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Oure purpose was to have maid the begynnyng of our Historie from the thingis that war done from the year of God Jm. Vc. fyfty aucht yearis,

till the Reformatioun of Religioun, which of Goddis mercy we anes possessed;736736In MS. G, "professed;" and in the second next line, "profess;" but the words are corrected to "possessed," and "possess," in edit. 1732. and yitt, in doctrin and in the rycht use of administratioun of Sacramentis, do possesse. But becaus diverse of the godlie, (as befoir is said,) earnestlye requyred, that such Personis as God raised up in the myddis of darknes, to oppone thame selfis to the same, should nott be omitted; we obeyed thare requeast, and have maid a schorte rehersall of all such materis as concerne Religion, frome the death of that notable servand of God, Maister Patrik Hammyltoun, unto the foirsaid year, when that it pleased God to look upoun us more mercyfullie then we deserved, and to geve unto us greattar boldness and better (albeit not without hasard and truble) successe in all our interprises then we looked for, as the trew Narratioun of this Secound Book shall witness: The Preface whareof followis.


Least that Sathan by our long silence shall tak occasioun to blaspheym, and to sklander us The Protestantis of the Realme of Scotland, as that our fact tendit rather to sedi298tioun and rebellioun, then to reformatioun of maners and abuses in Religioun; we have thocht expedient, so trewlie and brievlie as we can, to committ to writting the causes moving us, (us, we say, are great parte of the Nobilitie and Baronis of the Realme,) to tak the sweard of just defence against those that most injustly seak our destructioun. And in this our Confessioun we shall faithfullie declair, what moved us to putt our handis to the Reformatioun of Religioun; how we have proceaded in the same; what we have asked, and what presentlie we requyre of the sacrat authoritie; to the end, that our caus being knawen, alsweall our ennemeis as our brethren in all Realmes may understand how falslie we ar accused of tumult and rebellioun, and how unjustlie we ar persecuted by France and by thare factioun: as also, that our brethren, naturall Scottismen, of what religioun so evir thei be, may have occasioun to examinat thame selfis, yf thei may with salf conscience oppone themselfes to us, who seak nothing bot Christ Jesus his glorious Evangell to be preached, his holy Sacramentis to be trewlie ministrat, superstitioun, tyrannye, and idolatrie to be suppressed in this Realme; and, finallie, the libertie of this our native countrie to remane free from the bondage and tyranny of strangeris.

Whill that the Quein Regent practised with the Prelattis, how that Christ Jesus his blessed Evangell mycht utterlie be suppressed within Scotland, God so blessed the laubouris of his weak servandis, that na small parte of the Baronis of this Realme begane to abhorre the tyranny of the Bischoppes: God did so oppin thare eyis by the light of his woord, that thei could clearelie decerne betuix idolatrie and the trew honoring of God. THE FIRST DOUBTE Yea, men almost universallie begane to dowbt whetther that thei myght, (God nott offended,) give thare299 bodelye presence to the Messe, or yitt offer thare childrein to the Papisticall Baptisme. To the which dowbtes, when the most godlie and the most learned in Europe had answered, both by word and writt, affirmyng, THE SECOUND "That neather of both we mycht do, without the extreame perrell of our saulles," we began to be more trubled; for then also began men of estimatioun, and that bare rewill amanges us, to examinat thame selfis concernyng thare dewities, alsweall towardis Reformatioun of Religioun, as towardis the just defence of thare brethren most cruelly persecuted. And so begane diverse Questionis to be moved, to witt, "Yf that with salf conscience such as war Judgeis, Lordis, and rewlaris of the people, mycht serve the uppare powers in maynteanyng idolatrie, in persecuting thare brethrein, and in suppressing Christes trewth?" Or, "Whitther thei, to whome God in some caisses had committed the sweard of justice, mycht suffer the bloode of thare brethrein to be sched in thare presence, without any declaratioun that such tyrannye displeased thame?" SCRIPTURIS ANSWERING THE DOUBTIS By the plane Scriptures it was found, "That a lyvelie faith requyred a plane confessioun, when Christes trewth is oppugned; that not only ar thei gyltie that do evill, bot also thei that assent to evill." And plane it is, that thei assent to evill, who seing iniquitie openly committed, by thare silence seame to justifie and allow whatsoever is done.

