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Chapter 2

2:1 First of all [prōton pantōn]. Take with [parakalō]. My first request (first in importance). Intercessions [enteuxeis]. Late word (Polybius, Plutarch, etc.), only here in N.T. and 4:5, though the verb [entugchanō] in Ro 8:27, 34; 11:2,25. The other three words for prayer are common (Php 4:6). For all men [huper pantōn anthrōpōn]. The scope of prayer is universal including all kinds of sinners (and saints).

2:2 For kings [huper basileōn]. And this included Nero who had already set fire to Rome and laid it on the Christians whom he was also persecuting. And all them that are in high place [kai pantōn tōn en huperochēi ontōn]. [Huperochē] is old word (from [huperochos] and this from [huper] and [echō], but in N.T. only here and 1Co 2:1. That we may lead [hina diagōmen]. Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of [diagō], an old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and Tit 3:3. Tranquil [ēremon]. Late adjective from the old adverb [ērema] (stilly, quietly). Here only in N.T. Quiet [hēsuchion]. Old adjective, once in LXX (Isa 66:2), in N.T. only here and 1Pe 3:4. Life [bion]. Old word for course of life (not [zōē]. So Lu 8:14. Gravity [semnotēti]. Old word from [semnos] (Php 4:8), in N.T. only here, 3:4; Tit 2:7.

2:3 Acceptable [apodekton]. Late verbal adjective from [apodechomai]. In inscriptions and papyri. In N.T. only here and 5:4.

2:4 Willeth [thelei]. God’s wish and will in so far as he can influence men. That all men should be saved [pantas anthrōpous sōthēnai]. First aorist passive infinitive of [sōzō] with accusative of general reference. See 1Co 10:33; 2Co 5:18f. To the knowledge [eis epignōsin]. “The full knowledge” as in Col 1:6; Eph 4:13 (ten times in Paul). See 2Ti 3:7 for the whole phrase “full knowledge of the truth” [alētheia] 14 times in the Pastorals). Paul is anxious as in Colossians and Ephesians that the Gnostics may not lead the people astray. They need the full intellectual apprehension of Christianity.

2:5 One God [heis theos]. Regular Pauline argument for a universal gospel (Ga 3:20; Ro 3:30; Eph 4:6). One mediator [heis mesitēs]. Late word (Polybius, Philo) from [mesos] (middle), a middle man. In N.T. only here, Ga 3:20; Heb 8:6; 9:15; 12:24. Between God and men [theou kai anthrōpōn]. Ablative case (though objective genitive may explain it) after [mesitēs] (notion of separation) as in Ro 10:12; Heb 5:14. Himself man [anthrōpos]. No “himself” [autos] in the Greek.

2:6 A ransom for all [antilutron huper pantōn]. “A reminiscence of the Lord’s own saying” (Lock) in Mt 20:28 (Mr 10:45) where we have [lutron anti pollōn]. In the papyri [huper] is the ordinary preposition for the notion of substitution where benefit is involved as in this passage. [Anti] has more the idea of exchange and [antilutron huper] combines both ideas. [Lutron] is the common word for ransom for a slave or a prisoner. Paul may have coined [antilutron] with the saying of Christ in mind (only one MS. of Ps 48:9 and Orph. Litt. 588). See Ga 1:4 “who gave himself for our sins.” The testimony [to marturion]. Either the nominative absolute or the accusative absolute in apposition to the preceding clause like [to adunaton] in Ro 8:3. In its own times [kairois idiois]. Locative case as in 6:15; Tit 1:3. See Ga 6:9 for “due season.” There is no predicate or participle here, “the testimony in its due seasons” (plural).

2:7 For which [eis ho]. The testimony of Jesus in his self-surrender (verse 6). See [eis ho] in 2Ti 1:11. I was appointed [etethēn egō]. First aorist passive indicative of [tithēmi]. Preacher and apostle [kērux kai apostolos]. In 2Ti 1:10 Paul adds [didaskalos] (herald, apostle, teacher) as he does here with emphasis. In Col 1:23f. he has [diakonos] (minister). He frequently uses [kērussō] of himself (1Co 1:23; 9:27; Ga 2:2; Ro 10:8f.). I speak the truth, I lie not [alētheian legō, ou pseudomai]. A Pauline touch (Ro 9:1). Cf. Ga 1:20; 2Co 11:31. Here alone he calls himself “a teacher of the Gentiles,” elsewhere apostle (Ro 11:13), minister (Ro 15:16), prisoner (Eph 3:1).

2:8 I desire [boulomai]. So Php 1:12. The men [tous andras]. Accusative of general reference with the infinitive [proseuchesthai]. The men in contrast to “women” [gunaikas] in 9. It is public worship, of course, and “in every place” [en panti topōi] for public worship. Many modern Christians feel that there were special conditions in Ephesus as in Corinth which called for strict regulations on the women that do not always apply now. Lifting up holy hands [epairontas hosious cheiras]. Standing to pray. Note also [hosious] used as feminine (so in Plato) with [cheiras] instead of [hosias]. The point here is that only men should lead in public prayer who can lift up “clean hands” (morally and spiritually clean). See Lu 24:50. Adverb [hosiōs] in 1Th 2:10 and [hosiotēs] in Eph 4:24. Without wrath and disputing [chōris orgēs kai dialogismou]. See Php 2:14.

