as a commercial rather than a warlike people. Esau married two Hittite women. Gen 26:34-35; from all which we gather that they were on terms of intimacy with the family of Abraham. Later in the history of Israel they seem to have lost their national integrity, although the name was not forgotten, Ezr 9:1-2.

HIT'TITES, LAND OF THE, the region peopled by the descendants of Cheth (A.V. "Heth"), the second son of Canaan. They were first settled about Machpelah, at a place named Kirjath-arba, afterward called Hebron. Gen 23:19; Gen 25:9. When the Israelites entered the Promised Land the Hittites took part against the invaders in equal alliance with the other Canaanite tribes. Josh 9:1; Josh 11:3. After this the notices of the Hittites are very few. Of the extent of their country nothing is known, except that it covered the portion of Canaan between the wilderness of Paran on the south and the region occupied by the Jebusites on the north. Notices of the nation have recently been found in Assyrian inscriptions, and occur in Egyptian annals. See Canaan.

HI'VITES, a people descended from Canaan, Gen 10:17. When Jacob returned to the land of his fathers he found them settled there. One of them, Hamor, defiled Dinah, for which a speedy retribution was visited upon their city by Simeon and Levi, Gen 34:25. We again meet them at the conquest of Canaan, Josh 11:3, Josh 11:19. This people dwelt at this time in the north-western part of Palestine, under Mount Hcrmon, Josh 11:3, and in Mount Lebanon, Jud 3:3.

HI'VITES, LAND OF THE, a region in Canaan, along the coast of the Mediterranean, peopled by some of the descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Gen 10:17; 1 Chr 1:15. On Jacob's return to Canaan, Shechem was in possession of the Hivites, Hamor the Hivite being the "prince of the land," Gen 34:2. They voluntarily surrendered their country to Joshua. Josh 9:7; Josh 11:19. The main body of the Hivites were then living on the northern confines of western Palestine — "under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh," Josh 11:3; "in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Hamath," Jud 3:3. They paid tribute to Solomon. 1 Kgs 9:20; 2 Chr 8:7. Their country appears to have been afterward absorbed by the surrounding nations.

HIZKI'AH (strength of Jehovah), an ancestor of the prophet Zephaniah, Zeph 1:1.

HIZKI'JAH (strength of Jehovah), one who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:17.

HO'BAB (love), the son of Jethro, and brother-in-law of Moses. Num 10:29-32.

HO'BAH (hiding-place), a place beyond Damascus to which Abraham pursued the confederate kings. Gen 14:15. Two miles to the north of Damascus is Jobar, which the Jews regard as the Hobah of Scripture. There they had a synagogue dedicated to Elijah. Others fix the site at Buzrah, 3 miles north of Damascus: Delitszch suggests Hoba, a fountain near Karzetan, as Hobah.

HOD (splendor), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:37.

HODAI'AH (splendor of Jehovah), a member of the royal line of Judah, 1 Chr 3:24.

HODAVI'AH (splendor of Jehovah).

  1. A Manassite, 1 Chr 5:24.

  2. A Benjamite, 1 Chr 9:7.

  3. A Levite, Ezr 2:40.

HO'DESH (new moon), a woman of Benjamin, 1 Chr 8:9.

HODE'VAH (splendor of Jehovah), a Levite family who returned from captivitv with Zerubbabel, Neh 7:43.

HODI'AH (splendor of Jehorah), a woman, the wife of a Judite, 1 Chr 4:19; 388 perhaps same as Jehudijah. 1 Chron 4:18.

HODI'JAH (splendor of Jehovah), the name of three Levites in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. Neh 8:7; Neh 9:5; Jud 10:10, Neh 10:13, Neh 10:18.

HOG'LAH (partridge), one of the daughters of Zelophehad. Num 26:33; Deut 27:1; Isa 36:11; Josh 17:3.

HO'HAM (whom Jehovah incites), king of Hebron, Josh 10:3.

HOXON (sandy). 1. A town in the mountains of Judah, one of the first group, of which Debir was apparently the most considerable, Josh 15:51; Josh 21:15; called Hilen in 1 Chr 6:58. Conder proposes Beit 'Alam, as its site.

  1. A city of Moab, Jer 48:21, in the plain-country, east of the Jordan.

HOLY, HOLINESS. Ex 16:11; Lev 27:14. Holiness, or perfect freedom from sin, and immaculate purity are distinguishing attributes of the divine nature, Isa 6:3. These words in their primitive meaning imply a separation or setting apart from secular and profane uses to sacred and divine uses. They sometimes denote the purity of the angelic nature, Matt 25:31; the comparative freedom from sin which results from the sanctification of the human heart, as in the case of Christians, Heb 3:1; Col 3:12; and the consecrated character of things, Ex 30:25; Lev 16:4, and places, Ex 3:5.

The conception of God as holy was characteristic of the religion of the O.T. While the nations of antiquity were attributing to the divine Being human passions and human sins, the Hebrews alone held firmly to the idea of God as absolutely holy.

HO'LY CITY. See Jerusalem.