These thingis being resolved, and sufficientlie provin by evident Scriptures of God, we began everie man to look more diligentlie to his salvatioun: for the idolatrie and tyranny of the clargie, (called the Churchmen,) was and is so manifest, that whosoever doth deny it, declair him self ignorant of God, and ennemy to Christ Jesus. We thairfore, with humbill confessioun of our formar offenses, with fasting and supplicatioun unto God, begane to seak some remeady in sa present a danger. And first, it was concluded, "That the Brethren in everie toune at certane tymes should assemble togidder, to300 Commoun Prayeris, to Exercise and Reading of the Scripturis, till it should please God to give the sermone of Exhortatioun to some, for conforte and instructioun of the rest."

And this our weak begynnyng God did so bless, that within few monethis the hartes of many war so strenthned, that we sought to have the face of a Church amanges us, and open crymes to be punished without respect of persone. And for that purpose, by commoun electioun, war eldaris appointed, to whome the hole brethren promissed obedience: for at that tyme we had na publict ministeris of the worde; onlie did certane zelous men, (amonges whome war the Lard of Dun, David Forress, Maister Robert Lokharte, Maister Robert Hammylton, Williame Harlay,737737In Vautr. edit. and MS. G, "Harlawe." and otheris,738738These early and zealous friends of the Reformation, who undertook the office of Exhorters, were all laymen, with perhaps the exception of Robert Hamilton, who afterwards became minister of St. Andrews. Robert Lockhart is mentioned by Knox in October 1559, as endeavouring to make an agreement between the Queen Regent, and the Congregation, without success.) exhorte thare brethrein, according to the giftes and graces granted unto thame. THIS WAS CALLED THE PREVYE KIRK Bot schort after did God stirre up his servand, Paule Methven,739739In MS. G, "Meffen." (his latter fall740740Paul Methven, after the Reformation, was appointed minister of Jedburgh; but to the scandal of his brethren in the ministry, and according to the account of "this horrible fact," related by Knox in his Fourth Book, he was found guilty of adultery, and deposed and excommunicated, June 1563. aught not to deface the work of God in him,) who in boldnes of spreit begane opinlie to preache Christ Jesus, in Dundie, in diverse partes of Anguss, and in Fyffe; and so did God work with him, that many began opinly to abrenunce thare ald idolatrie, and to submitt thame selfis to Christ Jesus, and unto his blessed ordinances; insomuch that the toune of Dundee began to erect the face of a publict churche Reformed, in the which the Worde was openlie preached, and Christis Sacramentcs trewlie ministrat.

