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GA'AL (loathing), the son of Ebed, led a revolt against Abimelech, king of the Shechemites. Jer Jud, 9:26-46. He was defeated and his partisans were scattered.

GA'ASH (earthquake), the hill where Joshua was buried. Josh 24:30; Jud 2:9. South of Tibneh, which is identified as Timnath-serah, is a hill, upon the north side of which are tombs; hence it is supposed to be " the hill Gaash."

GA'BA. See Geba.

GAB'BAI (tax-gatherer), a Benjamite living in Jerusalem. Neh 11:8.

GAB'BATHA (platform), the place of Pilate's judgment-seat; called also "the pavement." John 19:13. The judgment-hall was the Praetorium, on the western hill of Jerusalem, and the pavement, or Gabbatha, was a tesselated pavement outside the hall.

GA'BRIEL (man of God), an angel specially charged with the message to Zacharias respecting the birth of John, and to Mary respecting the birth of Christ. Luke 1:19-26. At an earlier period he was sent to Daniel to unfold a vision. Dan 8:16; Dan 9:21. See Angels.

GAD (good fortune ?).

  1. The seventh son of Jacob, and the first-born of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, Gen 30:11.

  2. A prophet and particular friend of David, the history of whose reign he wrote. 1 Chr 29:29. He came to David when the latter was in the cave Adullam. 1 Sam 22:5. He then began his career of counsellor, under divine direction, which eventually won him the title of "the king's seer." 2 Sam 24:11, 2 Sam 24:13; 1 Chr 21:9. In Hezekiah's day he was remembered. 2 Chr 29:25.

GAD, THE TRIBE OF. The territory, given to the tribe of Gad lay east of the Jordan, north of that allotted to Reuben, and south of that given to Manasseh on that side of the river. It extended from the Jordan eastward to Aroer, Josh 13:25, including half of Mount Gilead and half of Ammon. Deut 3:12; Josh 13:25. For physical features and history, see Gilead. Its chief cities were Ramoth-gilead, Mahanaim, Heshbon, and Aroer.

This tribe, in the Wilderness, was placed with Simeon and Reuben on the south of the tabernacle; with Reuben and the half of Manasseh, it occupied the pasture-grounds on the east of the Jordan. It was warlike, as is graphically stated, 1 Chr 12:8. Two famous men came from Gad — Barzillai, 2 Sam 17:27, and Elijah, 1 Kgs 17:1. The territory was the battle-field for wars between Syria and Israel. 2 Kgs 10:33.

GAD'ARA. See Gadarenes.

GAD'ARENES, COUNTRY OF, possibly the same as that of the Gergesenes. Matt 8:28; Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26. A region about Gadara, an important city about 6 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, and 16 miles from Tiberias; now called Um Keis. The town is about 1215 feet above the sea level, on the western crest of a mountain. The tomb-caverns are very numerous, and some of them are still inhabited by the Arabs, illustrating Matt 8:28. The ruins of the ancient city cover a circuit of about 2 miles, including a street with basalt pavement having marks of chariot-wheels. There are rows of columns, two theatres.

The place of the miracle of Matt 8:28-33 has been in doubt, but it cannot be Gadara, which is too far from the lake for the herd of swine to rush into it precipitantly in one short movement. Recent explorations fix it, with some certainty, about midway of the Lake of Galilee, on its eastern side and near Gerasa, or modern Kersa. Between two wadys, Seniakh and Fik, which are 3 miles apart, the hills come within 40 feet of the lake, and present a steep slope, so that a herd of swine running swiftly down it would be carried on into the water. This identification is supported by W. M. Thomson, Tristram, and the members of the Palestine Exploration Survey. W. M. Thomson suggests that Matthew, writing for the Hebrews, who knew the country, notices the more exact but less known locality of Gergesa, while 318 Mark and Luke, writing for those at a distance, refer simply to the country of Gadara, which was more widely known as the capital of that region,

GAD'DI (fortunate), the spy from the tribe of Manasseh. Num 13:11.

GAD'DIEL (fortune of God; i.e. sent from God), the spy from Zebulun. Nura". Num 13:10.

GA'DI (a Gadite), the father of Menahem, a king of Israel. 2 Kgs 15:14, 2 Kgs 15:17.

GA'HAM (sunburnt), a son of Nahor, nephew of Abraham. Gen 22:24.

GA'HAR (Lurking-place), a Nethinim. Ezr 2:47; Neh 7:49.


  1. A Macedonian, Acts 19:29, Paul's host at Corinth when the Epistle to the Romans was written, Rom 16:23, and baptized with his household by Paul. 1 Cor 1:16. He accompanied Paul to Ephesus, and was seized by the mob. Acts 19:29. The association of his name with that of Aristarchus seems to identify him with the Gaius of Derbe. Acts 20:4. Opinions differ on this point.

  2. To one of this name is addressed the third Epistle of John. 3 John 1.

GA'LAL (influential). 1. A Levite. 1 Chr 9:15.

  1. A Levite. 1 Chr 9:16; Neh 11:17.

GALA'TIA, a central province of Asia Minor, subject to the Roman rule, bounded by Bithynia and Paphlagonia on the north, Pontus on the east, Cappadocia and Lycaonia on the south, and Phrygia on the west. Its boundaries, however, were often changed. In Ptolemy's time it extended to the Euxine or Black Sea, and at one time included Lycaonia on the south. Its capitals were Tavium, Pessinus, and Ancyra. The country is chiefly high tableland between the two rivers Halys and Sangarius.

The Galatians were originally Gauls or Celts who 300 years before Christ moved from the regions of the Rhine back toward the east, and there mingled with Greeks and Jews. Their character resembled that of the modern French, and combined quick temper, prompt action, inconstancy, and changeableness. So they appear in the Epistle of Paul to them.

Galatia was a part of Paul's missionary-field. He visited it once with Silas and Timothy, Acts 16:6; again, on his third tour, he "went over all the country of Galatia," Acts 18:23, and received a collection for the saints from its churches, 1 Cor 16:1. Crescens also appears to have been sent there near the close of Paul's life. 2 Tim 4:10.

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO, written by Paul with his own hand (ch. Gal 6:11) between a.d. 65-58. Its design is to diffuse true notions among the Galatian Christians concerning justification, the relation of the Mosaic economy to the Christian, and the authority of Paul as an apostle. The Galatians had received Paul with much enthusiasm when he first preached the gospel to them, Gal 4:15. After his departure teachers had disseminated the false idea that the obligation was incumbent upon the followers of Christ to practise the ceremonies and rites of the Mosaic code. With much vehemence and fervor Paul combats their Judaizing teachings, and enforces the doctrine that by faith alone are we justified. Faith constitutes one the child of Abraham, Lev 3:9, and circumcision is not only not essential to salvation, but is in itself of no avail. 1 Kgs 6:6. Chs. 1 and 2 are occupied mainly with a vindication of Paul's apostolic commission as of equal authority with that of the other apostles, and with an account of a debate concerning meats at the council of Jerusalem. Chs. 5 and 6 contain practical exhortations. The main argument, that we become partakers of salvation by faith, Gal 3:26, is the same in the Epistle to the Galatians as in that to the Romans. The two Epistles were best understood in the time of the Reformation, and form the magna charta of evangelical Protestantism.

GAL'BANUM, a resinous gum of dark-yellow color, produced in Syria and neighboring countries, Ex 30:34. It burns with a pungent, disagreeable odor, was an ingredient of the sacred incense, and is still valued for its medicinal properties. There is uncertainty from what plant it is obtained, but that of Palestine is thought to be from one which botanists call Galbanum officinale.

GAL'EED (heap of witness), a place on Mount Gilead; named by Jacob, Gen 31:47-48; probably near Tibneh.

GALILE'ANS, the inhabitants of 319 the province of Galilee. Luke 13:1-3; Acts 2:7.

GAL'ILEE (circle, circuit), a name in the O.T. for a small district in the northern mountains of Naphtali, around Kedesh-naphtali, and including 20 towns given by Solomon to Hiram, king of Tyre, Josh 20:7 ,Josh 21:32; 1 Kgs 9:11; 2 Kgs 15:29, and called "Galilee of the nations" in Isa 9:1. Devastated during the wars of the Captivity, it was repeopled by strangers. In the time of the Maccabees they probably outnumbered the Jewish population, and gave their new name to a much wider district.

In the time of our Lord, Palestine was divided into three provinces, of which Galilee was the most northern. It included the whole region from the Plain of Jezreel to the Litany (Leontes) River, being about 50 miles long by 20 to 25 miles wide. The northern part was known as Upper and the southern part as Lower Galilee. These included the territories given to Asher, Naphtali, Zebulun, and Issachar. The country was famed for its fertility, rich pastures, and fine forests. The portion west of the lake was the most beautiful. In the Roman period the population was dense, Josephus estimating it at 2,000,000 or 3,000,000, though that is probably an exaggeration. It had a mixed population of heathens, foreigners, and Jews. The latter, having a strong, if not dominant, influence, were less strict and less acquainted with the Law than their southern Judaean neighbors, by whom they were little esteemed.

The noted mountains of Galilee were Carmel, Gilboa, and Tabor; the towns were Nazareth, Cana, Tiberias, Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum. Jesus spent the greater portion of his life and ministry in Galilee. Many of his most remarkable miracles, teachings, and labors were within this province of Galilee. His disciples were chiefly from this region. Acts 1:11. After the fall of Jerusalem, Galilee became the residence of celebrated rabbis and the centre of Jewish schools of learning.


GALILEE, SEA OF, a small lake of deep interest to the Bible-reader as the scene of some of the most remarkable works of Jesus. The lake is named from the district or province of Galilee. It was known by several other names, as the sea of Chinnereth, Num 34:11; Deut 3:17, or Chinneroth. Josh 11:2; 1 Chr 12:3, or Cinneroth, 1 Kgs 15:20, probably from a town of that name which stood on its shore. Josh 19:35; the lake of 11   "Gennezareth," which is a form of the name also given to the sea by many authors, is not found in the A.V. of our English Bible.Gennesaret, Luke 5:1, from the plain or land of that name on its north-western side. Matt 14:34; Mark 6:53; the sea of Tiberias, from the celebrated city of that name, John 6:1; and the sea, Matt 4:15. It is also called Gennesar in the Apocryjphal book of Maccabees, 1 Mace. 11:67. Its present name is Bahr Tabariyeh. It is worthy of note that all the towns whose names were applied to this lake were situated upon its western side.

Situation and Extent. — This sea is 60 miles north-east from Jerusalem, and 27 east of the Mediterranean Sea. Its form is an irregular oval or pear-shape, the broad end being toward the north. Its length is 12 1/2 miles according to Wilson, 16 1/2 according to Baedeker, and its breadth from 4 to 7 1/2 miles. Its level varies at different seasons, and is from 600 to 700 feet below the Mediterranean, the mean depression being about 626 feet, and its depth 160 feet.

Physical Features. — The lake is surrounded by an almost continuous wall of hills, broken or receding occasionally, as at Tiberias, the plain of Gennesaret, and at the Jordan. The hills are of limestone, basalt, and volcanic rocks, indications of volcanic action being also specially abundant in the Jordanic chasm, though Wilson sees nothing to indicate a volcanic origin of the lake. Hot springs abound; earthquakes are frequent. The Jordan runs through the lake, coloring its water for a mile. The water of the lake is slightly salty, but drunk by the people. Fish abound, many species having been found. Tristram says: "The shoals were marvellous black masses of many hundred yards long, with the black fins projecting out of the water as thickly as they could pack. No wonder that any net should break which enclosed such a shoal! Yet though the lake swarms with fish as 320 I could not have believed water could swarm, there are but two boats existing on its whole extent besides a ferry-boat." (Land of Israel, p. 430.) Baedeker notes three miserable fishing-boats. These are all that are left to remind the traveller of the numerous boats which our Saviour saw on the Sea of Galilee. Josephus describes a naval engagement which took place on its waters between the Jews and the soldiers of Vespasian. Violent and

Sketch-Map of the Sea of Galilee. (Palestine Exploration Fund.)

sudden storms are common now on the lake, as in our Lord's day.

Scripture History. — This lake is mentioned in the O.T. but seldom, and then rather incidentally, as in Num 34:11; Deut 3:17; Josh 11:2; 1 Chr 12:3; 1 Kgs 15:20. Its chief interest is its association with the public ministry of our Saviour. Upon its shores was "his own city," Matt 9:1; from fishing-boats on Galilee he called Simon Peter and his brother Andrew, and his partners James and John, who were thenceforth "to catch men," Matt 4:18,Matt 4:22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11; on it he stilled the tempest and made the winds and the sea obev him. Matt 8:23-27; Matt 14:22-33; see also Matt 17:27; Mark 7:31-35; at the Sea of Tiberias Christ also showed himself to the disciples after his resurrection. John 21. Of the nine or more populous cities which stood upon its shores, the more important were Bethsaida, Capernaum, Chorazin, Tiberias, and Magdala.