HO'LY DAY. See Feasts.


H'OLY LAND. See Canaan.

HO'MAM (extermination), 1 Chr 1:39. See Hemam.


HO'MER. See Measures.

HON'EST occurs frequently in its original sense of "honorable, comely." Like the Latin honestus, it denotes what is morally beautiful in character and conduct. 1 Pet 2:12.

HON'EY, HON'EYCOMB, Ps 19:10. Palestine still is, almost without metaphor, "a land flowing with milk and honey," Ex 3:8, Lev 3:17. It is remarkable for the variety of its flowers, reminding us of the promise: "With honey out of the rock should I have satisfied thee," Ps 81:16. With such provision was John the Baptist fed.

Besides these wild swarms, bee-keeping is carried so far in this country that almost every house possesses its hives. The syrup obtained from dates is supposed to be sometimes intended by the word "honey," 2 Chr 31:5. Dibs, or the syrup made from Grapes, which see, is also included under the term "honey." The figurative allusions of the sacred writers to honey and the honeycomb are striking and beautiful. Ps 19:10; Prov 5:3; 1 Chr 27:7. Milk and honey were the chief dainties of the earlier ages, as they are now of the Bedouins, and butter and honey are also mentioned among articles of food. 2 Sam 17:29; Isa 7:15. In South Africa bees deposit their honey on the surface of the cliffs of rocks, and for its protection cover it with a dark-colored wax. This, by the action of the weather, becomes hard and of the complexion of the rock. The traveller makes an incision in this wax covering, and by applying his mouth to the aperture sucks out as much honey as he wants, Deut 32:13. They also cover trees in the same manner. See Bee, Grapes.

HOOD, a turban, Isa 3:23. See Head-dress.

HOOKS. Various kinds of hooks are mentioned in the Bible.

  1. Fish-hooks. See Fish-hooks.

  2. The "hook" of 2 Kgs 19:28; Eze 29:4 was probably a ring put through the nose of wild beasts, or, according to the inhuman practice of the ancient Orientals, of human beings. In Job 41:2 such a ring is spoken of, called "thorn."

  3. Pruning-hooks, knives hooked at one end. Isa 2:4; Isa 18:5.

  4. Flesh-hooks, for getting the flesh out of the caldrons. Eze 27:3; 1 Sam 2:13-14.

  5. Hooks to which the carcass was suspended while being flayed, Eze 40:43. This meaning is, however, disputed.

  6. Hooks by which the curtains of the tabernacle were suspended, Ex 26:32, Ex 26:37.


HOPH'NI (a fighter), and PHIN'EHAS (brazen-mouthed), the two sons of Eli, united in their office, their crimes, and their death. They are examples of the evils of lax family government. They were licentious, exacting, and impious. They were slain in the battle when the ark of God was taken. See 1 Sam 1:3; 1 Sam 2:12-17, 1 Sam 2:22-26, 1 Sam 2:34; 1 Sam 4:11. See Eli.

HOR, MOUNT(the mountain).

  1. Now called by the Arabs Jehel Nehy Harun, "mountain of the prophet Aaron." It was the halting-place of the Israelites between Kadesh, Num 20:22; Num 33:37, and Zalmonah, Num 33:41, when they were journeying "by the way of the Red Sea to compass the land of Edom," Num 21:4, and where Aaron died. Num 20:24-29; Num 33:38-39; Deut 32:50.

"It is one of the very few spots connected with the wanderings of the Israelites which admit of no reasonable doubt. There Aaron died in the presence of Moses and Eleazar, there he was buried, and there Eleazar was invested with the priesthood in his stead. The mountain is marked far and near by its double top, which rises, like a huge castellated building, from a lower base, and on one of these is the Mohammedan chapel, erected out of the remains of some earlier and more sumptuous building, over the supposed grave. There was nothing of interest in the chapel; only the marks of Mussulman devotion, ragged shawls, ostrich eggs, and a few beads. These were in the upper chamber. The great high priest, if his body be really there, rests in a subterraneous vault below, hewn out of the rock, and in a niche now cased over with stone, wood, and plaster. From the flat roof of the chapel we overlooked his last view -that view which was to him what Pisgah was to his brother." -Dean Stanley.

Situation and Physical Features.-The Scriptures describe Mount Hor as "in the edge" -i.e., on the boundary-line- of Edom. Num 20:23; Num 33:37. Edom or Mount Seir comprehended the whole

Mt. Hor and Aaron's Tomb.

of the sandstone range of mountains which bounds the Arabah on the east and extends nearly from the southern extremity of the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akabah. About midway between these two points, some 50 miles distant from each, is the highest and most conspicuous mountain of the range, which is without doubt the Mount Hor upon which Aaron died. Mosera, Deut 10:6, must have been close to the mountain. The altitude of the summit is 4800 feet above the Mediterranean, 4000 feet above the Arabah, and 6000 feet above the surface of the Dead Sea. These are the English measurements. The mountain, which is ascended by an exceedingly steep path, has two peaks, and on the eastern of these (4360 feet above the Mediterranean, according to Baedeker) is situated the tomb of Aaron (Kabr Harun), to which pilgrimages are made. Here the Arabs formerly offered sacrifices, and Stephens, an early American traveller, saw the remains of an altar and indications of such sacrifices. The tomb of Aaron is a small building measuring 28 by 33 feet and surmounted by 390 a white dome, as is usual over saints' tombs. The interior consists of two chambers, one above the other. In the upper are four large pillars and a stone sarcophagus. Steps lead down to the lower chamber, which is perfectly dark. At the end is a recess covered by grating, which purports to be the real tomb. The impression of one on the spot is that Aaron's death took place in the small basin between the two peaks. Trumbull proposes Jehel Madurah for Mt. Hor.