In this meantyme did God send to us our deare brother,301 Johne Willock,741741Respecting Willock, see notes 633, 672 ane man godly, learned, and grave, who, after his schorte abode at Dundie, repared to Edinburgh, and thare (notwithstanding his long and dangerous seiknes) did so encorage the brethren by godly exhortationis, that we began to deliberat upoun some publict Reformatioun; for the corruptioun in religioun was such, that with salf conscience we could na langar susteane it. Yitt becaus we wold attempt nothing without the knowledge of the sacrate authoritie,742742"Sacrate authoritie," here, and in other places, may mean the constituted rather than "sacred authority," as in MS. G, and Vautr. edit. with one consent, after the deliberatioun of many dayes, it was concluded, that by our publict and commoun Supplicatioun, we should attempt the favouris, supporte, and assistance of the Quein then Regent, to a godly Reformatioun. THE LARD OF CALDAR ELDAR And for that purpoise, after we had drawin our oraisoun and petitionis, as followeth, we appointed from amanges us a man whose age and yearis deserved reverence, whose honestie and wirschip mycht have craved audience of ony magistrate on earth, and whose faithfull service to the authoritie at all tymes had bein suche, that in him culd fall no suspitioun of unlawfull disobedience. This Oratour was that auncient and honorable father, Schir James Sandelandes of Calder, knycht,743743Sir James Sandilands of Calder, the ancestor of the Torphichen family. His pedigree is fully detailed in Douglas and Wood's Peerage of Scotland, vol. ii. pp. 590-595. He was born about the year 1480; and had a charter of lands to himself and Margaret Forrester, only daughter of Archibald Forrester of Corstorphine, 23d August 1510. In the Peerage, Sir James is said to have "died after 1553." This date may have misled Mr. Tytler, in stating that it was the Preceptor of the Knights of St. John, commonly called Lord St. John, who made this appearance in Parliament.—(History, vol. vi. pp. 79, 90.) But Dr. MʻCrie has in like manner confounded the father with his second son.—(Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 176.) Sir James probably survived till the beginning of 1560. On the 12th July 1559, his eldest son and successor was styled "John Sandilands of Calder, younger," which proves that his father was still alive. James Sandilands, his second son, became Lord St. John, and, as stated in note 641, he obtained the temporal lordship of Lord Torphichen, in 1563; but leaving no issue, the title, on his death, devolved on his grand-nephew, James Sandilands of Calder, 29th November 1596. to whome we302 geve commissioun and power in all our names then present, befoir the Quein Regent thus to speak:—

The First Oratioun, and Petitioun, of the Protestantes of Scotland to the Quein Regent.

Albeit we have of long tyme conteyned our selfis in that modestie, (Maist Noble Princess,) that neyther the exile of body, tynsall of goodis, nor perishing of this mortall lyif, wes able to convein us to ask at your Grace reformatioun and redress of those wrangis, and of that sore greaff, patientlie borne of us in bodyes and myndes of so long tyme; yitt ar we now, of verray conscience and by the fear of our God, compelled to crave at your Grace's feit, remeady against the most injust tyranny used against your Grace's most obedient subjectes, by those that be called the Estate Ecclesiasticall. CONTROVERSYE IN RELIGIOUN Your Grace can not be ignorant what controversie hath bein, and yit is, concernyng the trew religioun, and rycht wirschipping of God, and how the Cleargye (as thei wilbe termed) usurpe to thame selfes suche empyre above the consciences of men, that whatsoever thei command must be obeyed, and whatsoever thei forbid must be avoided, without farder respect had to Godis plesour, commandiment, or will, reveilled till us in his most holy worde; THE TYRANNYE OF THE CLEARGIE or ellis thare abydeth nothing for us but faggot, fyre, and sweard, by the which many of our brethrene, most cruellie and most injustlie, have bein strickin of laitt yearis within this realme: which now we fynd to truble and wound our consciences; for we acknowledge it to have bein our bound dewities befoir God, eyther to haif defended our brethren from those cruell murtheraris, (seing we ar a parte of that power which God hath establessed in this realme,) or ellis to haif gevin open testificatioun of our faith with thame, which now we offer our selfis to do, least that by our continewall silence we shall seame to justifie thare cruell tyranny; which doeth not onlie displease us, but303 your Grace's wisdome most prudentlie doeth foirsee, that for the quieting of this intestine dissentioun, a publict Reformatioun, alsweall in the religioun as in the temporall governement, war most necessarie; and to the performance thairof, most gravelie and most godlie, (as we ar informed,) ye have exhorted alsweall the Cleargy as the Nobilitie, to employ thare study, diligence, and care. We tharefoir of conscience dar na langar dissemble in so weighty a mater, which concerneth the glorie of God and our salvatioun: Neather now dar we withdraw our presence, nor conceill our petitionis, least that the adversaries hearefter shall object to us, that place was granted to Reformatioun, and yit no man suited for the same; and so shall our silence be prejudiciall unto us in tyme to come. And tharefoir we, knowing no other order placed in this realme, but your Grace, in your grave Counsall, sett to amend, alsweall the disordour Ecclesiasticall, as the defaultes in the Temporall regiment, most humblie prostrat our selfes befoir your featt, asking your justice, and your gratious help, against thame that falslie traduce and accuse us, as that we war heretickis and schismatikis, under that culour seiking our destructioun; THE PETITIOUN for that we seak the amendment of thare corrupted lyeffis, and Christes religioun to be restored to the originall puritie. Farther, we crave of your Grace, with opin and patent earis, to heare these our subsequent Requestis; and to the joy and satisfactioun of our trubled consciences, mercifullie to grant the same, onless by Goddis plane worde any be able to prove that justlie thei awght to be denyed.