Present Appearance. — Porter gives an eloquent description of the lake as it appeared to him from his tent-door, on a lovely spot, at evening: " The silence was profound. Even Nature seemed to have fallen asleep. The river glided noiselessly past; the sea was spread before me like a polished mirror. . . . East of the lake the side of Bashan's lofty plateau rose as a mountain-chain, and at its northern end my eye rested on the very scene of that miracle of mercy where thousands were fed, and at its southern end on that of the miracle of judgment, where 'the whole herd of swine ran violently down a steep place, and perished in the waters.' Away to the west the shattered ramparts of Tiberias seemed to rise out of the bosom of the lake, and behind them a dark mountain, in whose caverned cliffs repose the ashes of many a learned rabbin, while over all appeared the graceful rounded top of Tabor. Farther to the right, on the white strand, I saw the huts of Magdala, with the coast of Gennesaret extending from it northward to Capernaum — Christ's own city." 321 At the present time the lake is almost utterly forsaken: only three or four fisher-boats can be found there; while at the time of Christ it was covered with sailing-vessels, and the surrounding western shore (the plain of Gennesaret) was, according to the glowing description of Josephus, a paradise of beauty and fertility. F.R. and C.R. Conder describe the famous sea as pear-shaped, and resembling in size the English lake Windermere. They add: "It is surrounded with precipices of limestone, except on the north, where a shelving slope leads to the shore from a plateau of basalt extending from the foot of the highest range of Upper Galilee. The scenery of the lake is bare, and much tamer

The Sea of Galilee from Tiberias. (After original Photograph.)

than that of the Dead Sea. The beach is narrow except on the north-west, where the cliffs recede, leaving a fertile plain (Gennesaret), 2 1/2 miles long and 1 mile broad, watered by several fine springs. The pebbly open shore on the north is broken into numerous bays, and is fringed with dark oleander bushes. On the south-eastern side is a palm-grove, and a few palms dot the western shore. The ruddy cliffs on the west and the steep slopes on the east are bare and desolate, but the sweet waters of the lake, in calm weather mirroring the surrounding hills and shining in the sun, present a beautiful scene, especially at evening. The sea is remarkable for its shoals of fish, for the violence of its sudden thunder-storms, and for the hot springs along its shores. The neighborhood of the lake is also peculiarly subject to volcanic disturbances." —Handbook of the Bible, p. 215 (1879). The Rev. Dr. S. Manning encountered a sudden and violent storm on this lake, illustrating many of the details of N.T. history: "I had taken a boat, on a bright, cloudless morning, to explore the eastern shores and the point where the Jordan enters the lake. There was not a ripple on the water, not a perceptible current in the air. Almost without warning, the wind rose: the waves, crested with foam, began to break over the sides of the boat. I was sitting on a cushion, or 'pillow,' on the flat, raised stern, 'in the hinder 322 part of the ship,' and watched the crew 'toiling and rowing.' But all their efforts were in vain. They were unable to make any way, for 'the wind was contrary.' At length one of them jumped overboard, and, partly swimming, partly wading, towed the vessel ashore." —Holy Fields, p. 205. Capt. Wilson experienced a similar sudden storm.

GALL, BILE, an animal fluid, of exceedingly bitter taste, secreted by the liver. Ps 69:21. Allusion is made to it in Job 16:13; Job 20:14, Job 20:25; Lam 2:11, and elsewhere. But by the same word, in Ps 69:21, reference is made to the extraction of a very bitter herb, Deut 29:18; Deut 32:32, perhaps hemlock. Hos 10:4. It was so bitter as to be used as a generic term for bitter substances; as sour wine or sour cider, etc., is called "vinegar." Comp. Matt 27:34; Mark 15:23; Acts 8:23. See Myrrh.

GAL'LERY a veranda common in Eastern houses. But the word in the A.V. is not a correct translation of the Hebrew, which means, according to the latest researches, the colonnade or else wainscoting. Song 1:17; Zeph 41:15.

GAL'LEY. See Ship.

GAL'LIM (heaps), the home of David's wife, 1 Sam 25:44; a village of Benjamin, Isa 10:30; now perhaps Khirbet es-Soma. Conder proposes Beit Jala.

GAL'LIO, proconsul of Achaia and brother of Seneca, the famous philosopher, who describes him as a man of great mildness and simplicity. Acts 18:12. Paul was brought before his tribunal at Corinth by the Jews, who accused him of blasphemy. Acts 18:6. Gallio dismissed the case as one not cognizable by a Roman court. Acts 18:14-15. He deemed the offence at best a trivial one. Like his brother Seneca, Gallio was executed at the command of Nero.

GAL'LOWS. See Punishments.

GAMA'LIEL (recompense of God).

  1. The prince of Manasseh in the desert. Num 1:10; Num 2:20; Num 7:54, Num 7:59; Ezr 10:23.

  2. A distinguished Jewish rabbi and prominent member of the Sanhedrin. Acts 5:34. He was for 32 years its president. He is first introduced to our notice in connection with the earlier attempts made at Jerusalem, a.d. 33, to intercept the progress of the gospel. On one occasion, when the apostles, standing in the presence of the Sanhedrin, aroused the feelings of this body to such a pitch that they discussed measures for putting them to death, Acts 5:33, Gamaliel, one of their number, counselled more moderate and prudent action. He wisely advocated a policy which would not have interfered, for the time being, by violence, with the preaching of the cross. His words on this occasion are among the most famous that the opponents of Christianity uttered in the early Church. Acts 5:38-39. He was Paul's teacher at Jerusalem. Acts 22:3. A tradition states that Gamaliel was baptized by Peter and John. This is very doubtful. Rather is the theory to be trusted which identifies him with that Gamaliel who was the grandson of Hillel, and who is referred to often as an authority in the Jewish Mishna.

GAMES. Doubtless the Hebrew children had playthings and sports, like all other children, but there is no more than a passing allusion to such things in the Bible, nor would more be expected. Acts Zechariah, 8:5, declares that part of the outward evidence of the restoration of Jerusalem will be the public playing of the children. The same prophet, 1 Chr 12:3, illustrates the divine care of Jerusalem by comparing the city to a stone of burden — i.e. heavy and difficult, if not dangerous, to lift; for the Lord would guard her against all attacks, so that man could not prevail against her. In this comparison commentators see an allusion to a practice, which Jerome reports to have prevailed in Judasa, of lifting heavy stones as a trial of strength. Our Lord likens his generation of the Jews to children playing in the market-place a game which consisted in imitating a funeral or a marriage. Matt 11:16. But the Hebrews had no public games such as the Greeks and Romans had. They did not fit in with the Hebrew character, particularly with their intense religious feeling. Besides, the three great annual religious festivals — the Passover, the feast of weeks, and that of tabernacles — drew the nation sufficiently together to prevent stagnation. It was quite characteristic that these festivals furnished the Jews 323 with their needed diversion. So far from having public games, the Jews considered them disreputable, and even blasphemous. For the attempt of Jason to introduce the gymnasium he is called an "ungodly wretch," 2 Mace. 4:13, and those who practised in it were said to have sold themselves to do mischief. 1 Mace. 1:15. The building by Herod the Great of a theatre and amphitheatre in Jerusalem, as well as at Caesarea, excited the aversion of pious Jews, and any one who took part in the games was regarded as a renegade. And yet, doubtless, the Jews paid some attention to the development of their muscles. The fact that swiftness of foot was so much esteemed and that runners were employed to carry the news of battle would render it probable that there were competitive races. So the Psalmist, Ps 19:5, speaks of the sun rejoicing "as a strong man to run a race," and in Eccl 9:11 the Preacher uses the words, "The race is not to the swift." Then, too, the skill acquired in the use of the bow and the sling, 1 Sam 20:20; Jud 20:16; 1 Chr 12:2, implies private if not public competition. The proposition of Abner, "Let the young men now arise, and play before us," 2 Sam 2:14, its immediate acceptance, and its bloody end, indicate the training and skill of the young men, and suggest that the friendly contests of peace had been turned, on this occasion, into a deadly struggle. But such an interpretation may be too far-fetched. The games of private life such as are known to us were many of them familiar to the Egyptians, and are pictured on the monuments. Presuming that the Hebrews would learn these from their neighbors, if they did not invent them for themselves, we may fancy an ancient Hebrew amusing himself with "odd and even," "checkers," "graces," catching balls, etc.

But although the ancient Hebrews, as a nation, were opposed to public games, individuals among them entered into them with zest, and the Jews residing in foreign cities came into frequent contact with them. We find the Greek games frequently referred to by Paul, whose heroic nature seems to have been fired by the splendid triumphs of the arena. His metaphors are so frequently taken directly from these games that his mind seems to run on them, as, in a modern parallel, F.W. Robertson used metaphors taken from soldier-life. Some of Paul's allusions are unhappily concealed from view in the A.V.

Nothing more than a brief handling of this interesting subject will be expected here. We follow, in the main, Dean Howson's Metaphors of St. Paul. The most noted of the Greek games were the Olympic, the Pythian, the Isthmian, and the Nemean. They bore the appellation of "sacred." They consisted of leaping, running, quoiting, wrestling, hurling the spear, and boxing; besides these, there were chariot-races. The Olympic games were held in the highest honor. The victors there were regarded as the happiest of mortals. They were crowned and led along the stadium, preceded by a herald, who proclaimed their names, parentage, and country. They were afterward solemnly received into their native cities. Poets sang their praise; statues were sometimes erected in their honor. These games were celebrated every five years at Olympia, in Elis, on the west side of the Peloponnesus; hence the epochs called "Olympiads." The other games were similar in toil and honor. The training preparatory to the contest in either was long and severe. Every care was taken to prevent foul play. The judges were strictly impartial. The prizes were of no intrinsic worth. At the Olympics the victors received each a wreath of wild-olive and a palm-branch; at the Pythian the crown or chaplet was made of laurel; at the Isthmian, of twigs of the pine tree; at the Nemean, of parsley or ivy. Only one out of all the combatants in each contest received a prize.

The apostle Paul was doubtless brought frequently in contact with these games, which, although Greek in their origin, were yet fostered by Rome. He may have formed part of the throng which witnessed the Isthmian games, since these were celebrated near Corinth and Paul spent 18 months in that city. At all events, he had heard the scenes described, and had had pointed out to him the victors. The gymnasium, or place of training, and the stadium, or ground for running, were among the most conspicuous and the most frequented spots in the architecture and embellishment 324 of the cities. That feature of these games which was the most exciting is the more frequently referred to-viz. the foot-race. Thus, Paul says: "None of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, that I might finish my course [end my race] with joy." Acts 20:24. Again:I have fought the good fight [an athletic, not a warlike, contest]; I have ended my race; I have kept the faith; henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day. See 2 Tim 4:7-8. "The race is nearly run, the struggle is all but over; he is weary, as it were, and panting with the effort; but he is successful. The crown is in sight, and the Judge who cannot make a mistake is there, ready to place that bright wreath upon his head." To the Galatians he says:

Foot-race. (Adapted from a View of the Circus Flora at Rome. Montfaucon.)

"Ye did run well; who did hinder you. that ye should not obey the truth?" Gal 5:7. The magnificent outburst in the Epistle to the Philippians, Phil 3:13-14, -"I count not myself to have apprehended: but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus," -rings vividly before us a racer. The oft-quoted passage, 1 Cor 9:24-27, receives a flood of light when we bear in mind the familiarity of the Corinthians with the Isthmian games. Paul alludes to the foot-race, out of which only one runner came as a victor, to the strict regimen requisite to success, to the vast superiority of the Christian's prize, and the shame it were if, while so much energy were put forth to gain a little reputation, the Christian should not strive to gain an unfading crown: "I so run, not as uncertainly." A man who does not know his own mind is seldom successful. But the runner keeps his eye fixed upon the goal, and bends all his energies to win it. And the apostle, almost in the same breath, alludes to the pugilist: "So fight I, not as one that beateth the air." v. 1 Cor 9:26. He would not beat the air, but make every blow tell, as the heavy blow from the hand covered with the nail-studded leather (cestus) inflicted a bruise every time it struck. I keep under my body and bring it into subjection: lest that by any means, when I have been a herald [the officer who summoned the competitors to the struggle] unto others, I myself should be a castaway -reference to the training of the pugilist. See v. 1 Cor 9:27. These are only a few of the passages in Paul's writings to be illustrated by the Grecian games.

The mention of the Chief of Asia (which see), or asiarchs, Acts 19:31, at Ephesus as the friends of Paul, in connection with Paul's declaration, taken literally, that he had "fought with beasts at Ephesus," 1 Cor 15:32, have led some to suppose the apostle was actually thrown into the arena, but delivered by a miracle, and that therefore the asiarchs treated him with consideration. But it is every way more likely that Paul uses a metaphor borrowed from the Roman games, in which fighting with wild 325 beasts was introduced. He alludes again to these brutal fights between men and beasts, or to the gladiatorial shows, when, in 1 Cor 4:9, he says: "God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death." The words "refer to the band of gladiators brought out last for death, the vast range of an amphitheatre under the open sky well representing the magnificent vision of all created beings, from men up to angels, gazing on the dreadful death-struggle, and then the contrast of the selfish Corinthians sitting by unconcerned and unmoved at the awful spectacle." — Stanley: Com. on Corinth,

The early Christians, like the Jews, but for different reasons, regarded these games and the theatrical exhibitions of the Greeks and Romans with horror. They were closely connected with heathenism; attendance upon them exposed the Christians to the cry, "To the lions!" for in this way many had been killed; hence, regard for the memory of their departed brethren should forbid Christians' attendance on them. But apart from these considerations, they were regarded as too worldly, as tending to withdraw the mind from the things of God and unduly to elevate the body. Surely, as conducted in later times, the games were brutalizing, and hence the humane spirit of Christ forbade the sight of so much bloodshed and suffering.