Since Aaron had his last view of earth from the summit of Hor, as Moses did from Pisgah, the prospect is regarded with great interest. The view includes the Arabah, the mountains of southern Palestine and Edom, and the Dead Sea. Beneath the mountain, on the eastern side, is Petra, a place of great historic interest. See Sela.

  1. Mount Hor, evidently distinct from the one above, is once mentioned, Num 34:7-8, as one of the northern boundaries of the Promised Land. Some would understand by this the whole of the Lebanon range as marking the northern boundary of the country-. Porter makes it the extreme northern summit of the Lebanon range, which bounds "the entrance of Hamath" on the south. It is 10,000 feet high, emphatically Hor-hahar, "the mountain of the mountain," the loftiest mountain in Syria.

HO'RAM (elevated), king of Qezer at the time of the Conquest, Josh 10:33.

HO'REB (dry, desert), a mountain or range frequently mentioned in Scripture. The special application of Horeb and Sinai in the O.T. has been much discussed. Robinson and Hengstenberg think that Horeb is the name for the whole range, Sinai for a particular peak; Gesenius and others hold precisely the opposite view. Stanley suggests that there is more a distinction of usage than of place. (1) In Leviticus and Numbers, Sinai is exclusively used of the scene of the giving of the Law; (2) in Deuteronomy, Horeb is substituted for Sinai: (3) in the Psalms the two are used indifferently. See Sinai and Palestine, p. 31. The Arabs now apply the name Jebel et-Tur to the whole central granite region, while the peaks of which it is composed are called by various names. The mountain of Sinai and its wilderness are distinguished as the theatre of events that took place in the district of Horeb, and the whole of Horeb is called "the mountain of God." Ex 3:1,Deut 3:12; Ex 4:27; Ex 17:6; Isa 18:5; Ex 33:6. Hence, sometimes "Sinai" alone is spoken of. Ex 19:11,Josh 11:19, Ex 11:23; 2 Chr 24:16; Ex 31:18; Ex 34:29, Ex 34:32; Lev 7:38; Gen 25:1; Lev 26:46; Lev 27:34; Num 1:1; Dan 3:1, Num 3:14; Num 33:15. But frequently "Horeb" alone is named, and the same events are spoken of as occurring on Horeb which are described as taking place on Sinai. Deut 1:2, Deut 1:6, Eze 1:19; 1 John 4:10, Gal 4:15; Song of Solomon 5:2; Deut 9:8; Josh 18:16; Gen 29:1. Later sacred writers employ both names; e. g. "Horeb," 1 Kgs 8:9; 1 Kgs 19:8; 2 Chr 5:10; Ps 106:19;Mal 4:4; "Sinai," Jud 5:5; Ps 68:8, Ps 68:17.

In the N.T. "Sinai" became a general name, as at the present day. Acts 7:30, Acts 7:38; Gal 4:24-25. In more modern times, and ever since the Crusades, the application of the names Sinai and Horeb to the particular mountains or peaks has varied greatly among travellers. The range of Horeb spreads over an extensive field, and may be divided into two groups, exhibiting rugged and venerable mountains of dark granite, stern, naked, splintered peaks and ridges, some of them of indescribable grandeur, rising in frowning majesty high above the general level of the range. The following heights of several peaks are given by the British Ordnance Survey: Jebel Musa, 7375 feet; Jebel Serbal, 6735 feet; Jebel Katherin, 8537 feet; Um Shaumer, 8450 feet. See Sinai.

HO'REM (devoted), a place in Naphtali, Josh 19:38. Van de Yelde locates it at Harak, west of the waters of Merom.

HOR-HAGID'GAD (mountain of the cleft), a camping-place of the Israelites in the desert, Num 33:32; apparently the same as Gudgodah, Deut 10:7, though Wilton regards the latter as a valley and the former as a mountain near it; Robinson notes on his map a Wady Ghudoghah west of the Arabah; possibly identical with this place.

HO'RI (cave-dweller).

  1. A Horite. Gen 36:22, Jer 36:30; 1 Chr 1:39.

  2. A Simeonite, Num 13:5.

HO'RITES, HO'RIMS. These were the aboriginal inhabitants of Mount Seir, Gen 14:6, from which they were driven by the descendants of Esau, 391 Deut 2:12, Num 2:22. The term means a "cave," and probably indicates the character of this people's habitations.