The First Petitioun.

First, Humblie we ask, that as we haif, of the Lawes of this realme, after long debaite, obteaned to reade the Holy bookes of the Old and New Testamentes in our commoun toung,744744This permission to read the Scriptures "in our common tongue," refers to the Act of Parliament 15th March 1542-3: see page 100. as304 spirituall foode to our soullis, so from hensfurth it may be lauchfull that we may convene, publictlie or privatlie, to our Commoun Prayeris, in our vulgar toung; to the end that we may encrease and grow in knowledge, and be induceid, in fervent and oft prayer,745745In Vautr. edit. "in severitie of prayer;" MS. G has "in fervent and oft prayers." to commend to God the holye Church universall, the Quoin our Soverane, hir honorable and gratiouse Husband, the habilitie746746MS. G has "stabilitie;" Vautr. edit. "abilitie." of thare succcssioun, your Grace Regent, the Nobilitie, and hole Estait of this Realme.

Secundly, Yf it shall happin in oure saidis conventionis any hard place of Scripture to be redd, of the which no proffeit arysith to the convenaris, that it shalbe lauchfull to any qualifiit personis in knowledge, being present, to interpreit and open up the saidis hard places, to Goddis glorie and to the proffeit of the auditour. And yf any think that this libertie should be occasioun of confusioun, debait, or heresie; we ar content that it be providit, that the said interpretatioun shall underly the judgement of the most godly and most learned within the realme at this tyme.

Thridly, That the holy Sacrament of Baptisme may be used in the vulgare toung; that the godfatheris and witnesses may nott onlie understand the poyntes of the league and contract maid betuix God and the infant, bot also that the Churche then assembled, more gravelie may be informed and instructed of thare dewiteis, whiche at all tymes thei owe to God, according to that promeise maid unto him, when thei war receaved in his houshold by the lavachre747747In MS. G, "lavacrie." of spirituall regeneratioun.

Ferdlie, We desyre, that the holy Sacrament of the Lordis Suppare, or of his most blessed body and bloode, may lykwyise be ministred unto us in the vulgare toung; and in305 boyth kyndis,748748The Council of Constance, in 1415, whilst acknowledging that "Christ instituted the venerable Sacrament of the Eucharist, after the Supper, and administered it to his Disciples under the forms of bread and wine;" nevertheless decreed that the laity should not be allowed to partake of the cup. This prohibition by the Romish Church, was the occasion of great discontent in some of the foreign Churches, more especially in Bohemia and Switzerland, from the time of John Huss to that of Luther.—As both George Wishart and Knox had previously dispensed the Sacrament, according to the original institution, this may have led to this demand for such a privilege to the Protestants in Scotland, in 1558. according to the plane institutioun of our Saviour Christ Jesus.

