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I. With Barnabas and John Mark

(Acts xiii., xiv.).

Antioch (in Syria), the centre of Gentile evangelization. Barnabas and Saul, specially called by the Holy Ghost to mission work, and taking with them John Mark, go to

Seleucia (port of Antioch), whence they sail to the island of

Cyprus (the native place of Barnabas), landing at the eastern extremity,

Salamis, a populous mercantile port. The apostles preached in the synagogues there; then traversed the isle (100 miles) to

Paphos, its western extremity, the capital city. Here Elymas was struck blind, and the Roman proconsul, Sergius Paulus, converted. They crossed to the southern shore of Asia Minor, landing at

Perga, the ancient port of Pamphylia, whence goods from the interior were exported. Here John Mark returned home. The apostles went up into the mountains, on which journey they are supposed to have suffered the trials enumerated in 2 Cor. xi. 26, 27, till they reached

Antioch (in Pisidia), a central resting place, just over "the pass," where the great road from Ephesus into Asia intersected the southern road. It was a Roman colony. They preached in the synagogue, one sabbath to Jews (Paul's first recorded sermon), and the next to Greeks. Ejected by the rulers, they followed the great road to

Iconium (capital of Lycaonia, a dreary plateau). They stayed "a long time," making many converts, till, a factious mob trying to stone them, they fled to

Lystra, a small rural town of simple heathens. Paul healing a cripple, they were treated as gods (Jupiter and Mercury), till Jews from Iconium followed, declaring them to be impostors, and had them stoned. They fled to

Derbe, a small town away from the high-road, where they rested awhile, returning by the same route through Lystra, Iconium, Antioch, to

Perga, where they taught with no great success; so sailed back to

Antioch, where they reported their work to a full assembly of the congregation, and abode there a long time (probably six or seven years).

II. With Silas (Acts xv. 36—xviii. 22).

Antioch (in Syria), the starting point, whence they went by land through

Syria and Cilicia, confirming the Churches, and delivering the decrees of the Council of Jerusalem. Thence across the mountains to

Derbe and Lystra, where Paul circumcised Timothy, and took him with him through

Phrygia and Galatia, where Paul fell sick (Gal. iv. 13), and, being forbidden by the Spirit to go into the province of Asia, went into

Mysia: but, again being forbidden to pursue his intended journey to Bithynia, he was divinely guided to

Troas, where he met with Luke; had a vision of a Macedonian inviting him to Greece; embarked, touched at Samothracia, and landed at

Neapolis (Kavala), the seaport; whence he went up by land, across the Pharsalian plain, to

Philippi (in Macedonia), a Roman "colony," i.e. having the same laws and rights as Rome itself. Lydia was converted; the sorceress exorcised, and her masters charged the apostles before the magistrates, who scourged and imprisoned them. They were miraculously released by night; converted and baptised the jailer and his household. Paul left here Luke and Timothy, passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia to

Thessalonica (metropolis of Macedonia), where he stayed three sabbaths. Assailed by a Jewish mob, Jason, his host, being bound over to keep the peace, Paul escaped to

Berœa, where he was well received till persecutors followed him; then he was sent to

Athens, probably by sea, leaving Silas, for whom he waited; conversing with the philosophers, till forced to address them on Mars' hill, but with little success; so he retired to

Corinth, a great mercantile centre, which for one and a half years he made the head-quarters of evangelizing efforts on Achaia. Here he was joined by Silas and Timothy, and wrote the two Epistles to the Thessalonians. He was driven from the synagogue, and brought before Gallio; was received by Aquila and Priscilla, whom he converted, and with whom he sailed from

Cenchrea, the eastern port of Corinth, to

Ephesus; where he left Aquila and Priscilla, going on himself to

Cæsarea; whence it is supposed he went by land to Jerusalem, to keep the Feast of Pentecost (xviii. 21), and then returned to

Antioch, where he remained "some time" (probably less than a year).

III. With Timothy ( Acts xviii. 23—xxi. 33).

Antioch (Syria), starting point; thence through

Galatia and Phrygian of which no incidents are recorded, to

Ephesus, where Apollos had baptised converts only to repentance, and with an imperfect form, whom Paul re-baptised; staying there three years, refuting false philosophy and imposture of sorcerers, who publicly burnt their books, confessing their fraud. He retired from the synagogue; taught in the school of Tyrannus; wrote one Epistle to Corinthians, and to Galatians; remained over the great annual Pan-Ionic festival of Diana, when Demetrius roused the craftsmen, and Paul was sent away by his friends to

Macedonia, where he visited and encouraged his converts in the various places visited in the former journey; passing on into

Greece, where he stayed three months, probably visiting the Churches established at Corinth and in Achaia. He intended to sail from Cenchrea to Syria, but was waylaid by the Jews, so he sent the main body of his companions on in advance to Troas, viz. Sopater (of Berœa), Aristarchus and Secundus (of Thessalonica), Gaius (of Derbe), Timotheus (of Iconium), Tychicus and Trophimus (of the province of Asia).

Philippi was reached by some secret and unrecorded route by Paul, who was there joined by Luke. They sailed thence together, and in five days reached

Troas, where they remained seven days. Paul preached in an upper room; Eutychus fell from the window, but was healed by Paul, who "broke bread" in the congregation, and departed by land to meet his companions at Assos, who had gone round the coast on board the ship. At

Assos Paul embarked, and they touched at

Mitylene; the next day anchoring off Chios, and the day following put in at

Trogyllium, a promontory on the coast opposite the island of Samos. The next day they touched at

Miletus, where they probably remained two days, as Paul sent a messenger by land to the presbyters of Ephesus to come to him, when he took a solemn farewell of them. Launching thence, they sailed with a fair wind past Coos and Rhodes to

Patara, where they changed vessels, embarking on one sailing direct to Syria; sighting Cyprus, 68 but leaving it to the left (i.e. sailing south of it), landed at

Tyre, where the vessel discharged her cargo, remaining seven days, and where the disciples warned Paul not to go to Jerusalem. The Christians accompanied him to the ship, knelt on the shore, and prayed; thence to

Ptolemais (Acre), remaining one day; from whence they went to

Cæsarea, staying many days with Philip, the deacon, where Agabus bound his own hands and feet with Paul's girdle, signifying his approaching imprisonment. From thence Paul's party, accompanied by Mnason (of Cyprus), went up by land to

Jerusalem, where they were received by a full assembly of the apostles and elders, who advised Paul to purify himself from his contact with Gentiles by joining four men in the completion of a vow, defraying their expenses. While engaged in these religious exercises he was seized by a tumultuous mob, from whom the Roman chief captain extricated him, put him in prison, and sent him to Cæsarea, to the governor Felix.

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