HOR'MAH (place desolated), a royal city of the Canaanites; assigned to Simeon. Num 14:45; Num 21:1-3; Deut 1:44; Josh 12:14; Josh 19:4. It was first known as Zephath or "watch-tower," Judg 1:17; was destroyed after the Conquest; was rebuilt. 1 Sam 30:30; 1 Chr 4:30. Robinson identified Zephath with the pass es-Sufah, but Palmer and Drake, with greater certainty, locate it at Sebaiteh, the equivalent for the Hebrew "watch-tower." The ruins are 500 yards long by 200 or 300 yards wide, and comprise churches, a tower, and two reservoirs of water. The streets can also be traced. It is about 20 miles from 'Ain Gadis (Kadesh), and a ruined fort 3 miles from the town commands the only pass through which the city could be approached. Palmer suggests that the fortress was the sephath, or "watch-tower," and Sebaista the city. Conder suggests Horun as ancient Hormah, but until further exploration Palmer's view seems the most probable.

HORN. This word is employed in the O.T. as an emblem of power, honor, or glory. Deut 33:17; Job 16:15; Lam 2:3. "To exalt the horn" was the same as to prosper; so "to cut off" the horn," Jer 48:25; Lam 2:3, is to render worthless, to ruin. "To defile the horn in the dust" is to humble most deeply, Job 16:15. The horn was likewise the symbol of victory. Hence its use by the false prophet Zedekiah, 1 Kgs 22:11, and in the Revelation of John, Rev 5:6. So elsewhere. It is also frequently employed in prophetic visions instead of "kings" and "kingdoms," Dan 7:20-24; Zech 1:18. Horns were used as vessels for liquids, especially oil and perfumes, 1 Sam 16:1; 1 Kgs 1:39, and also for trumpets, Josh 6:8, Lev 6:13. It is not necessary to think they were always actual horns, but rather hornshaped articles. The horn being the chief defence and strength of many beasts, to break or cut off the horn of a king or people is to abridge or destroy their power, and to raise or exalt the horn is to establish or increase power and prosperity. So also among the aborigines of this country a like custom prevailed. The chief of the council which negotiated the treaty with William Penn

Horns worn as head-ornaments by modern Orientals.

opened the business by placing on his own head a crown with a horn in it, significant of supreme authority, by which the covenants of the treaty were made binding.

Dr. Livingstone describes how the natives of South Africa ornament their heads with buffalo-horns. The married women of the Druses of Mount Lebanon formerly wore on their head horns, originally of paste-board or pottery, but, through pride and rivalry, from a few inches they became of enormous length and the material was of greater cost, until the Druse rich women "sported gold horns decked with jewels, and so long that a servant had to spread the veil over them."

Horns of the Altar. See Altar.

HOR'NET, a very large, strong, and bold insect of the wasp family, remarkable for its irritability and for the severity of its sting. Deut 7:20. Hornets were employed as the instruments of the divine judgments upon the enemies of Israel, Ex 23:28; Josh 24:12. The furious attack of these insects often drives horses or cattle to madness, and profane history tells of districts rendered almost uninhabitable by them. Capt. Warren says: "The hornets in Palestine are very numerous, and attack human beings in the most furious manner. I 392 can readily conceive the rout of an army being occasioned by them."

HORONA'IM (two caverns), a city of Moab on an eminence. Isa 15:5; Jer 48:3, Jer 48:5, Jer 48:34. Merrill locates it at Kharaneh, south-east of Hesban.

HOR'ONITE, THE, the designation, of uncertain derivation, given to Sanballat, the determined foe to Nehemiah. Neh 2:10, 1 Kgs 2:19; Neh 13:28. He may have come from Horonaim or Beth-horon.

HORSE, Gen 49:17, one of the noblest of animals, of which Job gives a most poetic description, ch. Job 39:19-25. In the early periods of the world the laboring-beasts were chiefly oxen and asses, while horses were used by kings and warriors, either mounted or harnessed to chariots. Ex 14:9, 1 Sam 14:23; Esth 6:8. The use of horses by the Israelites was discouraged. Deut 17:16; Josh 11:6. The reason is perhaps explained in Isa 31:1, Isa 31:3. In Solomon's time, however, horses were common among them, and he probably imported them from Syria and Egypt. 1 Kgs 4:26; 1 Kgs 10:26, 1 Kgs 10:29; 2 Chr 1:14-17; 2 Chr 9:25. At the present day the horse is the usual conveyer of travellers through Palestine and Syria, as the camel is in the desert and the donkey in Egypt. Horses were consecrated to idol-gods, 2 Kgs 23:11, and are often employed by the prophets, under different colors, to denote the character of future dispensations, Zech 1:8; Zech 6:2-6; and so also are angels represented under the figure of horses, 2 Kgs 2:11; 2 Kgs 6:15-17, because of the characteristic strength, fleetness, and courage of that animal.

HORSE'-LEECH (the adherer), a well-known kind of worm very common in all the stagnant waters of Palestine, Prov 30:15. It fastens itself within the nostrils or mouths of animals as they drink, and will suffer itself to be nearly torn in two before relaxing its hold. Its thirst for blood, never satisfied till its body is completely filled, may illustrate the insatiable cravings of lust, avarice, and cruelty.