And last, We most humblie requyre, that the wicked, sklanderous, and detestable lyiff of Prelates, and of the State Ecclesiasticall, may be so reformed, that the people by thame have nott occasioun (as of many dayis thei have had) to contempne thare ministerie, and the preaching wharof thei shuld be messingeris.749749It is not unlikely that this last demand, and the increasing strength of the Reformers, may have led the Catholic Prelates and Clergy to enact some of the Canons in their last Provincial Council, for reforming the lives of their own body. And yf thei suspect, that we, rather invying thare honouris, or coveting thare riches and possessionis, then zelouslie desyring thare amendment and salvatioun, do travell and labour for this Reformatioun; THE OFFER we ar content not onlie that the rewllis and preceptis of the New Testament, bot also the writtinges of the ancient Fatheris, and the godly approved lawis of Justiniane the Emperour, decyd the contraversie betuix us and thame: And if it salbe found, that eyther malevolentlie or ignorantlie we ask more then these three foirnamed have requyred, and continewlie do requyre of able and trew ministeris in Christes Church, we refuise not correctioun, as your Grace, with right judgement, shall think meit. Bot and yf all the foirnamed shall dampne that whiche we dampne, and approve that whiche we requyre, then we most earnestlie beseik your Grace, that notwithstanding the long consuetude which thei have had to live as thei list, that thei be compelled eyther to desist from ecclesiastical administratioun, or to dis306charge thare dewities as becumeth trew ministeris; So that the grave and godlie face of the primitive Churche reduced, ignorance may be expelled, trew doctrine and good maneris may ones agane appeare in the Churche of this Realme. These thingis we, as most obedient subjectis, requyre of your Grace, in the name of the Eternall God, and of his Sone, Christ Jesus; in presence of whose throne judiciall, ye and all other that hear in earth bear authoritie, shall geve accomptes of your temporall regiment. The Spreit of the Lord Jesus move your Grace's harte to justice and equitie. Amen.


These oure Petitionis being proponed, the Estate Ecclesiasticall began to storme, and to devise all maner of leys to deface the equitie of our caus. Thei bragged as that thei wald have publict disputatioun, which also we most earnestlie requyred, two thingis being provided; the formare, that the plane and writtin Scriptures of God shuld decyde all contraversie; DISPUTATIOUN WITH CONDITIONIS Secoundlie, that our brethrene, of whom some war then exiled, and by them injustlie dampned, myght have free accesse to the said disputatioun, and salf conduct to returne to thair duelling places, nochtwithstanding any processe whiche befoir had bene led aganis thame in materis concernyng religioun. THE OFFER OF THE PAPISTIS But these being by thame utterlie denyed, (for no judge wold thei admitt bot thame selfis, thare Counsallis, and Cannon law,) thei and thare factioun began to draw certane Articles of reconciliation, promissing unto us, yf we wold admitt the Messe, to stand in hir formare reverence and estimatioun, grant Purgatorie after this lyiff, confesse Prayer to Sanctes and for the dead, and suffer thame to enjoye thare accustomed renttis, possession, and honour, that then thei wold grant unto us to pray and baptize in the vulgare toung, so that it war done secreatlie, and nott in the open assemblie. But the grosness of these Articles wes suche, that with ane voce we refused thame; and constantlie craved justice of the Quein307 Regent, and a reasonable answer of our formare Petitionis. THE GRANT OF THE QUEIN REGENT The Quein, then Regent, ane woman crafty, dissimulate, and fals, thinking to mak hir proffeit of both parteis, gave to us permissioun to use our selfis godlye according to our desyres, providit that we should not maik publict assembleis in Edinburgh nor Leyth; and did promeise hir assistance to our Preacheouris, untill some uniforme ordour myght be established by a Parliament. To thame, (we meane to the Cleargy,) she quietlie gave significatioun of hir mynd, promissing that how sone any oportunitie should serve, she should so putt ordour in thare materis, that after thei should not be trubled; for some say thei gave hir a large purse,750750In MS. G, "a longe purs." 40,000 lib., sayis the Chronicle,751751Vautr. edit. omits the important words, "sayis the Chronicle," and reads, "40,000 powndes gathered by the Laird of Earles haule."—In the anonymous "Historie of the Estate of Scotland," the sum to be paid, it is said, "was within 15,000 lib."—(Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. p. 56.) gathered by the Lard of Erleshall.752752This Chronicle is not known to be extant; but Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, in his Chronicles of Scotland compiled about 1575, enumerates, as one of his authors, "Sir William Bruce of Earleshall, Knight, who hath written very justly all the deeds since Floudoun Field."—In Douglas's Baronage, pp. 510-513, there is a genealogy of this family, from which we learn that Sir William was the heir of his father, Sir Alexander Bruce of Earlshall, who had the honour of knighthood conferred on him by James the Fourth. Sir William succeeded his father in 1504, and is said to have been knighted by the same Monarch. This is apparently a mistake; but his name appears as Miles, in a charter dated 1539. In May 1563, Sir William Bruce became surety for Maxwell of Teling, (Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. *427;) but how long after this he may have survived, is uncertain. We, nothing suspecting hir dowblenes nor falshode, departed, fullelie contented with hir answer; and did use our selfis so qwietlie, that for hir pleasour we putt silence to Johne Dowglass, who publictlie wold have preached in the toune of Leyth; for in all thingis we soght the contentment of hir mynd, so far furth as God should not be offended against us for obeying hir in thingis unlawfull.