GAM'MADIM (Hebrew, brave soldiers). Eze 27:11. The prevailing opinion respecting this term is that it is rather descriptive of the men of Atvad, V. 11, than the name of any particular people.

GA'MUL (weaned), the leader of the twenty-second course of the priests. 1 Chr 24:17.

GAR'DEN. Isa 1:8. The gardens of the Hebrews were enclosures upon the outskirts of towns. Allusions to them are made Gen 21:33; Num 24:6; Job 8:16, and there is reason to suppose that they were chiefly devoted to fruit- and shade-trees and aromatic plants and herbs. 1 Kgs 21:2; Song 4:12-16. A reservoir of water was considered an indispensable appendage, either in the form of a fountain, a well, or a stream passing through it. Gen 2:10; Num 13:10. The gardens around Damascus are abundantly watered by little currents which are made to flow through every part of them. Beautiful allusions to this are made. Prov 21:1; Isa 58:11; Eccl 2:5-6. Gardens were used to some extent as burying-places, John 19:41, and also as places of religious worship and retirement. Isa 1:29; Isa 65:3. The custom at the present day is, as in the past, to erect a hut upon an artificial mound built in the centre of the field in which is a valuable crop, such as cucumbers, gourds, etc. In this hut a watchman lives until the crop is secured. This fact explains the allusion in Isa 1:8. When the harvest is over the hut is deserted, and gradually falls to pieces.

GA'REB (scabby), one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:38; 1 Chr 11:40.

GA'REB, THE HILL, near Jerusalem, and meaning scraped off. Jer 31:39. Ewald proposes to identify it with Golgotha; Conder noted a ruin called Gharahah, 3 miles south of Shiloh.

GAR'LANDS. Acts 14:13. The heathen adorned the victim of their sacrifices in a variety of ways. Probably the garlands mentioned in this passage were to decorate the head of the ox which they designed to sacrifice to the supposed gods.

GAR'LICK, a well-known bulbous root or vegetable similar to an onion (Allium sativum), which was cultivated in Egypt und much esteemed by the Jews. Num 11:5.

GAR'MENTS. See Clothes.

GAR'MITE, THE (the strong). Keilah the Garmite is mentioned 1 Chr 4:19.


GASH'MU (rain), a form of the name Geshem; used in Neh 6:6.

GA'TAM (a valley burnt), a grandson of Esau, and one of the "dukes" of Edom. Gen 36:11, Gen 36:16; 1 Chr 1:36.

GATE. 1 Sam 4:18. The entrances to walled cities are secured by gates of either wood, iron, or brass. Acts 12:10. Houses also were protected in the same way, and sometimes a door or passage was made in the gate, so as to save the necessity of opening the whole gate every time a single person would pass. Acts 12:13. In many Asiatic cities 326 there were broad streets covered over wholly or in part, and appropriated to merchants or tradesmen in particular branches of business, and there were also open squares in which the booths and stalls of venders were erected. These were frequently at the gates of the city, which were, of course, places of the greatest concourse. 2 Sam 15:2, 2 Kgs 7:1; Neh 8:1; Job 29:7; Prov 22:22; Prov 31:23. The gates were often also the places of judicial proceedings, Deut 17:5; Deut 25:7; Am 5:10, Am 5:12, Am 5:15 — the mode of conducting which may be learned from Ruth 4:1-12 — and of general resort. Gen 19:1, and, of course, frequented by idlers and loungers. Ps 69:12. In Arabia the gate of the city is still the place of judgment.

Gate of Damascus.

As the possession of the gates of the city was a possession of the city itself, the word is sometimes used to signify power. Gen 22:17; Isa 24:12. Hence the expression of our Lord that "the gates of hell"(Hades) shall never prevail against his Church. Matt 16:18. The government of the sultan is called "the Sublime Porte."

Gates, like doors, were often ornamented, 1 Kgs 6:34; 2 Kgs 18:16, etc.; the Beautiful Gate, Acts 3:2, required 20 men to close it. "The figurative expression 'to exalt the gate,' Prov 17:19 — i.e. to have the opening of the gateway lofty — implies ostentation, which is likely to provoke envy, and therefore leads often to destruction." — Ayre.

GATH (wine-press), one of the five cities of the Philistines, Josh 13:3; 1 Sam 6:17; Am 6:2; Mic 1:10; a stronghold of the Anakim, Josh 11:22; home of Goliath, 1 Sam 17:4; place whither the ark was carried, 1 Sam 5:8; where David sought refuge, 1 Sam 21:10-15; was strengthened by Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:8; taken by Hazael of Syria, 2 Kgs 12:17; probably recovered by Jehoash, 2 Kgs 13:25; broken down by Uzziah, 2 Chr 26:6; was probably destroyed before the time of the later prophecies, as it is omitted from the list of royal cities. See Zeph 2:4; Zech 9:5-6. Thomson would identify it with Eleutheropolis, but Porter, Warren, and Conder place Gath at Tel es-Saji, 15 miles south of Ramleh and 12 miles south-east of Ashdod.

GATH-HE'PHER (wine-press of the well), a town of Zebulun, the home of Jonah, 2 Kgs 14:25; called also Gittah-hepher, Josh 19:13: now el Meshhad, a small village on a rocky hill, 2 miles east of Sepphoris, on the short route from Nazareth to Tiberias.

GATH-RIM'MON (pommegranate).

  1. A Levitical city of Dan, Josh 21:24; 1 Chr 6:69; not far from Joppa.

  2. A town of Manasseh west of the Jordan, belonging to the Levites, Josh 21:25; called Bileam in 1 Chr 6:70.


GA'ZA (Hebrew Azzah, strong), the chief of the five cities of the Philistines, 50 miles south-west of Jerusalem, 3 miles from the Mediterranean, and 10 miles from Ascalon; now called Ghuzzeh.

History. — Gaza is one of the oldest cities in the world; was peopled by the descendants of Ham, Gen 10:19; by the Anakim, Josh 11:22; given to Judah, Josh 15:47; the scene of Samson's exploits, Jud 16; under Solomon's rule, and called Azzah, 1 Kgs 4:24; smitten by Egypt, Jer 47:1, Isa 47:5; prophesied against. Am 1:6-7; Zeph 2:4; Zech 9:5; noticed in N.T. only in Acts 8:26; a chief stronghold of paganism and the worship of the god Marnas (Dagon), whose temples were destroyed, a.d. 400; taken by the Arabs, a.d. 634; restored by the Crusaders, a.d. 1149; plundered by Saladin, a.d. 1170, and again in a.d. 1187; taken by Napoleon, 1799; has now about 18,000 population, mostly Moslems. The town is now without walls or gates, but is in the midst of olive-orchards. Conder thinks the ancient town stood on the hill where most of the modern town now stands. The place is full of reminiscences of Samson and his tragic end. The pillars are shown which he pulled down. 327 The inhabitants are chiefly Moslems; but there is also a Greek church, and a Protestant school in connection with the Jerusalem mission. See Philistine.

GA'ZER. See Gezer.

GA'ZEZ (shearer), the names of the son and grandson of Caleb, 1 Chr 2:46, although some suppose the second is a repetition of the first.

GAZ'ZAM (devouring), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:48; Neh 7:51.

GE'BA (kill), a Levitical city of Benjamin, Josh 21:17; 1 Chr 6:60; also called Gaba. Josh 18:24. In the reign of Saul it was held by the Philistines, but taken by Jonathan, 1 Sam 13:3; was a northern landmark of Judah, 2 Kgs 23:8; was rebuilt by Asa, 1 Kgs 15:22; held by the Assyrians, Isa 10:29; peopled by Benjamites after the Captivity. Ezr 2:26. Geba and Gibeah appear to be sometimes confounded in the English Version (see 1 Sam 14:5), though they were separate towns. Geba was near Michmash and on the south side of the ravine. It has been identified with Jeba, a deserted village 6 miles north of Jerusalem, and 1 mile from Michmash. The ravine now called Wady Suweinit is the ancient pass of Michmash. 1 Sam 14:5, 1 Sam 14:31.

GE'BAL (mountain).

  1. A place near Tyre; now Jebail, 10 miles north of Beyrout, and known as Byblus by the Greeks. Eze 27:9. Among the ruins of an ancient citadel are stones 20 feet long, and in finish and size closely resembling those seen in the foundation of the temple at Jerusalem, and suggesting the same class of workmen.

  2. Some identify the Gebal of Ps 83:7 with northern Edom, called el-Jebal, but others regard it as Geba, No. 1.

GE'BER (man), two men of Solomon's twelve ofiicers for provision. 1 Kgs 4:13, 1 Kgs 4:19.

GE'BIM (ditches), a place near Jerusalem. Isa 10:31. Conder places it at el-Jib; Grove at el-Isawiyeh.

GEDALI'AH (whom Jehovah hath made powerful), the governor of Judaea, appointed by Nebuchadnezzar after its subjection. 2 Kgs 25:22; Jer 40:5. He was a friend of Jeremiah's, Jer 40:6, and had the confidence of the people, but was not permitted long to rule, for a party of the royal family of Judah, headed by Ishmael, rose against him and slew him. Jer 41:2.

GE'DER (walled place), possibly same as Gedor, No. 2. Josh 12:13.

GEDE'RAH (sheep-cote).

  1. A town near the valley of Elah, and in the lowlands of Judah. Josh 15:36; now Jedireh, 9 miles south of Ludd. 2. A town in Benjamin. 1 Chr 12:4; now Jedireh, No. 2, 6 miles north-west of Jerusalem.

GEDE'ROTH (sheep-cotes), a city in the plain of Judah; taken by the Philistines, Josh 15:41; 2 Chr 28:18. Warren suggests as its site Katrah, a village in the valley of Sorek, 3 miles south-west of 'Akir (Ekron).

GEDEROTHA'IM (two sheepfolds), a town in the low-country of Judah. Josh 15:36.

GE'DOR (wall).

1, 2. Two names in the genealogy of Judah. 1 Chr 4:4, 1 Chr 4:18.

  1. A Benjamite name in Saul's genealogy. 1 Chr 8:31; 1 Chr 9:37.

GE'DOR (wall).

  1. A town in the hill-country of Judah, Josh 15:58; probably Jedar, 8 miles north of Hebron.

  2. A town apparently of Benjamin, 2 Chr 12:7, and probably the same as Geder of Josh 12:13.

  3. Gedor of 1 Chr 4:39 was probably between Judah and Mount Seir. The Septuagint calls it Gerar.

GEHA'ZI (valley of vision), the servant and constant attendant of Elisha. On three occasions he comes into prominence in connection with the Shunammite, 2 Kgs 4:12-37;2 Kgs 8:4, and later he was guilty of deception in the matter of Naaman the Syrian, and in punishment was made a leper. 2 Kgs 5:20-27. See Elisha.

GEHEN'NA. See Hinnom, Valley of.

GEL'ILOTH (circle), one of the places marking the boundary of Benjamin. Josh 18:17. Gilgal is in place of Geliloth in Josh 15:7, and the two are supposed to be identical. See Gilgal.

GEMAL'LI (camel-driver), the father of the spy from Dan. Num 13:12.

GEMARI'AH (whom Jehovah hath perfected).

  1. The son of Hilkiah, Zedekiah's ambassador to Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 29:3.

  2. The son of Shaphan, a minister of Jehoiakim, from whose house Baruch


read Jeremiah's prophecy. Jer 36:10-12, Jer 36:25.

GEMS. See recious Stones.

GENEAL'OGY. The matter of pedigree was deemed of great importance by the Hebrews and ancient peoples generally, as at present among the Arabs. Genealogical lists are interspersed all through the historical books of the O.T. They are called "the book of the generation of," etc. They answer also a spiritual purpose. They prove the faithfulness of God in favoring the increase of the race, in accordance with his command, in keeping his promise to Abraham and his seed, in raising up priests to minister in his sanctuary, and finally, in sending, when the set time had come and all things were ready, his Son into the world. As far as the Bible is concerned, the preservation of these genealogical lists was for the authentication of Christ's descent. But the historical use is by no means to be ignored; indeed, in proportion as we grasp its value shall we attain conviction of the perfect reality of the earthly descent of Christ from the seed of David, according to prophecy.