HO'SAH (place of refuge), a Merarite Levite chosen by David to keep the gate Shallecheth. 1 Chr 16:38; 1 Chr 26:10, 1 Chr 26:16.

HO'SAH (refuge), a city of Asher, Josh 19:29, the landmark on the coast next to Tyre; probably el-Ezziyak.

HOSAN'NA (Save, we beseech!), the exclamation with which Christ was greeted at his last entry into Jerusalem, Matt 21:9. It is taken from Ps 118:25, which was recited as a part of the Great Hallel, Ps 113-118, at the feast of tabernacles, and which was therefore familiar to the Jews.

HOSE'A (God is help) called Osee in Rom 9:25, one of the twelve Minor Prophets, who prophesied between 790 and 725 b.c. in the kingdom of Israel, under the reign of Jeroboam II., when the kingdom had reached the zenith of its earthly prosperity, and was fast ripening for ruin. He was a contemporary of Isaiah. We know nothing of his life. His character appears in his book, which reveals a heart full of sadness and sympathy in view of the sins of the people, yet full of hope. He has been called the Jeremiah of Israel.

The Book of Hosea consists of 14 chapters, and relates to the kingdom of Israel. The first part (chs. 1-3) belongs to the first period of his active life under Jeroboam; the second (chs. 4-14) presents his later labors, when judgment had already set in. The discourses are partly threatening, partly hortatory and comforting. He is one of the most obscure among the prophets. "He delivers his message as though each sentence burst with a groan from his soul, and he had anew to take breath before he uttered each renewed woe. Each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral-knell."

The greatest difficulty in the book is the marriage of the prophet with Gomer, "a wife of whoredoms," by divine command, and the names of the offspring of this marriage -Jezreel, Lo-ruhamah, and Lo-ammi (Hos 1:2-9). The literal interpretation (of several of the Fathers, Dr. Pusey, Kurtz, and others) is scarcely reconcilable with the law which forbids a priest to marry an unchaste woman, Lev 21:7-14. It is better, therefore, to explain the marriage (with many modern commentators) figuratively, as a vision or as a symbol of the monstrous sin of spiritual whoredom or apostasy from the true God. Lo-ruhamah means "unpitied," and Lo-ammi, "not-my-people." Immediately afterward the future acceptance is announced, where the people will know God by the term 393 Ishi, "my husband" (Hosea 2:16). The passages Hosea 1:10 and 1 Chr 2:23 are quoted by Paul, Rom 9:25, as a prophecy of the conversion of the heathen. The second section is free from symbolical acts.

The style of Hosea is highly poetical, bold, vigorous, terse, and pregnant, but abrupt and obscure. "Hosea is concise," says Jerome, "and speaketh in detached sayings." "In Hosea," says Ewald, "there is a rich and lively imagination, a pregnant fulness of language, and great tenderness and warmth of expression. His poetry is throughout purely original, replete with vigor of thought and purity of presentation."

HO'SEN (plural of hose), Dan 3:21. The word originally meant short trousers or trunk-hose, as well as stockings. It stands in our translation for a Chaldee word signifying "tunics."

HOSHAI'AH (whom Jehovah saved).

  1. A repairer of the wall of Jerusalem, Neh 12:32.

  2. A prominent Jew's father, Jer 42:1; Jer 43:2.

HOSH'AMA. (whom Jehovah hears), a son of Jehoiachin, the last king of Judah. 1 Chr 3:18.

HOSHE'A (God is help).

  1. The same with Joshua, Deut 32:44.

  2. The son of Elah, and the last and best of the kings of Israel. 2 Kgs 15:30. In the ninth year of his reign the Assyrian king, provoked by an attempt which Hoshea made to form an alliance with Egypt, and so throw off the Assyrian yoke, marched against Samaria, and after a siege of three years took it, and carried the people away into Assyria. 2 Kgs 17:1-6; Hos 13:16; Mic 1:6.

  3. An Ephraimite chief, 1 Chr 27:20.

  4. One who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:23.

HOSPITALITY is the free (unremunerated) provision of lodging and board to a stranger. Our word "guest," in its original form, is the Sanscrit ghas, meaning "to eat." We come as strangers into this world, and are from our birth thrown upon the hospitality of our friends. God, too, regards us as his guests, and himself sets the most beautiful example of lavish and noble hospitality. Ps 5:7-8; Gen 23:5 ff. The joys of heaven, both in parable and vision, are pictured under the figure of a feast.

