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Chapter III.—The Objects of Faith and Hope Perceived by the Mind Alone.

For he who hopes, as he who believes, sees intellectual objects and future things with the mind. If, then, we affirm that aught is just, and affirm it to be good, and we also say that truth is something, yet we have never seen any of such objects with our eyes, but with our mind alone. Now the Word of God says, “I am the truth.”29762976    John xiv. 6. The Word is then to be contemplated by the mind. “Do you aver,” it was said,29772977    By Plato. “that there are any true philosophers?” “Yes,” said I, “those who love to contemplate the truth.” In the Phœdrus also, Plato, speaking of the truth, shows it as an idea. Now an idea is a conception of God; and this the barbarians have termed the Word of God. The words are as follow: “For one must then dare to speak the truth, especially in speaking of the truth. For the essence of the soul, being colourless, formless, and intangible, is visible only to God,29782978    In Plato we have νῷ instead of Θεῷ. its guide.” Now the Word issuing forth was the cause of creation; then also he generated himself, “when the Word had become flesh,”29792979    John i. 14. that He might be seen. The righteous man will seek the discovery that flows from love, to which if he hastes he prospers. For it is said, “To him that knocketh, it shall be opened: ask, and it shall be given to you.”29802980    Matt. vii. 7. “For the violent that storm the kingdom”29812981    Matt. xi. 12. are not so in disputatious speeches; but by continuance in a right life and unceasing prayers, are said “to take it by force,” wiping away the blots left by their previous sins.

“You may obtain wickedness, even in great abundance.29822982    Hesiod, first line, Works and Days, 285. The other three are variously ascribed to different authors.

And him who toils God helps;

For the gifts of the Muses, hard to win,

Lie not before you, for any one to bear away.”

The knowledge of ignorance is, then, the first lesson in walking according to the Word. An ignorant man has sought, and having sought, he finds the teacher; and finding has believed, and believing has hoped; and henceforward having loved, is assimilated to what was loved—endeavouring to be what he first loved. Such is the method Socrates shows Alcibiades, who thus questions: “Do you not think that I shall know about what is right otherwise?” “Yes, if you have found out.” “But you don’t think I have found out?” “Certainly, if you have sought.”

“Then you don’t think that I have sought?” “Yes, if you think you do not know.”29832983    Plato, Alcibiades, book i. So with the lamps of the wise virgins, lighted at night in the great darkness of ignorance, which the Scripture signified by “night.” Wise souls, pure as virgins, understanding themselves to be situated amidst the ignorance of the world, kindle the light, and rouse the mind, and illumine the darkness, and dispel ignorance, and seek truth, and await the appearance of the Teacher.

“The mob, then,” said I, “cannot become philosopher.”29842984    Plato, Republic, vi. p. 678.

“Many rod-bearers there are, but few Bacchi,” according to Plato. “For many are called, but few chosen.”29852985    Matt. xx. 16. “Knowledge is not in all,”29862986    1 Cor. viii. 7. says the apostle. “And pray that we may be delivered from unreasonable and wicked men: for all men have not faith.”29872987    2 Thess. iii. 1, 2. And the Poetics of Cleanthes, the Stoic, writes to the following effect:—

“Look not to glory, wishing to be suddenly wise,

And fear not the undiscerning and rash opinion of the many;

For the multitude has not an intelligent, or wise, or right judgment,

And it is in few men that you will find this.”29882988    Quoted by Socrates in the Phædo, p. 52.

And more sententiously the comic poet briefly says:—

“It is a shame to judge of what is right by much noise.”

For they heard, I think, that excellent wisdom, which says to us, “Watch your opportunity in the midst of the foolish, and in the midst of the intelligent continue.”29892989    Ecclus. xxvii. 12. And again, “The wise will conceal sense.”29902990    Prov. x. 14. For the many demand demonstration as a pledge of truth, not satisfied with the bare salvation by faith.

“But it is strongly incumbent to disbelieve the dominant wicked,

And as is enjoined by the assurance of our muse,

Know by dissecting the utterance within your breast.”

“For this is habitual to the wicked,” says Empedocles, “to wish to overbear what is true by disbelieving it.” And that our tenets are probable and worthy of belief, the Greeks shall know, the point being more thoroughly investigated in what follows. For we are taught what is like by what is like. For says Solomon, “Answer a fool according to his folly.”29912991    Prov. xxvi. 5. Wherefore also, to those that ask the wisdom that is with us, we are to hold out things suitable, that with the greatest possible ease they may, through their own ideas, be likely to arrive at faith in the truth. For “I 449became all things to all men, that I might gain all men.”29922992    1 Cor. ix. 22. Since also “the rain” of the divine grace is sent down “on the just and the unjust.”29932993    Matt. v. 45. “Is He the God of the Jews only, and not also of the Gentiles? Yes, also of the Gentiles: if indeed He is one God,”29942994    Rom. iii. 29, 30. exclaims the noble apostle.

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