Schortlie after these thingis, that cruell tyrant and unmercyfull hypocrite, falselie called Bischope of Sanctandrois,308 apprehended that blessed martyre of Christ Jesus Walter Myln;753753Pitscottie, Calderwood, Spottiswood, and other writers, have given an account of the fate of this aged priest, who suffered martyrdom at St. Andrews, in the eighty-second year of his age. But Foxe's account of his trial and sentence is the earliest and most minute, and will be inserted as No. XIV. of the Appendix to the present volume. Myln himself expressed a hope, which was realized, that he would be the last person in this country thus to suffer for the cause of truth. a man of decrepite age, whome most cruellie and most unjustlie be put to death by fyre in Sanctandrois, the twenty awcht day of Aprile, the year of God Jm. Vc. fyfty aught yearis: Whiche thing did so heighlie offend the hartis of all godlye, that immediatlie after his death began a new fervencie amongis the hole people; yea, evin in the toune of Sanctandrois, begane the people plainelie to dampne suche injust crueltie; and in testificatioun that thei wold his death should abide in recent memorie, thare was castin together a great heape of stones in the place whare he was brynt. The Bischope and Preastis thairat offended, caused ones or twyse to remove the same, with denunciatioun of Cursing, yf any man should thare lay ony stone. Bott in vane was that wynd blowen; for still was the heape maid, till that Preastis and Papistis did steall away by nycht the stones to big thare walles, and to uther thare privat uses.754754   Although this cairn was not allowed to remain, there has lately been erected, within sight of the Castle of St. Andrews, a granite obelisk, to commemorate the names of the more eminent Scotish Martyrs. It bears the following inscription:—
    "In Memory of the Martyrs Patrick Hamilton, Henry Forrest, George Wishart, Walter Mill, who, in support of the Protestant Faith, suffered by fire at St. Andrews, between the years mdxxviii and mdlviii.

    The righteous shall be held in everlasting remembrance.


We suspecting nothing that the Quein Regent wes consenting to the foirnamed murther, most humilie did complayne of suche injust crueltie, requiring that justice in suche cases should be ministrate with greattare indifference. Sche, as a woman borne to dissemble and deceave, began with us to lament the crueltie of the Bischope, excusing hir self as309 innocent in that caus; for that the sentence was gevin without hir knowledge, becaus the man sometymes had bene ane Preast; tharefoir the Bischop's Officiare755755In Vautr. edit. "Officiall." did proceid upon him without any commissioun of the civile authoritie Ex officio, as thei terme it.

We yit nothing suspectand hir falsheid, requyred some ordour to be tackin against such enormities, whiche sche promissed as oft befoir. Bot becaus schorte after thare wes a Parliament to be haldin, for certane effares pertenyng rather to the Quenis proffeit particulare, nor to the commoditie of the commoun wealth, we thocht good to expone our mater unto the hole Parliament, and by thame to seak some redress. We tharefoire, with one consent, did offer to the Quein and Parliament756756See note 760. a Lettir in this tennour:—

The Forme of the Lettir gevin in Parliament.