The invitation is given to every one — to the poor, indeed, rather than the rich. Luke 14:15 ff.; Rev 19:9. God's Son was in this respect his exhibition, for he fed the multitudes who waited upon his ministry not only with spiritual but with natural food. When, therefore, the N.T. writers enjoin hospitality upon believers, they are only calling upon them to do what God so constantly does. Rom 12:13; 1 Tim 3:2; 1 Tim 5:10; 1 Pet 4:9. In Heb 13:2 we are encouraged to the duty by the fact that some have entertained angels unawares, referring to Gen 18-19. The story of Abraham's treatment of his guests there related is a faithful description of an Oriental's conduct, and is illustrated by the hospitality of the Bedouins. For to-day, as in the hoary past, the sheikh sits in his tent to receive the passers-by; he rejoices to dispense his kindness; payment is refused; the host considers himself sufficiently repaid by the gratitude of his guest.

The exercise of hospitality is commanded, Lev 19:33-34; Lev 25:14 ff.; Deut 15:7. Instances are given incidentally in the histories of Abraham, Lot, Jethro, Ex 2:20, Manoah, Jud 13:15, the old man of Gibeah, Jud 19:17 ff. By a study of these chapters an accurate understanding of the practice can be derived. The host was surety for the safety of his guest, even as to-day to have eaten salt, although accidentally, with a Bedouin is to have his protection. National hatred and fanaticism, however, occasionally suppressed this kindly feeling. Thus the Jews had no dealings with the Samaritans, John 4:9, and therefore the Samaritans refused to give our Lord lodgment, Luke 9:53. In the early Christian Church the command of universal brotherly love, Gal 6:10, was implicitly obeyed. Their readiness in discharging the duty of hospitality won the admiration of the heathen. "Believers scarcely ever travelled without letters of communion, which testified the purity of their faith and procured for them a favorable reception wherever the name of Jesus Christ was known." It was thought disgraceful for a Christian to be obliged to stop at an inn if there were Christians in the place. See Inn.

HOST. See Hospitality, Inn. 394 HOS'TAGES are spoken of 2 Kgs 14:14; 2 Chr 25:24.

HO'THAM (signet-ring), an Asherite, 1 Chr 7:32.

HO'THAN (signet-ring), father of two of David's guard, 1 Chr 11:44. The same name as the preceding.

HO'THIR (fulness), a Kohathite Levite, son of Heman, 1 Chr 25:4, 1 Chr 25:28.

HOUGH (pronounced hok), to disable by cutting the sinews of the ham (hamstring), Josh 11:6, Josh 11:9.

HOUR. The term is employed to indicate an indefinite period of time, as in Dan 3:6; Dan 4:19, and Matt 9:22; John 7:30, etc. It also indicates a definite period. At the time of our Lord the Jews reckoned the hours from sunrise to sunset, and divided the night into watches. Six in the morning was counted the first, noon the sixth, and 6 p.m. the twelfth hour of the day. In the parable of the laborers, Matt 20:1-10, this division into hours is clearly shown. The husbandman engages laborers early in the morning, and subsequently during the day at the third, sixth, ninth, and eleventh hours. Jesus was crucified at the third hour, Mark 15:25, or about 9 a.m., and the darkness continued from the sixth to the ninth hour (12-3 p.m.), Matt 27:45. This mode of reckoning is employed in the Acts, as is plainly seen in ch. Acts 2:15. There were thus twelve hours in every day between the sun's rising and setting, and the hours varied in length with the brevity or length of the day.

The Romans computed time from midnight to noon, and divided this period into equal portions, whose beginning was indicated by the expressions first, third, sixth, and ninth hour. It is altogether probable, although opinions differ, that John's Gospel observes this method. The tenth hour, therefore, of ch. John 1:39 coincides with 10 a.m.; the sixth hour, ch. Song 4:6, with 6 p.m. The period mentioned for the last scene in the trial of our Lord, John 19:14, as the sixth hour was 6 a.m. The exact expression must be emphasized, "about the sixth hour." If we take into account the necessary delay before arriving at Calvary, an almost exact harmony is made out between John and the other evangelists. See Day.

HOUSE. See Dwellings. The word "house" is also used to denote a family, Gen 12:17; 1 Tim 5:8, a race or lineage, Luke 2:4, and property, 1 Kgs 13:8.

"House of the rolls," Ezr 6:1, and "treasure-house," Ezr 5:17, both refer to the same depository of public documents.

HOUSE OF GOD, a translation in the A.V. of the place Bethel. It is the place where the ark was, and not the ark, which is called "the house of God." See Bethel. Jud 20:18, Jud 20:26; John 21:2; cf. Jud 20:27.

HUK'KOK (ditch, moat), a city on the borders of Asher and Naphtali, Josh 19:34; now Yakuk, north of the Sea of Galilee, and 7 miles south of Safed.

HU'KOK. See Helkath.

HUL (circle), a grandson of Shem, Gen 10:23. His descendants may have peopled part of the Lebanon country. The point is disputed.

HUL'DAH (weasel), the wife of Shallum, and a well-known prophetess. When the book of the Law was found, Josiah sent to her to inquire of the Lord. Her answer is found in 2 Kgs 22:15-20.

HUMIL'ITY is the opposite of pride, and one of the cardinal graces of the renewed heart. It consists in a man's not thinking of himself more highly than he ought to think, and in giving all glory to God alone. It is urged with great force upon all who profess to be Christ's disciples, 1 Pet 5:5. In this as in all other respects our divine Saviour's life furnishes us with a perfect example, Phil 2:5-8. The sacred Scriptures abound with promises of grace and favor to the humble and threatenings of sorrow and punishment to the proud.