The first biblical genealogy is Gen 4:16-24. It gives the descendants of Cain. The following chapter gives the family of Seth. The tenth and eleventh chapters, though the ordinary reader might pass them over because they seem to consist of mere unimportant names, are regarded by ethnologists as invaluable, since they contain a history of the dispersion of the nations in prehistoric times. The first eight chapters of 1 Chronicles are devoted to genealogical accounts, beginning with Adam, because, as it is stated, "all Israel were reckoned by genealogies." 1 Chron 9:1. It is, however, to be observed that these several lists are not in all cases records of direct descent, though, perhaps, in the majority of instances, they are unbroken. Still, they are not sufficient to determine the length of any period, since in many cases the list the writer has transcribed contains only prominent names. Women are named occasionally, when there is something remarkable about them or when any right or property is transmitted through them. See Gen 11:29; Ex 6:23; 1 Chr 2:4; Luke 1:5, etc. Another feature is that these records especially concern the line of the chosen seed and the tribe and family from which our Lord sprung. Seth's family is more fully stated than Cain's, Abraham's than Lot's, Isaac's than Ishmael's, etc. They are both ascending and descending. For the former, see 1 Chr 6:33-43; Ezr 7:1-5; for the descending, see Ruth 4:18-22; 1 Chr 3. The descending scale is likely to take in the collateral branches. There are many clerical errors in these lists.

But notwithstanding these alterations and abridgments, it is capable of proof that the Bible presents us transcripts from certain official records. They bear the evidence of substantial truth. That such records existed is indicated rather than proved. Thus, the assignments of the temple-service by David were genealogical. In the reign of Rehoboam, Iddo wrote a book on genealogies. 2 Chr 12:15. From 2 Chr 31:16-19 we learn that in Hezekiah's day there existed genealogies — of the priests, at all events. The lists in Ezra and Nehemiah prove that such lists and others survived the Captivity. It is a monstrous assumption to say that they were forged. Lord Hervey (in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible) points out an incidental allusion to these lists at the time of Christ in proof that the census went upon them as a basis, since Joseph went to Bethlehem because he was of the house of David. Manifestly, Joseph had, in the genealogy of his family, good grounds for this belief. Probably "the registers of the Jewish tribes and families perished at the destruction of Jerusalem, and not before, although some partial records may have survived the event." When the temple fell there was no longer any special need of these lists. The Aaronic priesthood was no more; the nation was dispersed in captivity; the Messiah was come.

Genealogy of Jesus Christ. Matt 1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38. This is the only genealogy given us in the N.T. "We have two lists of the human ancestors of Christ: Matthew, writing for Jewish Christians, begins with Abraham; Luke, writing for Gentile Christians, goes back to Adam, the father of all men. According to his human nature, Christ was the descendant of Abraham, David, and Mary; according to his divine nature, he was the eternal and only begotten 329 Son of God, begotten from the essence of the Father. John 1:1-18, begins his Gospel by setting forth his divine genealogy. In him, the God-man, all the ascending aspirations of human nature toward God and all the descending revelations of God to man meet in perfect harmony. Matthew begins at Abraham, 1. To prove to Jewish Christians that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised Messiah; 2. To show the connection between the Old and New Testaments through a succession of living persons ending in Jesus Christ, who is the subject of the Gospel and the object of the faith it requires. Christ is the fulfilment of all the types and prophecies of the 0.T., the heir of all its blessings and promises, the dividing-line and connecting-link of ages, the end of the old and the beginning of the new history of mankind. In the long list of his human ancestors we have a cloud of witnesses, a compend of the history of preparation for the coming of Christ down to the Virgin Mary, in whom culminated the longing and hope of Israel for redemption. It is a history of divine promises and their fulfilment, of human faith and hope for the desire of all nations. In the list are named illustrious heroes of faith, but also obscure persons written in the secret book of God, as well as gross sinners redeemed by grace, which reaches the lowest depths as well as the most exalted heights of society. Matthew's table is divided into three parts, corresponding to three periods of Jewish preparation for the coming of Christ." —Schaff.

The differences between Matthew and Luke have been variously explained. Both lists are incomplete and names must be supplied (there are only nine names for a period of 833 years). They coincide until David, when Matthew takes the reigning line through Solomon, Luke the younger and inferior line by David's son Nathan. A more serious difficulty is that names do not appear in the same place in the two lists. The greatest difference is that Matthew calls Joseph the son of Jacob, while Luke calls him the son of Heli or Eli. He cannot have been naturally the son of both, and it is not likely that the two names are meant for one and the same person. Hence the following theories:

  1. The oldest explanation assumes one, or perhaps two, levirate marriages in the family of Joseph — i.e. a marriage of a man to the childless widow of his elder brother, the children of the second marriage being reckoned as the legal descendants of the first husband. Heli and Jacob may have been brothers or half-brothers (sons of the same mother, but of different fathers), successively married to the mother of Joseph, who according to law was registered by Luke as the son of Heli, though naturally the son of Jacob, as recorded by Matthew. But this view involves inaccuracy in one or the other of the two genealogies.

  2. Matthew gives the legal or royal genealogy of Joseph, Luke the private line of Joseph. But this is exposed to the same objection.

  3. Matthew gives the genealogy of Joseph, Luke the genealogy of Mary. Heli may have been the father of Mary and the father-in-law of Joseph, and consequently the grandfather of Jesus. Luke, writing for Gentiles and proving that Christ was the seed of the woman, traces the natural or real pedigree of Jesus through his mother, Mary, in the line of Nathan, and indicates this by the parenthetical remark, "Jesus being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph [but in reality] the son of Heli," or his grandson by the mother's side. Mary is always called by the Jews "the daughter of Heli." Matthew, writing for Jews, gives the legal pedigree of Jesus (which was always reckoned in the male line) through Joseph, his legal father, in the line of Solomon. This explanation is the easiest, and has been adopted by Luther, Grotius, Bengel, Olshausen, Ebrard, Wieseler, Robinson, Gardiner, Lange, Plumptre. It is supported by the fact that in Matthew's history of the infancy Joseph is most prominent; in Luke's account, Mary. Jesus, then, was both legally and really the son and heir of David. The Davidic descent of Jesus is a mark of the Messiah, and is clearly taught in the prophecy, and also in Rom 1:3; 2 Tim 2:8; Heb 7:14; John 7:42; Acts 13:23. If we take this explanation, Jesus was in a double sense the son of David — in law and in fact, from his reputed father and from his natural mother.


GENERA'TION, or GENERA'TIONS, "has three secondary meanings in the A.V.: 1. A genealogical register, as Gen 5:1. 2. A family history, Gen 6:9; Gen 25:1, since early history among the Orientals is drawn so much from genealogical registers. 3. A history of the origin of things as well as persons — e.g. of the earth." — Smith.

GEN'ESIS, the first book of the Bible, and by far the most interesting of all books relating to the primitive history of mankind. The term signifies "beginning" or "origin."

Contents. — Genesis gives us a history of the origin of the world, of the human family, of sin, of the promise of redemption, and of the Jewish people. The first eleven chapters are occupied with a general account of the creation of all things, and with the history of Adam, of the first inhabitants of the earth, of the Deluge, of Noah, and finally of the confusion of tongues at Babel. With the twelfth chapter begins the history of the patriarchs and the chosen people. A detailed account is given of the lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph.

There are no good grounds for doubting Moses to be the author. With the use of older documents and traditions, he compiled, under divine direction, the history as we have it. Much criticism has been expended upon the account it gives of the creation of man and of the world in the first chapter. Here as in no other ancient account God is sharply distinguished from matter, and is made to exist before the world. The universe comes into being at his command. The order of created things in Genesis is substantially the order of geology and biology. Both begin with the formation of the earth and proceed from the vegetable to animal life; both stop with man. The word translated "day" probably means an indefinite period. The "seventh day," which has no evening, ch. Gen 2:2, cannot refer to a day of 24 hours, but to the long redemptive period in which we are living. See Creation.

Few if any existing documents have a more venerable age than has Genesis. Covering nearly 2500 years, it gives us the account of the preparation of this planet as an abode for man and the first annals of the race. Its value cannot be over-estimated as a fragment of literature or as a work of history, and it has been well observed that in the first page of Genesis a child may learn more in an hour than all the philosophers in the world learned without it in a thousand years.

GENNES'ARET, LAKE OF. Luke 5:1. See Galilee, Sea of.

GENNES'ARET, THE LAND OF. A small crescent-shaped strip of country on the north-west side of the Sea of Galilee was called "The land of Gennesaret" (though often inaccurately written "Gennesareth"). It is named only twice in Scripture. Matt 14:34; Mark 6:53; comp. Luke 5:1. It is generally supposed to apply to the plain called by the Arabs el-Ghunweir, or "little Ghor." It lies along the lake for 3 or 4 miles, and extends back about a mile or more, where it is shut in by the hills. The southern part, reaching nearly to Mejdel, is still watered by several streams; the northern portion, reaching to Khan Minyeh, now without water, is supposed to have been irrigated by an aqueduct from the fountain of Capernaum, probably 'Ain Tabighah.

The plain was formerly very rich and fruitful, according to Josephus, and is supposed to be the scene of the parable of the Sower, Matt 13:1-8, but it is now fruitful in thorns. The banks of the lake and of the brook running from the fountain 'Ain Tabighah are fringed with oleanders. Fish still abound in the stream, as in the adjacent lake. The fountain el-Mudawarah, or "round spring," about 30 yards in diameter and 2 feet deep, and from which the water bursts forth in a considerable volume, has by Tristram been regarded as the spring of Capharnaum, noticed by Josephus; but this is disputed by the best authorities, and Tristram himself has given it up. For Map, see Galilee, Sea of.

This land of Gennesaret has been held to contain three important cities, Capernaum, Bethsaida, and Chorazin, but none of these were in the "plain" of Gennesaret, unless Capernaum was located at Khan Miuyeh. See Capernaum. Bethsaida (Et Tabighah) and Chorazin (Kerazeh) were farther north. Mejdel, the ancient Magdala, seems to have been the only town in the plain, which, like the other plains (Esdraelon, Sharon, etc.), was unoccupied, people preferring 331 for comfort and safety to live on the mountains and hills.

GEN'TILE. This was the name by which the Jews designated all men but themselves — i.e. all pagan nations who were ignorant of the true God, and idolaters. Luke 2:32; Acts 26:17, Acts 26:20; Rom 2:9; Dan 9:24, etc. In opposition to the Gentiles, the Hebrews regarded themselves, and were in fact, the chosen "people of God." Sometimes the "Greeks," as the most cultivated among the heathen, stand for them. Rom 1:16; Acts 16:1, Acts 16:3, etc. Paul is called the "apostle to the Gentiles" on account of his special mission and work among them.

Court of the Gentiles. See Temple.

Isles of the Gentiles, Gen 10:5, is supposed to denote Asia Minor and the whole of Europe, which was peopled by the children of Japheth.

GENU'BATH (theft), the son of Hadad, the adversary of Solomon. 1 Kgs 11:20.

GE'RA (a grain).

  1. A son or grandson of Benjamin. Gen 46:21; 1 Chr 8:3, 1 Chr 8:5, 1 Chr 8:7.

  2. The father of Ehud. Jud 3:15.

  3. The father of Shimei. 2 Sam 16:5; 2 Sam 19:16; 1 Kgs 2:8.

GE'RAH. See Measures.

GE'RAR (residence, or water-pots), a city and district in the south of Palestine, and near Gaza, Gen 10:19; visited by Abraham, Gen 20:1; by Isaac, Gen 26:1; Asa pursued the defeated Ethiopians to it. 2 Chr 14:13. Eusebius knew of Gerar as 25 miles from Eleutheropolis. The city may be Khurbet Umm Jerrar, several miles south of the valley of Ghuzzeh, which runs from Beersheba to the sea. Some locate the city at el-'Anjeh.

GER'GESA, and GER'GESENES. The "country of the Gergesenes," Matt 8:28 — probably the same as "Gadarenes," Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26 — was on the east side of the Sea of Galilee. The scene of the miracle was, according to Thomson, near modern Khersa, where the hills approach within 40 feet of the water. See Gadarenes.

GER'IZIM, MOUNT, a mountain in Ephraim, near Shechem, from which the blessings were pronounced, as the curses were from Mount Ebal, Deut 11:29; Deut 27:1-13; Josh 8:30-33, Gerizim is 2855 feet above the level of the sea, and about 800 feet above Nablus (Shechem). It is separated from Ebal by a narrow valley. Six tribes were placed on Gerizim, and six on Ebal, Deut 27:12-13, the ark probably in the valley between them, and Joshua read the blessings and cursings successively. Josh 8:33, Josh 8:35. The Levites on either side re-echoed them, and the people responded "Amen!" Deut 27:14-15. Gerizim was the scene of the first recorded parable — that of the trees and brambles. Jud 9:7-21. It was the site of the Samaritan temple, and referred to by the woman at the well. John 4:20. Samaritan tradition asserts that it is the place where Abraham offered Isaac, but this is not sustained by the best authorities. It is now Jebel et Tur. See Moriah.

Present Condition. — The mountain is composed chiefly of limestone. It has a large plateau on its summit, covered with ruins of cisterns, paved platforms, and on one side those of a castle. The whole mountain-top bears traces of having once been covered with houses.