"Unto youre Grace, and unto yow, Rycht Honorable Lordis of this present Parliament, humlie meanes and schawes your Grace's faithfull and obedient Subjectis: That quhare we ar dalie molested, sklandered, and injured be wicked and ignorant personis, place-haldaris of the ministers of the Churche, who most untrewlie cease nott to infame us as Heretickis, and under that name thei most cruellie haif persecuted diverse of our brethrein; and farder intend to execute thare malice against us, onles be some godlie ordour thare fury and raige be brydilled and stayed; and yitt in us thei ar able to prove no cryme worthy of punishment, onless that to read the Holie Scriptures in our assembleis, to invocat the name of God in publict prayeris, with all sobrietie to interprete and open the places of Scripture that be redd, to the farther edificatioun of the brethrein assembled, and trewlie according to Christ Jesus his holy institutioun to minister the Sacramentes, be crymes310 worthy of punishment. Other crymes, (we say,) in us thei ar not abill to convict. And to the premisses ar we compelled; for that the saidis place-haldaris discharge no parte of thare deuiteis rychtlie till us, nether yitt to the people subject to us; and thairfoir, onless we should declair our selfis altogether unmyndfull of our awin salvatioun, we ar compelled, of verray conscience, to seak how that we and our brethrein may be delivered from the thraldome of Sathan. PROTESTATIOUN For now it hath pleased God to open our eyes, that manifestlie we see, that without extreame danger of our sowlles, we may in no wyise communicat with the damnable idolatrie, and intolerable abuses of the Papisticall Churche; and thairfoir most humblie requyre we of your Grace, and of yow Rycht Honorable Lordis, Baronis, and Burgesses assembled in this present Parliament, prudentlie to wey, and as it becum757757In Vautr. edit. "becommeth." just judges, to grant these our maist just and reasonable Petitionis.—

"First, Seing that the contraversie in religioun, which long hath continewed betuix the Protestants of Almany, Helvetia, and other provinces, and the Papisticall Churche, is not yitt decyded by a lauchfull and Generall Counsall; and seing that our consciences ar lyikwyes towcheit with the fear of God, as was thares in the begynnyng of thare contraversie, we most humlie desyre, that all suche Actes of Parliament, as in the tyme of darknes gave power to the Churche men to execute thare tyranny aganis us, be reasoun that we to thame wor delated as Heretiques, may be suspended and abrogated, till a Generall Counsall lawfullie assembled have decyded all contraverseis in religioun.

"And least that this mutatioun shuld seame to sett all men at libertie to lyve as thame list, We Secundarelie requyre, That it be enacted by this present Parliament, that the Prelattis and thare Officiaris758758In Vautr. edit. "officers." be removed from place of judge311ment; onlie granting unto thame, nocht the less, the place of accusatouris in the presence of a temporall judge, befoir whom the Churche men accusatouris salbe bundin to call any by thame accused of heresye, to whome also thei salbe bundin to deliver ane authentik copy of all depositionis, accusationis, and process led against the persone accused; the judge lykewyis delivering the same to the partie accused, assignyng unto him a competent terme to answer to the same, after he hath takin sufficient cautioun de judicio sisti.

"Thridly, We requyre, that all lawfull defences be granted to the personis accused; as yf he be able to prove, that the witnesses be personis unable by law to testifie aganis thame, that then thare accusationis and depositionis be null according to justice.

"Item, That place be granted to the partie accused, to explane and interprite his awin mynd and meanyng; which confessioun we requyre be inserted in publict Actes, and be preferred to the depositionis of any witnesses, seing that nane owght to suffer for religioun, that is not found obstinat in his damnable opinioun.

"Last, We requyre, that our brethrene be not dampned for Hereticques, onles, by the manifest word of God, thei be convicted to have erred from that faith whiche the Holy Spreit witnesseth to be necessarie to salvatioun; and yf so thei be, we refuise nott bot that thei be punished according to justice, onles by holsome admonitioun thei can be reduced to a better mynd.

"These thingis requyre we to be considered of yow, who occupy the place of the Eternall God, (who is God of ordour and trewth,) evin in suche sorte as ye will answer in the presence of his throne judiciall: Requyring farder, that favorablie ye will have respect to the tendernes of our consciences, and to the truble which appeareth to follow in this commoun wealth, yf the tyranny of the Prelattis, and of thare adhe312rentis, be nott brydilled by God and just lawis. God move your hartes deeplie to considder your awin dewiteis and our present trubles."