HUM'TAH (place of lizards), a city in the mountains of Judah, the next to Hebron, Josh 15:54.

HUNT'ING is the necessity of man in the wild state, and his recreation when civilized. Before the Flood animal food does not seem to have been eaten, but the killing of animals, both tame and wild, was expressly permitted to Noah, Gen 9:3. Nimrod achieved a reputation as "a mighty hunter before the Lord," Gen 10:9. In Palestine the patriarchs probably lived very quietly with their flocks and herds, but they may have occasionally indulged in the 395 pleasures of the hunt; at all events, we know that Isaac was very fond of venison, Gen 27:3-4. After the Exodus we have proof in the promise of God to drive out the wild animals that Palestine was at that time plentifully supplied with beasts of the chase, Ex 23:29. But their utter destruction was provided against. Ex 23:11; Lev 25:7. We find mention made of lions, Jud 14:5; 1 Sam 17:34; bears, 1 Sam 17:34; 2 Kgs 2:24; jackals, Jud 15:4; foxes. Song 2:15; hart, roebucks, and fallow-deer, Deut 12:15; 1 Kgs 4:23. The manner of catching these animals was either by digging a pitfall, which was the usual manner with the larger animals, as the lion, 2 Sam 23:20; Eze 19:4, Josh 19:8, or, secondly, by a trap, which, set under ground. Job 18:10, in the run of the animal, Prov 22:5, caught it by the leg. Job 18:9, or, lastly, by a net stretched across a, ravine, into which the animals were driven and then despatched. The game was for food, Prov 12:27, and the blood of these wild animals was poured out in the same manner as that of the tame. Lev 17:13.

Birds were eaten by the Hebrews, Lev 17:13, who exercised considerable ingenuity in the capture of them. The most usual method was by the trap, which was "a net strained over a frame, and a stick to support it, but so placed that it should give way at the slightest touch." Job 18:9; Eccl 9:12; Prov 7:23. Besides the trap, a snare, by which the bird's leg was caught. Job 18:10, a net to close with a string, and a decoy, Jer 5:26-27, were occasionally used.

HU'PHAM (coast-dweller), a. son of Benjamin, Num 26:39.

HU'PHAMITES, THE, descendants of the preceding.

HUP'PAH (covering), a priest, head of the thirteenth course, 1 Chr 24:13.

HUP'PIM (protection), a Benjamite. Gen 46:21; 1 Chr 7:12.

HUR (hole).

  1. The man who with Aaron held up the hands of Moses on the mountain at the battle with Amalek, and one of the chief men of the Israelites. Ex 17:10; Lev 24:14.

  2. Grandfather of Bezaleel. Ex 31:2; Ex 35:30; Ex 38:22.

  3. A Midianite chief. Num 31:8; Josh 13:21.

  4. Father of one of Solomon's commissariat officers, 1 Kgs 4:8.

  5. One whose son helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem, Neh 3:9.

HUR'AI (linen-weaver), one of David's guard, 1 Chr 11:32.

HU'RAM (noble-born).

  1. A Benjamite, 1 Chr 8:5.

  2. The form of the name Hiram which is used in Chronicles -both that of the king and the artificer.

HU'RI (linen-weaver), a Gadite, 1 Chr 5:14.

HUS'BAND, a man lawfully joined to one woman in marriage, Gen 3:16, the house-band. A man betrothed, but not married, was called a husband, as the betrothals were considered sacred and inviolable. Matt 1:16.

The husband is the head of the wife, Eph 5:23, inasmuch as he is the head of the household (though she is associated with him), and as such he is entitled to the respect and aflfection of all. See Marriage.

HUS'BANDMAN, one whose profession and labor is to cultivate the ground, John 15:1. It is among the most ancient and honorable occupations. Gen 9:20; Isa 28:24-28.

Our Lord used the term in parables and elsewhere figuratively to designate God's relation of Disposer and Guardian of human affairs and destiny. See Agriculture.

HU'SHAH (haste), a name in the genealogy of Judah, 1 Chr 4:4,

HU'SHAI (rapid), an Archite, and a particular and faithful friend of David, 2 Sam 16:16. He gained such influence over Absalom as to prevail with his advice over Ahithophel, 2 Sam 17:14. During this time he remained David's friend.

HU'SHAM (haste), one of the earlier kings of Edom before the Israelitish monarchy. Gen 36:34-35; 1 Chr 1:45-46.

HU'SHATHITE, THE, the designation of two of David's guard.

  1. Sibbechai, 2 Sam 21:18; 1 Chr 11:29.

  2. Mebunnai, 2 Sam 23:27. But probably the latter name is a mere corruption of the former.

HU'SHIM (haste).