The small remnant of the Samaritan sect at Nablus performs annually the paschal sacrifice on the top of Gerizim according, to the prescription of the book of Exodus 12. It is the only spot on earth where this Jewish festival is perpetuated in its primitive style. Dean Stanley and other travellers have visited the scene, and point out the striking resemblance to the Mosaic prescription. The amphitheatre formed by these two mounts, Gerizim and Ebal, is most suitable for assembling a vast body of people within the hearing of the human voice, and where all could see what was being done. There is no other place like it in all Palestine. Numerous travellers have repeated the experiment of stationing persons on the opposite mounts, and heard the reading of the ten commandments by each party, and they were also heard by each other with great distinctness. See Ebal, Shechem.

GER'SHOM (expulsion).

  1. The first-born son of Moses and Zipporah. Ex 2:22; Ex 18:3.

  2. A corruption of Gershon. 1 Chr 6:16-17; 1 Chr 15:7.

  3. A priest with Ezra. Ezr 8:2.

GER'SHON (expulsion), the eldest of Levi's sons, Gen 46:11; Ex 6:16-17; 332 1 Chr 6:1, and founder of the Gerfihonites. Num 3:21.

GER'ZITES. See Gezrites.

GE'SHAM (filthy), a descendant of Judah; also improperly written Geshan. 1 Chr 2:47.

GE'SHEM (ram), also called GASH'MU, an Arabian who, with Sanballat and Tobiah, opposed Nehemiah while the wall was building. Neh 2:19; Neh 6:1-2.

GE'SHUR (bridge), a small district or principality of Syria, east of the Jordan and north-east of Bashan. It was within the territory allotted to Manasseh, Deut 3:14; 2 Sam 15:8; 1 Chr 2:23; Josh 13:13; David married a daughter of its king, 2 Sam 3:3,- Absalom fled thither after the murder of Amnon, 2 Sam 13:37. Geshur was probably a part of that rocky region now known as "the Lejah," still the refuge of criminals and outlaws. Merrill places Geshur south of Mt. Hermon, east of the Sea of Galilee and north of Bashan.


  1. The inhabitants of Geshur. Deut 3:14; Josh 12:5; Acts 13:11, Josh 13:13.

  2. An ancient tribe bordering on the Philistines to the south. Josh 13:2.

GE'THER (drugs ?), a son of Aram. Gen 10:23; 1 Chr 1:17.

GETHSEM'ANE (oil-press), a place across the Kedron and at the foot of Olivet, noted as the scene of our Lord's agony. John 18:1; Mark 14:26; Luke 22:39. A garden or orchard was attached to it, and it was a place to which Jesus frequently resorted. Matt 26:36; Mark 14:32; John 18:2. Tradition, which since the fourth century has placed it on the lower slope of Olivet, about 100 yards east of the bridge over the Kedron, seems to agree with the requirements of the Gospel narratives. It is a small, irregular, four-sided spot, enclosed by a high wall, and about 70 paces in circumference. The wall was built in 1847 by Franciscan monks, who say it was necessary to restrain pilgrims from injuring the olive trees. The old olive trees are seven or eight in number, the trunks cracked from age and shored up with stones. The trees are said to date back to the time of Christ. They are surely of great age and size (19 feet in circumference), but Titus cut down all the trees about Jerusalem, and the Crusaders found the country destitute of wood, and we have no mention of old olive trees before the sixteenth century; hence it can only be stated that these old olives are possibly descendants of those which grew here in the time of Christ. The garden now has younger olives and a dozen cypresses. The monks keep in it a flower-garden, and present each visitor with a bouquet of roses, pinks, and other flowers, for which one franc is expected in payment. Olive-oil and rosaries from the olive-stones are also sold at a high price.

Tradition, which is not trustworthy, fixes the spot of Christ's suffering at the so-called Cavern of Agony, a grotto in a solid rock, near the garden. The place of the arrest of Christ was pointed out in the Middle Ages at the above spot, and near by the spot where Judas betrayed Jesus was also marked by tradition. Dr. Thomson and some others think the present garden too near the public road for Gethsemane, and would place it farther to the north-east. The Latins control the present garden, and the Greeks have set up a Gethsemane of their own, farther up the Mount of Olives.

GEU'EL (majesty of God), the spy from the tribe of Gad. Num 13:15.

GE'ZER (steep place), called also GAZER, GAZA'RA, GAZE'RA, and GAD, a royal city of Canaan, and one of the oldest cities of the land.Josh 10:33; Josh 12:12. Gezer was in Benjamin; given to Kohath, Josh 21:21; 1 Chr 6:67; noticed in the wars of David, 1 Sam 27:8; 2 Sam 5:25; 1 Chr 20:4; burned by Pharaoh in Solomon's days, 1 Kgs 9:15-17; given to Solomon's Egyptian wife, and rebuilt by him; was an important city in the time of the Maccabees. M. Ganneau, from a hint given by an old Arab chronicler, has identified Gezer with Tell el-Jezer, 4 miles from Nicopolis. Numerous ruins were found, indicating a city of importance, and inscriptions in Greek and square Hebrew characters giving the name and noting the boundaries of the Levitical city — a discovery of great importance, being the only one of its kind as yet brought to light.

GEZ'RITES (dwellers in a barren land), a tribe in the time of Saul, who


Garden of Gethsemane. (After Photographs by the Palestine Fund.) 334 shared with the Geshurites and Amalekites the land between the south of Palestine and Egypt, 1 Sam 27:8. The name is properly Gerzites, and they once dwelt in central Palestine, as is proven by the name of Mount Gerizim.

GHOST. Gen 25:8. To "give up the ghost" means to expire, "Ghost" is used by Shakespeare and other English writers as synonymous with "spirit." The words in Matt 27:50 would be better translated:" Christ gave up his spirit."

Holy Ghost. The third person in the Holy Trinity. See God, Spirit.

GI'AH (a breaking forth; here, a waterfall), near the hill Arumah, 2 Sam 2:24.

GI'ANT denotes men of extraordinary size or height. Gen 6:4. The sons of Anak are usually looked upon as giants, on account of the expression of which the spies made use — that they were "as grasshoppers ... in their sight." Num 13:33. The fright of the Israelites makes it probable that they were referring to strength rather than stature. The king of Bashan, Deut 3:11, and Goliath, 1 Sam 17:4, were warlike and dreaded giants. See Rephaim.

GIB'BAR (gigantic), the father of some who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:20.

GIB'BETHON (height), a town of Dan: given to the Kohathites, Josh 19:44; Josh 21:23; held by the Philistines in the reigns of Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, and Omri. 1 Kgs 15:27; 1 Kgs 16:17. The siege lasted 27 years. Conder proposes to identify it with Gibbieh or Kibbieh, between Eltekah and Baalath.

GIB'EA (hill), a name in the genealogy of Judah, 1 Chr 2:49; probably the name of a place rather than of a person. See Gibeah, 1.

GIB'EAH (a hill), the name of several towns.

  1. Gibeah in the hill-country of Judah, Josh 15:57; now probably Jeboh, 10 miles north of Hebron. This is doubted by Grove, but supported by Robinson, Porter, and Conder.

  2. Gibeah of Benjamin, 1 Sam 13:2; first mentioned in Jud 19; a shameful crime by some of its people nearly destroyed the tribe of Benjamin, Jud 20-21. It is generally regarded the same as Gibeah of Saul, and located at Tuleil el-Ful, "hill of beans," 4 miles north of Jerusalem, and east of the road from Jerusalem to Nabulus (Shechem).

  3. Gibeah of Saul is held by most authorities to be the same as Gibeah of Benjamin, but Baedeker's Hand-book assumes that they are distinct cities, and holds that Geba and Gibeah were sometimes confounded. For in 1 Sam 14:1-15, Geba near Michmash, or Jeba, would answer the conditions of Jonathan's exploit, but V. 1 Sam 14:16 suddenly takes us back to Gibeah of Benjamin, toward which the Philistines would hardly have retreated if any other route was open to them. Again, in 1 Sam 13:2, 1 Sam 13:15, Jonathan is at Gibeah of Benjamin, and Samuel also, but in v. 1 Sam 13:3 Jonathan smites the Philistines at Gebah, and he and Saul remain at "Geba," as many versions read, and Gibeah, as in our English version. For notices of Gibeah of Saul, see 1 Sam 10:26; 1 Sam 11:4; 1 Sam 15:34; 1 Sam 22:6; 1 Sam 23:19; Isa 10:29, etc. In the first passage it is called "Gibeah Elohim," meaning, in the Hebrew, "Gibeah of God," or "the hill," as our version reads in 1 Sam 7:1, and correctly.

  4. Gibeah in Kirjath-jearim was no doubt a hill in that city, 2 Sam 6:3-4, on which the house of Abinadab stood, where the ark was left.

  5. Gibeah in the field, Jud 20:31; probably the same as Geba.

  6. Gibeah-haaraloth, Josh 5:3, margin. See Gilgal.

GIB'EATH (hill), probably the same as Gibeah of Benjamin, Josh 18:28. See Gibeah, 2.

GIB'EON (of a hill), a city of the Hivites, Josh 9:3-21, about 6 miles north of Jerusalem.

History. — Gibeon, after its league with Joshua, was attacked by the Canaanites; secured Joshua's help; near it Joshua commanded the sun to stand still. Josh 10:12-13; Isa 28:21; the city was given to Benjamin and to the Levites, Josh 18:25; John 21:17; it was the scene of a mortal skirmish between twelve of Abner's and twelve of Joab's men, also of the murders of Asahel by Abner, and of Amasa by Joab, 2 Sam 2:12-24; 2 Sam 20:8-10; because Saul broke the covenant with the Gibeonites, in the days of David a famine broke out, which, after three years, stopped by the hanging of seven of 335 Saul's sons, 2 Sam 21:1, 2 Sam 21:2-6; the tabernacle was set up at Gibeon, 1 Chr 16:39; and Solomon oftered great sacrifices there, 1 Kgs 3:4-5; 1 Kgs 9:2; 2 Chr 1:3, 2 Chr 1:13; Jehoram recovered captives at Gibeon, Jer 41:12-16; its people helped to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem after the Captivity, Neh 3:7; Neh 7:25; Ezr 2:20, margin. It is now called el-Jib, a small village in the midst of ancient ruins, and standing on a low circular hill, whose steep sides are covered with vineyards. At the eastern base of the hill is a fine spring; the water runs into a reservoir 120 by 100 feet, which is probably the "Pool of Gibeon."

GIB'EONITES, the inhabitants of Gibeon, 2 Sam 21:1-4, 2 Sam 21:9.

GIB'LITES, THE, a people inhabiting Gebel, Josh 13:5.

GIDDAL'TI (I have trained up), a Kohathite Levite, head of the twenty second course, 1 Chr 25:4, 1 Chr 25:29.

GID'DELL (very great), names of two persons whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:47, Ezr 2:56; Neh 7:49, Neh 7:58.

GID'EON (a hewer), the son of Joash the Abiezrite, and fifth judge of Israel. He first comes into notice when an angel appears to him under the oak in Ophrah and assures him of God's special favor, Jud 6:11-12. Subsequently, God commanded him to offer as a sacrifice to the Lord the bullock which his father had set apart for Baal, and to destroy the altar of Baal. He did both of these things, but only escaped the murderous wrath of his fellow-citizens through the wily intervention of his father, Jud 6:31.

The great works of Gideon's life were the abolition of idolatry, Jud 8:33, and the deliverance of the land from the invasions of the Midianites. Before undertaking the latter enterprise, he secured a pledge of the divine favor in the phenomena of the dew and the fleece, Jud 6:36-40. God, desirous of showing the victory to be the immediate result of supernatural agency, diminished Gideon's army from 32,000 to 300. With this small force Gideon had recourse to stratagem, and in an assault by night completely terrified and successfully routed the enemy, Judges 7.

Gideon refused the crown, Jud 8:23, from the whole nation, which his son Abimelech afterward received from a part. He judged Israel for 40 years, Jud 8:28, and the nation enjoyed peace and engaged in the worship of God, Jud 8:33. He was one of her greatest rulers, and is honorably mentioned Heb 11:32.

GIDEO'NI (a cutting down),The father of the prince of Benjamin in the wilderness. Num 1:11; Num 2:22; Num 7:60, Num 7:65; John 10:24.

GI'DOM (cutting down, desolation), between Gibeah and the cliff of Rimmon, Jud 20:45. It has not been identified.

GIER'-EAGLE (racham = parental affection), the Egyptian vulture, an unclean bird. Lev 11:18; Deut 14:17.

GIFT, The practice of making presents as a token of esteem and respect prevailed very extensively in the East. They were frequently made to secure favor, as in the case of Jacob and Esau, Gen 32:13-15. Kings and princes often made splendid gifts. Gen 45:22-23, and subjects approached their kings with presents. 1 Kgs 4:21; 2 Chr 17:5, etc. To refuse to make presents to a king was a mark of contempt, 1 Sam 10:27. The articles thus bestowed were very various — cattle. Gen 32:13; garments, 2 Kgs 5:23; money, 2 Sam 18:11, etc. See, for a list of presents, 1 Kgs 10:25. The wise men from the East presented the infant Jesus with the most costly articles of the Orient — "gold, and frankincense, and myrrh." Matt 2:11.

