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East of Jordan. Aramæa derived its name probably from its first inhabitants, the children of Aram, a branch of whom settled on the eastern bank of the Jordan, under the various names of (1) Emim or Anakim (Deut. ii. 10, 11), a giant race, of whom Og, king of Bashan, was the last ruler. (2) The Horim, who dwelt on Mount Seir, till annihilated by the Edomites. (3) Rephaim, who penetrated to the western coast, and were conquered by the Philistines. (4) Geshueites (Josh. xiii. 2, 13), who lived eastward of Jordan, in "Syria" (2 Sam. xv. 8). (5) Amalekites (Exod. xvii. 8), probably distinct from those descended from Esau.

West of Jordan. Palestine was populated by immigrants of the sons of Canaan, son of Ham, of whom there were 11 tribes, viz. (1) Sidonians (Phœnicians), on the S.W. coast; (2) Hittites or Perizzites, occupying the valleys about Hebron; (3) Jebusites, in the hill country of Judah, whose centre was Jerusalem; (4) Amorites (Highlanders), who held the mountains by Shechem; (5) Girgashites, who lived N.E. of the Sea of Galilee; (6) Hivites, in N. Syria; (7) Arkites; (8) Sinites; (9) Arvadites; (10) Zemorites, four small tribes occupying part of Phœnicia on the N.W. coast; (11) Hamathites, peopling the valley of the Orontes. To these were subsequently added the Philistines, a branch of the second son of Ham, Mizraim, who came up from Egypt and occupied the southern coast.

These twelve Hamite tribes were in possession of Palestine, when Abram was called by God to migrate from Mesopotamia, and sojourn amongst them, to teach revealed religion to these prosperous worldlings, who believed only in natural causes. Their great settlements were three, viz. (1) Phœnicians (whose metropolis was Sidon), one of the most prosperous commercial nations the world has ever seen, trading with and colonising Europe, Asia, and Africa. (2) Philistines, with their five cities (Ashdod, Askelon, Gaza, Gath, and Ekron). (3) Canaanites, of the Vale of Siddim, with their five cities (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Zoar). These three held the keys of commerce with the whole world; the Philistines only were inclined to war and to conquer the interior, the other two being content with commercial supremacy. But other nations sprang up eastward, when the cities of the plain were annihilated. Lot, Abram's nephew, deserted him, allied with the Canaanites, became corrupted by them, lost his share in the promise, and was the father of two nations, hostile to the Israelites, viz. Moab, dwelling in the mountains S.E. of the Dead Sea; and Ammon, occupying the tract N. of Moab.

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