  1. The son of Dan, Gen 46:23; called Shuham, Num 26:42.

  2. A Benjamite, 1 Chr 7:12.

  3. The wife of a Benjamite, 1 Chr 8:8, 1 Chr 8:11.


HUSKS, Luke 15:16. Undoubtedly the fruit of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua), which is common in Palestine, and is used for food by the poor, and for the fattening of cattle or swine. When ripe it is like a crooked bean-pod, 6 to 10 inches in length, brown, glossy, and filled with seeds. Miss M. E, Rogers says: "I found it when new rather too sweet to suit my taste. Children seem to enjoy it, and they thrive on it, eating

Husks. Fruit of the Carob Tree. (Ceratonia siliqua.)

the shell as well as the seeds. The carob tree belongs to the same family as the American "locust," and is often called by that name by English authors. Some suppose that it was upon these "locusts" that John the Baptist subsisted. Hence this fruit is often called "St. John's bread." But the better critics reject this opinion.

HUZ (the strong), the eldest son of Nahor and Milcah, Gen 22:21.

HUZ'ZAB appears in the A.V. as a proper name, a queen of Nineveh in the days of Nahum, Nah 2:7. Many scholars, however, take it as a geographical term meaning "the country of Zab." But perhaps it is best regarded as a part of speech, and read: "And it is decreed."

HYAE'NA. "Speckled bird" in Jer 12:9 means, according to some, a vulture or other bird of prey, but according to other excellent authorities (the Septuagint, Gesenius, etc.), it should be translated "hyaena." "Zeboim," which occurs in 1 Sam 13:18; Neh 11:34, means hyaenas. Otherwise there is no reference to this animal in the Bible.

The striped species (Hysena striata) is found in all Oriental countries, especially in Egypt and the desert. In Palestine it is more common than any carnivorous animal except the jackal. In general appearance it resembles the wolf, but it is of a dirty gray color, with dark transverse stripes upon the sides and limbs. The body is high at the shoulders (about 3 feet), declines rapidly toward the tail. It has a mane of erect, bristly hair along the back.

What the vulture is among birds this creature is among animals. The odor from its food of carrion adds to the disgust caused by its hideous appearance. The hyaena, in spite of every precaution, often succeeds in digging up and devouring human corpses. Though cowardly in its nature, it is very savage. When driven by hunger, it will sometimes kill cattle. The strength of its jaws is so great that it can crack the bones of an ox with ease, but as the hyaena is neither swift nor courageous, it is not dreaded by man. When in bands, however, it fears neither the lion nor the tiger. It inhabits the numerous tombs of the Holy Land, the caves, and even the open desert.

HYMENAE'US (hymeneal) is mentioned


The Striped Hyaena.

once with Alexander and once with Philetus. He is first, 1 Tim 1:20, represented as having made shipwreck of his faith, and then as having denied the doctrine of a future resurrection of the body, 2 Tim 2:17. Paul delivered him up to Satan, which probably refers to ecclesiastical excommunication.

HYMN. In the N.T. we have the hymn mentioned with the psalm and the spiritual song. Eph 5:19; Eph Col, 3:16. Paul and Silas sang hymns (A.V., "praises") in the prison at Philippi, Acts 16:25, and after the Last Supper our Lord and the disciples sang a hymn together, Matt 26:30.

HYS'SOP, Ex 12:22. A plant often used in the ceremonies of purification. Lev 14:4, Lev 14:6, Lev 14:51; Ps 51:7. One of its characteristics is referred to in 1 Kgs 4:33. It is associated with our Saviour's last hours, John 19:29. More than twenty different plants have been urged as the species intended, Tristram and other recent authorities favor the caper-bush. But Dr. Post of Beirut, Syria, in the Sunday-School World for March, 1879, argues very conclusively, on philological and other grounds, in favor of a species of marjoram. For such reasons, he says, "hyssop should be a labiate plant with aromatic odor and capable of furnishing a reed-like stem suitable for binding the sponge upon and presenting it to the mouth of Jesus, John 19:29. Of the labiatc plants of Palestine, none so well fulfils these indications as the Origanum maru, the Sdfitar of the Arabs. Its thyme-like odor and pungent taste would have aided with the vinegar to assuage thirst. Most labiates have similar properties. Scarlet wool and hyssop were early associated in the ceremonial act of purification. It is remarkable that thymol, a product of a plant closely allied to the hyssop and origanum, is now extensively used as an antiseptic." He further adds upon the passage in John (above):" There is nothing in the narrative that would forbid the idea of the sponge saturated with vinegar having been bound with a bunch of hyssops on an ordinary reed (comp. Mark 15:36), in which case there would be no need of supposing the hyssop to have a reedlike stem." Bochart also decides in favor of the marjoram, or some plant like it. Ancient tradition likewise points to the same conclusion. The Hebrew word was probably applied to aromatic plants of the hyssop family, and not alone to one particular herb; this family is destitute of deleterious secretions, and the plants are fragrant as well as aromatic. As this family of plants abounds in Syria and the Sinaitic peninsula,

Origanum maru, or Hyssop.

there seems to be no valid objection to Dr. Post's view.

« Prev H. Next »

| Define | Popups: Login | Register | Prev Next | Help |