The peculiar offerings under the Law are spoken of as gifts. Deut 16:17; Matt 5:23-24. And it is with singular force that the blessings of the gospel through Jesus Christ are called gifts, inasmuch as they cannot be purchased, and nothing can be given in return for them.

GIFTS. The word "gifts" is employed to describe those graces or qualities with which Christ endues his disciples. Eph 4:8, Eph 4:11-12. Some of these, which were bestowed on the early apostles, were miraculous, and designed to confirm their claims to apostolic authority, such as the gift of tongues, of prophecy, etc. The "ministry of gifts" ceased with the apostles, although some hold that they have been continued, and are still dispensed; as, for example, the Irvingites.

GI'HON (fountain, or stream).

  1. The name of the second river of Eden, Gen 2:13. Some identify it with the Nile. See Eden.

  2. A place near Jerusalem where Solomon was proclaimed king, 1 Kgs 1:33-45. Hezekiah stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and Manasseh built a wall on the west side of Gihon in the valley. 2 Chr 32:30; 2 Chr 33:14. Upper Gihon has been identified by some with Birket Mamilla, 150 rods west of the wall of Jerusalem, which is a pool 300 feet long, 200 wide, and 20 deep. Lower Gihon is supposed to have been the same as Birket es-Sultan, south-west of the Jaffa gate, a pool 600 feet long, 250 broad, and 40 deep. Warren, however, proposes the Pool of the Bath or Hezekiah as the Lower Gihon, the valley being that from the Jaffa gate to the temple-site, now filled up, while Grove and Conder favor the pool Siloam as the site of Gihon. See Jerusalem.

GIL'ALAI (dungy, or weighty), a musical priest in Nehemiah's day, Neh 12:36.

GILBO'A, or GIL'BOA (bubbling fountain), a mountain east of the plain of Jezreel, about 10 miles long, running east-south-east and west-north-west; the northern slope is steep; the southern was probably once covered with forests, though it is now inhabited and cultivated.

History. — Gilboa was a place where Saul and Jonathan were slain in battle, and from whence Saul went to consult the witch of Endor. 1 Sam 28:4; 1 Sam 31:6; 1 Chr 10:1; 2 Sam 1:21. The mountain is now called Jebel Fukua'; the place is called Jelbon.

GIL'EAD (hard). 1. The grandson of Manasseh, Num 26:29-30, etc.

  1. The father of Jephthah, Jud 11:1-2.

  2. A Gadite, 1 Chr 5:14.

GIL'EAD (rocky region), called also MOUNT GILEAD and LAND OF GILEAD, Gen 31:25; Num 32:1, and known in N.T. times as Peraja "beyond Jordan." Matt 4:15; John 1:28.

  1. Gilead was a region of country bounded on the north by Bashan, east by the Arabian desert, south by Moab and Ammon, and west by the Jordan. Gen 31:21,- Deut 3:12-17; 1 Sam 13:7; 2 Kgs 10:33. It was about 60 miles long, and 20 miles in its average breadth.

Physical Features. — The region of Gilead combines hills, valleys, fields, streams, and forests, as if it were a collection of beautiful parks. Among its mountains are fields of grass and wheat, and forests with paths winding through them. Of these mountains named in Scripture are Abarim, Pisgah, Nebo, and Peor. The mountains of Gilead are 2000 to 3000 feet above the valley of the Jordan, gradually sinking away to the eastward into the Arabian plateau. The summits are broad, furnishing rich pasturage and extensive forests, and were famous for their aromatic gums and spices. Num 32:1; Gen 37:25. The balm of Gilead was held in high favor, Jer 8:22; Jer 46:11; it is said that only a spoonful could be collected in a day, and that was sold for twice its weight in silver. It was found along the Jordan valley. The region is still one of great fertility. Eleven living streams are found between the Yarmuk and the Jabbok, and canals dug for irrigating the fields in every direction. South of the Jabbok on the Jordan the country is barren and desolate from want of water as far as the Wady Nimrin, but beyond that are three streams and the land is again fertile. Several hot sulphur-springs have been found in Gilead.

History. — Jacob fled toward Gilead, Gen 31:21; it was conquered by Israel, Num 21:24; Jud 10:22; Josh 12:2; Deut 2:36; was given to Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, Josh 17:6; under Jephthah it defeated the Ammonites, Jud 10:18; was a refuge for Saul's son and for David, 2 Sam 2:9; 2 Sam 17:22, 2 Sam 17:24; the home of Elijah, 1 Kgs 17:1; taken in part by Syria, 2 Kgs 10:33; by Assyria, 2 Kgs 15:25-29; referred to in the minor prophets, Hos 6:8; Hos 12:11; Am 1:3, Am 1:13; Ob 19; Mic 7:14. Zech 10:10. It is now under nominal Turkish rule, with a Turkish governor residing at es-Salt — Ramoth-gilead of Scripture — but it is really controlled by the semibarbarous Arabs and overrun by Bedouins.

  1. Mount Gilead of Jud 7:3 was probably near Mount Gilboa; a trace of the name is found in Jalud. Some German scholars, however, read "Gilboa" for "Gilead" in this passage. The well of Herod was near this mount.

GIL'EADITES, a branch of the tribe of Manasseh, descended from Gilead. Num 26:29, etc.

GIL'GAL (rolling). 1 . The name of the first station of the Israelites after crossing the Jordan, and "in the east border of Jericho," Josh 4:19-20, the twelve stones were set up, and the tabernacle remained at Gilgal until removed to Shiloh. Josh 18:1. Samuel judged, and Saul was made king there, 1 Sam 7:16; 1 Sam 10:8; 1 Sam 11:14-15; at Gilgal the people gathered for war; there Agag was hewn in pieces. 1 Sam 13:4-7; 1 Sam 15:33. Later on, Gilgal became a seat of idolatry, but whether this one or the Gilgal above Bethel is yet unsettled. Gilgal is not named in the N.T. Josephus places this Gilgal 10 furlongs from Jericho and 50 from the Jordan; Jerome had it pointed out 2 miles from Jericho; Thomson and others locate it near the modern village of Riba; Zschokke, at Tell Jeljal, north of Wady Kelt. Conder favors this, and gives the name Jiljulieh.

  1. The Gilgal in Elijah's time was probably in the range of hills beyond Bethel, since the prophet "went down" from that Gilgal to Bethel, 2 Kgs 2:2. As Bethel is 3300 feet above the Jordan plain, it must have been a Gilgal not in that plain, but one higher up than Bethel. It has been identified with Jijilia, 8 miles north of Bethel, where the school of the prophets was probably established.

  2. Gilgal of Josh 12:23 is supposed to be at a Jiljulieh, 4 miles south of Antipatris, in the plain of Sharon. There is a Kilkilieh — another form of Gilgal — also, 2 miles east of Antipatris.

GI'LOH (exile), a town in the hillcountry of Judah; the home of Ahithophel. Josh 15:51; 2 Sam 15:12; 2 Sam 17:23; perhaps now Beit Jala, a village of 3000 population, about 2 miles northwest of Bethlehem.

GI'LONITE, a native of Giloh, 2 Sam 15:12; 2 Sam 23:34.

GIM'ZO (fertile in sycamores), a town in the plain of Judah; taken by the Philistines, 2 Chr 28:18; now Jimzu, a village about 2 1/2 miles southwest of Ludd (Lydda).

GIN, a trap for beasts or birds, consisting of a net ("snare," Isa 8:14), and a stick to act as a spring ("gin," Am 3:5). See Hunting.

GI'NATH (protection), the father of Tibni, the rival of Omri for the throne of Israel, 1 Kgs 16:21-22.

GIN'NETHO (gardener), a priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, Neh 12:4.

GIN'NETHON (gardener), a priest who "sealed the covenant," Neh 10:6. One of his descendants, mentioned in Neh 12:16.

GIRD, GIRD'LE. Girdles are worn in the East by both men and women for binding up the loose, flowing

Ancient Girdles.

1, 2, Egyptian. (From Wilkinson and Rosellini.) 3, 4, Assyrian. (From Sculptures in the British Museum.)

garments, so as to admit of their moving about freely. The girdles were usually of leather or of linen, and frequently were highly ornamented. Daggers were often carried in the girdle. See Clothes.

GIR'GASITE, Gen 10:16, or GIR'GASHITES, Gen 15:21. A tribe of the Canaanites who are supposed to have inhabited a section of the country east of the Sea of Galilee, whence the name of the city of Gergesa.

GIS'PA (caress), one of the rulers of the Nethinim after the Captivity, Neh 11:21.

GIT'TAH-HE'PHER, Josh 19:13. See Gath-Hepher.

GIT'TAIM (two wine-presses), a town, probably in Benjamin. 2 Sam 4:3; Neh 11:33.

GIT'TITES. See Gath.

GIT'TITH (a musical instrument), a word found in the titles of Ps 8; Ps 81; Ps 84. The derivation of the word is disputed. It may be associated with the city of Gath, or with the word signifying "wine-press," and consequently with the vintage-season.


GI'ZONITE, the epithet given to Hashem, the father of some of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:34,

GIZ'RITES. See Gezrites.

GLASS was discovered by the Phoenicians, or perhaps earlier. Representations

Egyptian Glass Blowers. (After Wilkinson.)

Egyptian Glass Bottles. (After Wilkinson.)

of the process of glass-blowing are found on Eyptian monuments, and glass beads and fragments of glass vases have been discovered of very ancient age. The only mention of glass in the O.T. is in Job 28:17, where it is translated "crystal." The mirrors referred to by the word "glass" in 1 Cor 13:12; 2 Cor 3:18; Jas 1:23 were not made of glass. See Looking-glass.

GLEAN. Ruth 2:2. In the joyful season of harvest the Jewish farmer was not allowed to forget the poor and the stranger. A special command was given. Lev 19:9-10, that he should leave some of the fruits for them to gather.

GLEDE, mentioned among the unclean birds of prey by a Hebrew name which probably indicates its keenness of vision. Deut 14:13. It is not certain what particular bird is meant, but most probably one of the buzzards, of which three species inhabit Palestine. The great red buzzard (Buteo ferox) is most common, and resembles an eagle in

Bottle inscribed with the Name of Thothmes III. (After Wilkinson.)

its size and habits. The original word is rendered "vulture" in Lev 11:14.

GLORY, GLORIFY, terms of frequent occurrence in the Bible.

To " glorify " is to render glorious or to exalt. Dan 5:23; Acts 3:13; John 17:5. Hence the comprehensive precept of the apostle, 1 Cor 6:19-20, requiring the devotion of our whole powers and faculties to this one great end, "the glory of God," 1 Cor 10:31, or making God glorious. To "give glory" means to praise or exalt. Luke 17:18.

Glory of God. This expression is almost equivalent to "brightness" or "effulgence" of God, and refers to the peculiar and absolute perfection of all the divine attributes. By contrast, men are said to have "come short of the glory of God," Rom 3:23, where the special reference, no doubt, is to the perfect holiness of the Almighty. 339 God is denominated the "King of glory," Ps 24:8, or of resplendent brightness. The glory of God is displayed in the works of creation, Ps 19:1, in the redem])tion of the world through Christ, 2 Cor 4:6, and in the person of Christ. Heb 1:3. He is said to be "glorious in holiness." Our Lord is called the "Lord of glory," Jas 2:1, and the " hope of glory." Col 1:27.

Different objects are said to have a glory, 1 Cor 15:41, and regenerate believers are said to have awaiting them the glory akin to that they have lost. Col 3:4; Heb 2:10.

GNASH, GNASH'ING, a striking or grinding of the teeth in the paroxysms of anguish or despair. Ps 112:10;Matt 8:12.

GNAT. Matt 23:24. This insect, a species of "mosquito," is common in hot countries. In the passage cited, the words "strain at" (a typographical error) should rather be "strain out;" the phrase will then better express the gross inconsistencies which our Saviour reproved.

GOAD. Jud 3:31. This was a rod or pole about 8 feet long, armed at the larger end with a piece of iron, with which the plough-share was freed from clods and earth, and at the smaller with a sharp spike, by which the oxen were urged on in their labor. In the hands of a powerful man like Shamgar, Jud 3:31, it would be a formidable instrument. The goad is used to this day in Palestine.

GOAT. Lev 3:12. Goats were among the chief possessions of the

Syrian Goat (After Tristam)

wealthy in the early ages of the world. Gen 27:9; 1 Sam 25:2;2 Chr 17:11. Resembling the sheep in its general structure and appearance, it is covered with hair instead of wool, and is much more active, bold, and wandering in its habits. It feeds on bark and tender twigs, and its feet are formed for leaping and climbing among rocks and mountains. Its milk is valuable for food, Prov 27:27, the hair for manufactures of various kinds, Ex 25:4; Num 31:20; Heb 11:37, and the skin for vessels or bottles, Josh 9:4; 340 Ps 119:83; Matt 9:17, and in modern times for leather.

