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Chapter XXIV.—On the Mission of the Seventy Disciples, and Christ’s Charge to Them.  Precedents Drawn from the Old Testament.  Absurdity of Supposing that Marcion’s Christ Could Have Given the Power of Treading on Serpents and Scorpions.

He chose also seventy other missionaries44154415    Apostolos: Luke x. i. besides the twelve. Now why, if the twelve followed the number of the twelve fountains of Elim,44164416    Compare above, book iv. chap. xiii. p. 364. should not the seventy correspond to the like number of the palms of that place?44174417    Ex. xv. 27 and Num. xxxiii. 9. Whatever be the Antitheses of the comparison, it is a diversity in the causes, not in the powers, which has mainly produced them.  But if one does not keep in view the diversity of the causes,44184418    Causarum: “occasions” or circumstances. he is very apt to infer a difference of powers.44194419    Potestatum. In Marcionite terms, “The Gods of the Old and the New Testaments.” When the children of Israel went out of Egypt, the Creator brought them forth laden with their spoils of gold and silver vessels, and with loads besides of raiment and unleavened dough;44204420    Consparsionum. [Punic Latin.] Ex. xii. 34, 35. whereas Christ commanded His disciples not to carry even a staff44214421    Virgam, Luke x. 4, and Matt x. 10. for their journey. The former were thrust forth into a desert, but the latter were sent into cities. Consider the difference presented in the occasions,44224422    Causarum offerentiam. and you will understand how it was one and the same power which arranged the mission44234423    Expeditionem, with the sense also of “supplies” in the next clause. of His people according to their poverty in the one case, and their plenty in the other. He cut down44244424    Circumcidens. their supplies when they could be replenished through the cities, just as He had accumulated44254425    Struxerat. them when exposed to the scantiness of the desert. Even shoes He forbade them to carry. For it was He under whose very protection the people wore not out a shoe,44264426    Deut. xxix. 5. even in the wilderness for the space of so many years. “No one,” says He, “shall ye salute by the way.”44274427    Luke x. 4. What a destroyer of the prophets, forsooth, is Christ, seeing it is from them that He received his precept also! When Elisha sent on his servant Gehazi before him to raise the Shunammite’s son from death, I rather think he gave him these instructions:44284428    See 2 Kings iv. 29. “Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thine hand, and go thy way: if thou meet any man, salute him not;44294429    Literally, “bless him not, i.e., salute him not.” and if any salute thee, answer him not again.”44304430    Literally, “answer him not, i.e., return not his salvation.” For what is a wayside blessing but a mutual salutation as men meet? So also the Lord commands: “Into whatsoever house they enter, let them say, Peace be to it.”44314431    Luke x. 5. Herein He follows the very same example. For Elisha enjoined upon his servant the same salutation when he met the Shunammite; he was to say to her: “Peace to thine husband, peace to thy child.”44324432    2 Kings iv. 26. He reads the optative instead of the indicative. Such will be rather our Antitheses; they compare Christ with, instead of sundering Him from, the Creator. “The labourer is worthy of his hire.”44334433    Luke x. 7. Who could better pronounce such a sentence than the Judge? For to decide that the workman deserves his wages, is in itself a judicial act. There is no award which consists not in a process of judgment. The law of the Creator on this point also presents us with a corroboration, for He judges that labouring oxen are as labourers worthy of their hire: “Thou shalt not muzzle,” says He, “the ox when he treadeth out the corn.”44344434    Deut. xxv. 4. Now, who is so good to man44354435    Compare above, book ii. chap. 17, p. 311. as He who is also merciful to cattle?  Now, when Christ pronounced labourers to be worthy of their hire, He, in fact, exonerated from blame that precept of the Creator about depriving the Egyptians of their gold and silver vessels.44364436    See this argued at length above, in book ii. chap. 20, p. 313. For they who had built for the Egyptians their houses and cities, were surely workmen worthy of their hire, and were not instructed in a fraudulent act, but only set to claim compensation for their hire, which they were unable in any other way to exact from their masters.44374437    Dominatoribus. That the kingdom of God was neither new nor unheard of, He in this way affirmed, whilst at the same time He bids them announce that it was near at hand.44384438    Luke x. 9. Now it is that which 388was once far off, which can be properly said to have become near.  If, however, a thing had never existed previous to its becoming near, it could never have been said to have approached, because it had never existed at a distance. Everything which is new and unknown is also sudden.44394439    Subitum. Everything which is sudden, then, first receives the accident of time44404440    Accipit tempus. when it is announced, for it then first puts on appearance of form.44414441    Inducens speciem. Besides it will be impossible for a thing either to have been tardy44424442    Tardasse. all the while it remained unannounced,44434443    The announcement (according to the definition) defining the beginning of its existence in time. or to have approached44444444    Appropinquasse. from the time it shall begin to be announced.