2:9 In like manner that women [hosautōs gunaikas]. [Boulomai] must be repeated from verse 8, involved in [hosautōs] (old adverb, as in Ro 8:26). Parry insists that [proseuchomenas] (when they pray) must be supplied also. Grammatically that is possible (Lock), but it is hardly consonant with verses 11-15 (White). Adorn themselves [kosmein heautas]. Present active infinitive after [boulomai] understood. Old word from [kosmos] (arrangement, ornament, order, world). See Lu 21:5; Tit 2:10. See Co 11:5ff. for Paul’s discussion of women’s dress in public worship. In modest apparel [en katastolēi kosmiōi]. [Katastolē] is a late word (a letting down, [katastellō], of demeanour or dress, arrangement of dress). Only here in N.T. [Kosmios] is old adjective from [kosmos] and means well-arranged, becoming. W. H. have adverb in margin [kosmiōs]. With shamefastness [meta aidous]. Old word for shame, reverence, in N.T. only here and Heb 12:28. Sobriety [sōphrosunēs]. Old word, in N.T. only here, verse 15, and Ac 26:15 (Paul also). Not with braided hair [mē en plegmasin]. Old word from [plekō], to plait, to braid, for nets, baskets, here only in N.T. Cf. 1Pe 3:1 [emplokēs]. And gold [en chrusiōi]. Locative case with [en] repeated. Some MSS. read [chrusōi]. Both used for gold ornaments. Or pearls [ē margaritais]. See Mt 7:6 for this word. Or costly raiment [ē himatismōi polutelei]. [Himatismos] a common Koinē word from [himatizō], to clothe. [Polutelēs], old word from [polus] and [telos] (great price). See Mr 14:3.

2:10 Becometh [prepei]. Old word for seemly. Paul wishes women to wear “becoming” clothes, but [theosebeian] (godliness, from [theosebēs], Joh 9:31, [theos, sebomai], worship) is part of the “style” desired. Only here in N.T. Good dress and good works combined.

2:11 In quietness [en hēsuchiāi]. Old word from [hēsuchios]. In N.T. only here, Ac 22:2; 2Th 3:12. In all subjection [en pasēi hupotagēi]. Late word (Dion. Hal., papyri), in N.T. only here, 2Co 9:13; Ga 2:5. See 1Co 14:33-35.

2:12 I permit not [ouk epitrepō]. Old word [epitrepō], to permit, to allow (1Co 16:7). Paul speaks authoritatively. To teach [didaskein]. In the public meeting clearly. And yet all modern Christians allow women to teach Sunday school classes. One feels somehow that something is not expressed here to make it all clear. Nor to have dominion over a man [oude authentein andros]. The word [authenteō] is now cleared up by Kretschmer (Glotta, 1912, pp. 289ff.) and by Moulton and Milligan’s Vocabulary. See also Nageli, Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus and Deissmann, Light, etc., pp. 88f. [Autodikeō] was the literary word for playing the master while [authenteō] was the vernacular term. It comes from [aut-hentes], a self-doer, a master, autocrat. It occurs in the papyri (substantive [authentēs], master, verb [authenteō], to domineer, adjective [authentikos], authoritative, “authentic”). Modern Greek has [aphentes] = Effendi = “Mr.”

2:13 Was first formed [prōtos eplasthē]. Note [prōtos], not [prōton], first before Eve. First aorist passive indicative of [plassō], old verb, in N.T. only here and Ro 9:20 (cf. Ge 2:7f.).

2:14 Being beguiled [exapatētheisa]. First aorist passive participle of [exapateō], old compound verb, in N.T. only by Paul (2Th 2:3; 1Co 3:18; 2Co 11:3; Ro 7:11; 16:18; 1Ti 2:14). Not certain that [ex-] here means “completely deceived” in contrast to simplex [ouk ēpatēthē] used of Adam, though possible. Hath fallen [gegonen]. Second perfect indicative active, permanent state. See 1Co 11:7.

2:15 Through the child-bearing [dia tēs teknogonias]. Late and rare word (in Aristotle). Here alone in N.T. From [teknogonos] and this from [teknon] and root [genō]. This translation makes it refer to the birth of the Saviour as glorifying womanhood. That is true, but it is not clear that Paul does not have mostly in mind that child-bearing, not public teaching, is the peculiar function of woman with a glory and dignity all its own. “She will be saved” [sōthēsetai] in this function, not by means of it. If they continue [ean meinōsin]. Condition of third class, [ean] with first aorist active subjunctive of [menō], to continue. Note change to plural from the singular [sōthēsetai].

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