There are several species of goat in Palestine, but the common kind (Capra mambrica) has enormous hanging ears a foot long, often reaching lower than its nose and its stout recurved horns. Comp.Am 3:12.

It was a clean animal by the Jewish law, Deut 14:4, and was much used in sacrifices. Lev 3:12; Num 15:27; Ezr 6:17.

The peculiar qualities of goats occasion frequent figurative allusions to them. The boldness and strength of the leaders of the flocks are alluded to, Prov 30:31; Zech 10:3, and they are made to represent oppressors and wicked men generally. Eze 34:17; Eze 39:18; Matt 25:33.

Goat, Wild (the climber). This animal is quite distinct from the domestic goat. The high hills of Palestine and Arabia are still a refuge for this very shy and wary creature, the ibex or mountain-goat (beden of the Arabs, Capra beden). Tristram says: "In the neighborhood of En-gedi, while encamped by the Dead Sea shore, we obtained several fine specimens, and very interesting it was to find this graceful creature by the very fountain to which it gave name (En-gedi — i.e. 'Fountain of the Kid'), and in the spot where it roamed of old while David wandered to escape the persecutions of Saul "upon the rocks of the wild goats. 1 Sam 24:2.

The flesh of these animals is nearly of the flavor of venison. The Bedouins make bags or bottles of their skins and rings of their horns. When they are found among the rocks they usually elude the pursuit of the hunter, sometimes leaping even 20 feet, but in the plains they are often taken. Their habits are alluded to in Job 39:1; Ps 104:18.

Goat, Scape, Lev 16:26, one of the two goats offered on the day of atonement. The ceremony which the high priest performed over the scape-goat is very mysterious and very significant.

  1. The priest laid his hands upon the head of the goat and confessed over it the sins of Israel. Lev 16:21. The animal was then let go and driven off into the uninhabited wilderness.

  2. The significance of this event is beyond dispute. It represents the culmination of the Mosaic sacrifice for sin, and is at the same time a most perfect representation of vicarious atonement. The iniquities of the nation were considered as having been transferred to the goat, the priest having put them upon its head. It was then driven off, in its uncleanness and pollution, to suffer for crimes it had not committed, in the desolate wilderness. This is a beautiful type of the atonement of Christ, upon whom was laid "the iniquity of us all,"who suffered for our redemption, Isa 53.

"Scape-goat" is the A.V. translation of "Azazel." Lev 16:26. The old interpretation, which applied the word to the goat, is now abandoned, the best scholars agreeing in regarding it as expressive of the person to whom the goat was sent. It probably comes from a root, used in Arabic, but not in Hebrew, meaning to "separate." But who is the person? The best opinion is that "the devil" is meant. Both goats were parts of the same sin-offering, both belonged to Jehovah. Hence both were typical of the atonement of Christ. The goat that was slain made an atonement for the holy place. The goat that was sent away typified the removing of the guilt of the people. See the valuable and interesting excursus upon "Azazel" in Bible Commentary, Lev. 16.

GO'ATH (lowing), a place probably near Jerusalem, Jer 31:39; location not known.

GOB (ditch, or cistern). 2 Sam 21:18-19. The Greek version reads Goth, while in the account of this encounter of David's men in 1 Chr 20:4 the name is Gezer,

GOB'LET. See Cup.

GOD (good). The name of the Creator of all things and the supreme Governor of the universe and the Giver of all good gifts. He is "a Spirit, infinite, eternal, and unchangeable in his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth." He is revealed to us in an endless variety of ways in his works and providential government, Rom 1:20, but more fully in the Holy Scriptures and in the person and work of his only begotten Son, our Lord.

  1. Names. — There are three principal designations of God in the O.T. — Elohim, Jehovah, and Adonai. The first is

used exclusively in the first chapter of Genesis; it predominates in the second book of Psalms (Ps 42-72, called the Elohim Psalms), and occurs alternately with the other names in the other parts of the O.T. It expresses his character as the almighty Maker and his relation to the whole world, the Gentiles as well as the Jews. The second is especially used of him in his relation to Israel as the (God of the covenant, the God of revelaition and redemption. "Adonai" (i.e. say Lord) is used where God is reverently addressed, and is always substituted by the Jews for "Jehovah," which they never pronounce. These three words are indiscriminately translated, in the English Version, God, Lord, and Jehovah.

  1. The Nature of God. — God is revealed to us as a trinity consisting of three Persons who are of one essence, Matt 28:19; 2 Cor 13:14;John 1:1-3— God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. To the Father is ascribed the work of creation, to the Son the redemption, to the Holy Spirit the sanctification; but all three Persons take part in all the divine works. Although this idea of God is not brought out as prominently in the O.T. as in the New, it is nevertheless there. It is intimated in Gen 1, where God, the Word ("God spake," etc., compare Ps 33:6; John 1:1, John 1:3), and the Spirit of God are mentioned in the work of creation. The "divine Wisdom" of Prov 8 is personified, and corresponds to the "Word" in John 1, and refers to the second Person of the Trinity. To each of these Persons of the Trinity are ascribed the essential attributes of the supreme God. Thus, the Son is represented as the Mediator of the creation. John 1:3; Col 1:16; Heb 1:4.

  2. The unity of the Godhead is emphasized in the O.T., while the trinity is only shadowed forth, or at best faintly brought out. The grand reason for the emphasis of the unity of the Godhead was to show the fallacy of polytheism and to discourage idolatry, which the heathen practised. God is denominated "one Lord," Deut 6:4. Over against the false deities of the heathen, he is designated the "living" God. This belief in God as one was a chief mark of the Jewish religion.

  3. The attributes of God are those of the most perfect being. He is holy, Josh 24:19; eternal, 1 Tim 1:17; everywhere present, Ps 139:7; Acts 17:24; almighty, Gen 17:1; immutable, Ps 102:20. God is, moreover, just, Jer 9:24, wise, Job 12:13, and above all he is Love, 1 John 4:16.

GOD'HEAD. Col 2:9. The nature or essential being of God. Acts 17:29; Rom 1:20.

GOD'LINESS, piety resulting from the knowledge and love of God, and leading to the cheerful and constant obedience of his commands. 2 Pet 3:11. In 1 Tim 3:16 it imports the substance of revealed religion.

GODS. Rulers and judges are so called in Ex 22:28; Ps 82:6; John 10:34 because they represent God.

GOG and MA'GOG. Eze 38:2. Magog was the name of one of Japheth's sons. Gen 10:2. It was also a general name of a country north of the Caucasus or Mount Taurus, or for the people of that district. Gog was the king of the country. This people seems to have sustained relations of hostility to Israel, and is associated with Antichrist. Rev 20:8.

GO'LAN (circle), one of the six cities of refuge in Manasseh given to the Levites. It was in Bashan, and the most northerly of the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan. Deut 4:43; Josh 20:8; Josh 21:27; 1 Chr 6:71. It was possibly 10 or 12 miles north-east of the Sea of Galilee, in the centre of Gaulanitis; some suggest Nawa as the site of Golan.

GOLD. Gen 2:11. This heaviest and most malleable of metals is found at the present day chiefly in California and Australia. Several places are mentioned by the sacred writers as abounding in gold; such as Ophir, Job 28:16, Parvaim, 2 Chr 3:6, Sheba, and Raamah. Eze 27:22. Until after the time of David gold was never coined, but was sold by weight as a precious article of commerce. The use of gold was very common among the Hebrews. Several parts of the temple, its furniture and utensils, were overlaid with this precious metal. Ex 36:34-38; 1 Kgs 7:48-50. And many of the vessels of the wealthy, as well as their personal ornaments and insignia of office, were 342 of gold. Gen 41:42; 1 Kgs 10:17-22; Esth 1:6-7; Dan 5:29; Luke 15:22; Jas 2:2.


See Candlestick.

GOL'GOTHA (skull), the Hebrew name of the spot where Jesus was crucified. Matt 27:33. See Calvary.

GOLI'ATH (splendor), a renowned champion of the Philistines from Gath. 1 Sam 17:4. He was more than 9 feet in height. Conscious of his superior stature and strength, he defied the armies of Israel to produce a rival. But he was met and slain by David, who, although a pygmy in the eyes of the giant, was mighty through the assistance of God.

In 2 Sam 21:19 another Goliath of Gath, "the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam," is mentioned as being slain by Elhanan. He may have been a son of David's antagonist. 2 Sam 21:22.

GO'MER (perfect).

  1. The eldest son of Japheth, progenitor of the ancient Cimmerians, and of the present Celtic peoples of Europe. Gen 10:2-3; 1 Chr 1:5-6.

  2. The wife of Hosea. Hos 1:3.

GOMOR'RAH (submersion), one of the five cities in the vale of Siddim, Gen 14:1-11; destroyed for its wickedness, Gen 18:20; Gen 19:24, Gen 19:28; made a warning by Moses, Deut 29:23; Deut 32:32; referred to by Isaiah 1:9-10; by Jeremiah 23:14; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; by Amos 4:11; by Zephaniah 2:9; by our Saviour, Matt 10:15; Mark 6:11; by Paul, quoting Isaiah, Rom 9:29; by Peter and Jude, 2 Pet 2:6. Its site is disputed. Some place it at the southern, others at the northern, end of the Dead Sea. The name Wady ?'Amriyek?, at the north-west side of the Dead Sea, is like the Hebrew for Gomorrah. See Sodom and Salt Sea.

GOODMAN OF THE HOUSE is the master of the house, irrespective of moral character. The term was in common use when the A.V. was made. Matt 20:11.

GO'PHER-WOOD. The ark was constructed of this material. Gen 6:14. There are many theories as to what gopher-wood was. One is that it was some resinous wood, such as cedar, pine, or fir. Still more probable is the opinion that it was cypress, which was considered by the ancients as the most durable wood, and least exposed to worms and natural decay. It abounded in Syria, was used very commonly for shipbuilding, and was almost the only wood which could furnish suitable timber for so large a vessel as the ark.


  1. The portion of Egypt assigned to Israel. Gen 45:5, Gen 45:10; Gen 46:28; Gen 47:27-50:8. It probably bordered on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, hence called Zoan or Tauis, Ps 78:12, and reached from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. It was suited to shepherds, abounded in vegetables. It contained the treasure-cities Rameses and Pithom, Goshen was near the royal capital. Gen 48:1-2; Ex 5:20; appears to have been the starting place of the Israelites in their journey to the Land of Promise. Ex 12:37-38.

  2. A district in Palestine, perhaps between Gibeon and Gaza. Josh 10:41; Num 11:16.

  3. A city in the hill-country of Judah, Josh 15:51; perhaps now Sekiyeh.

GOS'PEL (from the Anglo-Saxon god-spell, "good tidings") is the English translation of the Greek euangelion, which signifies "good" or "glad tidings." Luke 2:10; Acts 13:32. The same word in the original is rendered in Rom 10:15 by the two equivalents "gospel" and "glad tidings." The term refers to the good news of the new dispensation of redemption ushered in by the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The "good news" is denominated either simply the "gospel," Matt 26:13, or else "the gospel of the kingdom," Matt 9:35; of "Jesus Christ," Mark 1:1; of "peace," Rom 10:15; Eph 6:15, of "salvation," Eph 1:12; of "God," 1 Thess 2:9; and of "grace." Acts 20:24.

Gospels, the Four Canonical. The word "Gospels" is also employed to designate the four biographies of our Lord by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. These are the only faithful accounts of his life extant. They are the independent recitals of well-informed men; and there is no evidence that either Evangelist got his facts from another. But the Gospel by John, while it is complete on its own peculiar plan, seems to have been composed in part with the object of supplementing what was lacking 343 or only partially given in the narrations of the first three Gospels. In this fourth Gospel, for example, the divinity of our Lord is emphatically asserted and dwelt on at length, and of the opposition he met with from the Pharisees a full account is given, John 6-12. John further gives in detail the discourses of our Lord in the last week, John 13-17, and the account of the resurrection of Lazarus, John 11. On the other hand, he omits the circumstances of our Lord's birth, which had been given so fully by Matthew and Luke, the account of the Lord's Supper, related by all three of the other Evangelists, the institution of baptism, and most of the miracles and all the parables found in the first three accounts.

There are differences in the accounts of the same events as given by the various Evangelists, but with a few exceptions they are verbal, and only such as we would naturally expect in different descriptions of the same occurrences. These very differences in details are favorable to the genuineness of the Gospels, because they prove the absence of collusion or secret agreement among the writers.

The genuineness of these records of our Lord's life is as strongly supported, to say the least, as that of any other document of antiquity. There is no doubt that they were all written, as we have them, in the first century (the first three before the destruction of Jerusalem, a.d. 70), and were all used and known as "the Four Evangelists" in the Church before the year 200, if not before 150. Upon both these points the concurrent evidence is so strong that the opponents must resort to the wildest theories and hypotheses, which refute themselves by their contradictions. There is good evidence scattered all through the second century that they were in general use. Justin Martyr used them about 140. His pupil, Tatian, wrote a Harmony of the Gospels about 170, and quite recently a commentary of Ephraem Syrus on Tatian's Diatessaron has been published at Venice (1876), which settles the vexed question as to the character of this work. The arguments for the genuineness, as varied as they are convincing, are such as these:(1) The direct testimonies of writers in the second century and later; (2) the quotations found in the writings of the authors known as the Fathers; (3) ancient translations, as the Itala and Peshito, dating from the second century; (4) the attitude of heretic and heathen opponents, who, like Celsus (180), did not call in question the genuineness of the records, although they denied the credibility of a part of their contents. Basilides, a Gnostic heretic, knew the Gospel of John as early as 125, and Marcion, another Gnostic, about 150, made use of a mutilated Gospel of Luke.