He likewise adds, that they should say to such as would not receive them: “Notwithstanding be ye sure of this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh unto you.”44454445    Luke x. 11. If He does not enjoin this by way of a commination, the injunction is a most useless one.  For what mattered it to them that the kingdom was at hand, unless its approach was accompanied with judgment?—even for the salvation of such as received the announcement thereof. How, if there can be a threat without its accomplishment, can you have in a threatening god, one that executes also, and in both, one that is a judicial being?44464446    Et judicem in utroque. So, again, He commands that the dust be shaken off against them, as a testimony,—the very particles of their ground which might cleave44474447    Hærentia. to the sandal, not to mention44484448    Nedum. any other sort of communication with them.44494449    Luke x. 11. But if their churlishness44504450    Inhumanitas. and inhospitality were to receive no vengeance from Him, for what purpose does He premise a testimony, which surely forbodes some threats? Furthermore, when the Creator also, in the book of Deuteronomy, forbids the reception of the Ammonites and the Moabites into the church,44514451    Ecclesiam. There is force in thus using Christian terms for Jewish ordinances, full as he is of the identity of the God of the old with Him of the new covenant. because, when His people came from Egypt, they fraudulently withheld provisions from them with inhumanity and inhospitality,44524452    Deut. xxiii. 3. it will be manifest that the prohibition of intercourse descended to Christ from Him. The form of it which He uses—“He that despiseth you, despiseth me”44534453    Luke x. 16.—the Creator had also addressed to Moses:  “Not against thee have they murmured, but against me.”44544454    Num. xiv. 27. Moses, indeed, was as much an apostle as the apostles were prophets. The authority of both offices will have to be equally divided, as it proceeds from one and the same Lord, (the God) of apostles and prophets.  Who is He that shall bestow “the power of treading on serpents and scorpions?”44554455    Luke x. 19. Shall it be He who is the Lord of all living creatures or he who is not god over a single lizard? Happily the Creator has promised by Isaiah to give this power even to little children, of putting their hand in the cockatrice den and on the hole of the young asps without at all receiving hurt.44564456    Isa. xi. 8, 9. And, indeed, we are aware (without doing violence to the literal sense of the passage, since even these noxious animals have actually been unable to do hurt where there has been faith) that under the figure of scorpions and serpents are portended evil spirits, whose very prince is described44574457    Deputetur. by the name of serpent, dragon, and every other most conspicuous beast in the power of the Creator.44584458    Penes Creatorem. This power the Creator conferred first of all upon His Christ, even as the ninetieth Psalm says to Him: “Upon the asp and the basilisk shalt Thou tread; the lion and the dragon shalt Thou trample under foot.”44594459    Ps. xci. 13. So also Isaiah: “In that day the Lord God shall draw His sacred, great, and strong sword” (even His Christ) “against that dragon, that great and tortuous serpent; and He shall slay him in that day.”44604460    Isa. xxvii. 1, Sept. But when the same prophet says, “The way shall be called a clean and holy way; over it the unclean thing shall not pass, nor shall be there any unclean way; but the dispersed shall pass over it, and they shall not err therein; no lion shall be there, nor any ravenous beast shall go up thereon; it shall not be found there,”44614461    Isa. xxxv. 8, 9, Sept. he points out the way of faith, by which we shall reach to God; and then to this way of faith he promises this utter crippling44624462    Evacuationem. and subjugation of all noxious animals.  Lastly, you may discover the suitable times of the promise, if you read what precedes the passage: “Be strong, ye weak hands and ye feeble knees: then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear; then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall be articulate.”44634463    Isa. xxxv. 3, 5, 6, Sept. When, therefore, He proclaimed the benefits of His cures, then also did He put the scorpions and the 389serpents under the feet of His saints—even He who had first received this power from the Father, in order to bestow it upon others and then manifested it forth conformably to the order of prophecy.44644464    Secundum ordinem prædicationis.

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