The language in which the Gospels were written was the Greek, with the probable exception of Matthew written in Hebrew, and there can be little doubt that we now have, with the exception of a few readings, the documents as they left the hands of the writers.

Gospels, Apocryphal. These are the spurious accounts of our Lord's life. There are many of them; as, for example, the Gospel according to James, according to Nicodemns, etc. The earliest was probably composed sometime in the second century. They indulge in puerile accounts of the parents of our Lord, of the pretended miracles of his childhood, and of his experience in Hades. These stories were invented to satisfy a prurient curiosity, and were accepted by the credulous. The circumstances related carry their own refutation with them, as being entirely out of harmony with the spirit of our Lord's life. They tend to confirm the canonical Gospels as the counterfeit presupposes the genuine coin.

A "harmony" of the Gospels is an arrangement of these four biographies which displays the chronology of the events narrated, the variety of events, and the diversity of details. The object is to present a full account of our Lord's life in the chronological sequence of its events. For the several Gospels see Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

GOURD. Jon 4:6. Probably the plant which shaded the prophet was either the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), which in the East grows rapidly to the height of even 15 feet, or, according to rapidly-prevailing opinion, it was a vine of the cucumber family (Cucurbita pepo), similar to our gourd, and 344 still used for shade in Palestine. " In the gardens about Sidon many an arbor

Castor-Oil Plant. (Ricinus communis)

of gourds may be seen. But the plant withers as rapidly as it shoots, and after a storm or any injury to the stem its fruit may be seen hanging to the leafless tendrils which so lately concealed it-a type of melancholy desolation."-Tristram.

Some have regarded the expression, "It came up in a night and perished in a night," as literal, others as indicating merely rapid growth. The declaration that the Lord prepared a gourd, and prepared a worm, and prepared an east wind, indicates the direct and special interposition of his providence to teach the prophet a lesson of submission to the divine will.

Gourd, Wild. The wild gourds eaten by the sons of the prophets, 2 Kgs 4:38-41, were doubtless the handsome yet poisonous fruit of the colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis), from which the medicine of that name is obtained. This vine is not common in Palestine, yet may be found about Gilgal, and bears a fruit resembling an orange in size and shape, but very hard and having its yellow rind marbled with green and

Colocynthus, or Wild Gourd. (Citrullus colocynthis. After Tristram.) 345 white. The plant resembles the watermelon, and belongs to the same family. For various reasons it is thought that the "knops" used in the ornamental work of Solomon's temple were imitations of the colocynth. 1 Kgs 6:18.

GOVERNOR. Matt 27:2. After Judaea became a province of the Roman empire, governors or procurators were appointed and sent thither from Rome. This was the office held by Pontius Pilate at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion. Sometimes the word "governor" is used as a general title for a ruler or presiding officer. Gen 42:6. See Feast.

GO'ZAN, a district of Mesopotamia, 2 Kgs 17:6; 2 Kgs 18:11; 2 Kgs 19:12; 1 Chr 5:26; Isa 37:12; probably identical with Gauzanitis of Ptolemy, and Mygdonia of other writers. It was watered by the Habor, the modern Khabour, a large branch of the Euphrates in Mesopotamia.

GRACE denotes the love of God as displayed in his free favor toward men as sinners and destitute of all claim upon him. 1 Tim 1:2. Hence the N.T., which reveals the plan by which this grace is bestowed, is called "the gospel of the grace of God." Acts 20:24. The apostolic Epistles begin with the salutation, "Grace and peace be with you."

GRAIN. See Corn.

GRAPES, the fruit of the vine. Gen 49:11. When fully ripe and dried they are called "raisins." 1 Sam 25:18; 1 Sam 30:12; 2 Sam 16:1; 1 Chr 12:40.

The soil and climate of Palestine are pre-eminently well suited to the growth of the vine, and it has always been among the principal productions of the country. In Judaea especially particular districts were famed for the excellency of their grapes; as En-gedi and the vales of Eshcol and Sorek. The word "Sorek" is not only the name of a region in the tribe of Judah, but also signifies the noblest variety of the vine and its clusters, which there abounded. This grape was white, with delicious juice, and with seeds so small and soft as to be almost imperceptible. In Persia the best raisins are made of this grape. It is of this that the celebrated Kishmich wine of Shiraz is made. Very fine grapes were in old times, as at present, produced on Mount Lebanon and at Helbon or Aleppo. Travellers agree in relating that Palestine, even in its present state of subjugation to the Mussulmans, who are forbidden to use wine, produces clusters of 12 pounds' weight each, the single grapes of which are as large as plums. They tell us that the clusters of Judaea, a few miles westward from Jerusalem, are larger than any in Europe, and that they have often seen clusters of such size that it was impossible for a single man to carry one of them uninjured for any distance. Brocard informs us in his Travels that the best vines grow in the environs of Bethlehem, in the vale of Rephaim (between Bethlehem and Jerusalem), and in the traditional vale of Eshcol, near Hebron.

The grapes of the Holy Land, with the exception of the Sorek, above mentioned, are mostly red or black. Hence the juice is called "the blood of the grape," translated, in our version, "red wine." Isa 27:2.

Besides wine and raisins, there is made from grapes a syrup called dibs, which "is obtained by boiling down the juice of the ripe grapes to a third of its bulk, when it becomes as thick as treacle, but is of a lighter color. The Moslems are very fond of dibs, which they eat with bread, drink with water, and use largely in confectionery. The Hebrew name debash ('honey') is identical, and it is this syrup, and not bees' honey, which is understood to be meant by the honey which Jacob sent down as a present to the governor of Egypt, Gen 43:11, and in which the men of Tyre traded from the land of Israel. Eze 27:17." — Tristram.

The Jews were expressly required by their law not to gather the grapes until the vine was three years old, Lev 19:23, and to leave some on the vines and some on the ground. Lev 19:10; and it was the privilege of the poor and dependent to gather these for their own use, provided they were eaten on the ground. They were not allowed to take any away. Deut 23:24; Deut 24:21. The grapes thus left were called "the gleanings," and as they hung, here and there one, on the vines or lay scattered on the ground, they were strikingly emblematical of the depopulation of a city or country, Isa 17:6; Isa 24:13; Jer 6:9; Jer 49:9; Ob. 5. See Vine, Vineyard, Wine, Winepress,


GRASS. Isa 51:12. This word is frequently applied in the Scriptures to herbage generally, Isa 15:6, though sometimes distinction is made between such herbs as are used by man as grain and vegetables, and such as are used chiefly by cattle. Ps 104:14.

The quick growth and tenderness of this species of vegetation furnish several of the most striking illustrations of the Scriptures. Ps 90:5-6; Ps 92:7; Ps 103:15-16; Isa 40:6-8; Jer 51:12; Jas 1:10; 1 Pet 1:24.

The passage in Prov 27:25 would be more accurately rendered thus: "The grass (hay) appeareth, and the green herb (tender grass) showeth itself, and the plants (herbs) of the mountains are gathered." So in Isa 15:6: "The grass (hay) withereth, the green herb (grass) faileth, there is no green thing."

Nothing can exceed in beauty and appropriateness the gradation of images employed by the prophet, 2 Kgs 19:26; the weakness and tenderness of the first shoots of any green herb; the frailty of the few spires of grass that sometimes spring up in the vegetable mould or shallow earth upon the housetop, or the withered blade of corn (grain) blasted before it rises into a stalk.

Coarse herbage was often dried, as it is still, for the purpose of heating ovens. Under the fierce rays of a Syrian sun, joined to parching winds, it often happens that "the grass of the field which to-day is, . . . to-morrow is cast into the oven." Matt 6:30; Matt 13:30; Luke 12:28.

GRASS'HOPPER, an insect of the locust species, often mentioned in the sacred writings. Eccl 12:5. The word rendered "grasshopper" in the above-cited passage is rendered "locust" in 2 Chr 7:13.

Grasshoppers were allowable food under the Jewish law. Lev 11:22. Their timidity is proverbial. Job 39:20. They are often found in great multitudes (hence the figurative language, Jud 6:5 and Num 7:12; Jer 46:23), and prove destructive to vegetation, especially in its early stages. Am 7:1.

The allusion in Nah 3:15-17 is to a common habit of these insects. When benumbed with the cold, they assemble in vast numbers upon the hedges or other shrubbery; and such is their multitude that the places they occupy are darkened, and resemble the encamping-ground of a great army. As soon, however, as they are revived by the warmth of the sun, they fly away, no one knows whither.

The grasshopper is used to illustrate comparative insignificance. Num 13:33; Isa 40:22; and in the passage from Ecclesiastes first cited, reference is probably made to that degree of weakness and infirmity in old age which makes the weight, or even the chirping, of a grasshopper burdensome.

GRATE, BRA'ZEN. See Altar.

GRAVE. See Burial, Engrave, Hell.

GREAT SEA. Num 34:6. The Mediterranean Sea; called also "utmost sea" and "the hinder sea." Joel 2:20; Zech 14:8. See Sea.

GREAVES. See Armor.

GRE'CIA. See Greece.

GREECE, or HELLAS, the well-known country in the south-east of Europe. It is named four times in the O.T. as Greece or Grecia, Zech 9:13; Dan 8:21; Num 10:20; Matt 11:2, and once in the N.T., Acts 20:2. It or its people are referred to in Hebrew history as Javan, Isa 66:19; Eze 27:13, Eze 27:19, and in apostolic history as Achaia. Its cities noticed in Scripture are Atliens, Corinth, and Cenchrea. See Greeks, and for further notice of the country, see Achaia and Macedonia.

GREEKS, GRECIANS. These terms should be more distinguished. The "Greeks" were the Greeks by race. Acts 16:1, Acts 16:3; Josh 18:17, or else Gentiles as opposed to Jews. Rom 2:9-10, marg. But "Grecians" were foreign Jews as distinct from those in Palestine, who were called "Hebrews." Acts 11:20. The Greeks and Hebrews first met when the Tyrians sold the Jews to the Greeks. Joel 3:6. "Prophetical notice of Greece occurs in Dan 8:21, etc., where the history of Alexander and his successors is rapidly sketched. Zechariah 9:13, foretells the triumphs of the Maccabees over the Graeco-Syrian empire, while Isaiah looks forward to the conversion of the Greeks, amongst other Gentiles, through the instrumentality of Jewish missionaries. Is 66:19."After the complete 347 subjugation of the Greeks by the Romans, and the absorption into the Roman empire of the kingdoms which were formed out of the dominions of Alexander,

Sketch-Map of Greece.

the political connection between the Greeks and the Jews as two independent nations no longer existed." — Smith:Dictionary of the Bible.

GREY'HOUND is the A.V. translation for the Hebrew words, meaning "one girt about the loins." Prov 30:31. That a "greyhound" does not answer to the meaning of the Hebrew is generally agreed. The most probable rendering yet suggested is that of a "wrestler" girded for the fight; others explain it of the war-horse, which is so poetically described in the book of Job 39:19-25.

GRIND. See Mills.

GRIND'ERS, in Eccl 12:3, represent the double teeth used in mastication.

GRIZ'ZLED, black and white intermingled in small spots. Gen 31:10; Zech 6:3, 1 Kgs 6:6.

GROVE. The translation, except in Gen 21:33, of the Hebrew word asherah; but since asherah is regarded by the best interpreters to be an "idol" or an idolatrous pillar (an image of Astarte, and not a "grove,") the translation is misleading, as in 1 Kgs 18:19; 2 Kgs 13:6, and other places. See Ashtoreth. But it is likely that this asherah was often set up in a grove, because thus would be given that seclusion necessary to the cruel and indecent rites which marked, among Oriental nations, the worship of false divinities.

GUARD -CHAM'BER, the apartment occupied by the king's guard. 1 Kgs 14:28.

GUD'GODAH. Deut 10:7. See Hor-Hagidgad.

GUEST. See Hospitality.


GUIL'TY OF BLOOD, Num 35:27, Num 35:31; GUILTY OF DEATH, Matt 26:66; Mark 14:64. This phrase in the last two passages means "deserving of death ;" in the former it means simply "guilty of blood-shedding."

GU'NI (painted).

  1. A son of Naphtali. Gen 46:24; Num 26:48; 1 Chr 7:13.

  2. One of Gad's posterity. 1 Chr 6:15.

GUR (whelp, or abode), an ascent from the plain of Jezreel. 2 Kgs 9:27. Drake suggests Keft Kud, near Jenin, as its site.

GUR-BA'AL (abode of Baal), a place in the desert, south-east of Judah. 2 Chr 26:7.

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