These our Petitionis did we first present to the Quein Regent, becaus that we war determined to interprise nothing without hir knowledge, most humlie requyring hir favorable assistance in our just actioun. Sche spared nott amyable lookis, and good wordes in aboundance; bot alwayis sche keaped our Bill close in hir pocket. When we requyred secreatlie of hir Grace, that our Petitionis should be proponed to the hole Assemblie, sche ansured, "That sche thought nott that expedient; for then wold the hole Ecclesiasticall Estate be contrarie to hir proceadingis, which at that tyme war great;" for the Matrimoniall Croune was asked, and in that Parliament granted.759759See page 294. "Bot, (said sche,) how sone ordour can be tacken with these thingis, which now may be hyndered by the Kirk men, ye shall know my goode mynd; and, in the meantyme, whatsoevir I may grant unto yow, shall glaidlie be granted."

We yitt nothing suspecting hir falshode, was content to geve place for a tyme to hir pleasour, and pretended reasoun; and yitt thocht we expedient somewhat to protest befoir the dissolutioun of the Parliament; for our Petitionis war manifestlie knowen to the hole Assemblie, as also how, for the Quenis pleasour, we ceassed to persew the uttermost. Our Protestatioun was formed in manor following:—

Forme of the Protestatioun maid in Parliament.

"It is not unknawin to this honorable Parliament, what contraversie is now laitlie rissin betuix those that wilbe called the Prelattis and rewlarris of the Church, and a great number of us, the Nobilitie and commonaltie of this Realme, for313 the trew wirschipping of God, for the dewitie of Ministeris, for the rycht administratioun of Christ Jesus holie Sacramentis: how that we have complained by our publict supplicationis to the Quene Regent, that our consciences ar burdened with unprofitable ceremonies, and are compelled to adhear to idolatrie; that such as tack upoun thame the office Ecclesiasticall, discharge no parte thareof, as becumith trew ministeris to do; and finallie, that we and our brethrein ar most unjustlie oppressed by thare usurped authoritie. And also we suppose it is a thing sufficientlie knowin, that we wer of mynd at this present Parliament to seik redress of suche enormiteis; bot, considering that the trubles of the tyme do nott suffer suche Reformatioun as we, by Goddis plane word, do requyre, we ar enforced to delay that which most earnestlie we desyre; and yitt, least that our silence should geve occasioun to our adversaries to think, that we repent our formare interprise, we can not cease to protest for remedy against that most unjust tyranny, which we heirtofoir most patientlie have susteaned.

"And, First, We protest, that seing we can not obtene ane just Reformatioun, according to Goddis worde, that it be lauchfull to us to use oure selfis in materis of religioun and conscience, as we must ansuer unto God, unto suche tyme as our adversaries be able to prove thame selfis the trew ministers of Christes Churche, and to purge thame selfis of suche crymes as we have already layed to thare charge, offering our selfis to prove the same whensoever the Sacrat Authoritie please to geve us audience.

"Secundlie, We protest, that nether we, nor yit any other that godlie list to joyne with us in the trew faith, whiche is grounded upoun the invincible worde of God, shall incure any danger in lyiff or landis, or other politicall paines, for nott observing suche Actes as heirtofoir have passed in favouris of our adversaries, neyther yit for violating of suche rytes as man without God's commandiment or worde hath commanded.314

"We, Thridly, protest, that yf any tumult or uproare shall aryise amanges the membres of this realme for the diversitie of religioun, and yf it shall chance that abuses be violentlie reformed, that the cryme thairof be not impute to us, who most humlie do now seak all thinges to be reformed by ane ordour: LETT THE PAPISTIS OBSERVE Bot rather whatsoever inconvenient shall happin to follow for lack of ordour tacken, that may be imputed to those that do refuise the same.

"And last, We protest, that these our requeastis, proceading from conscience, do tend to none other end, bot to the Reformatioun of abuses in Religioun onlie: Most humilie beseiking the Sacred Authoritie to tak us, faithfull and obedient subjectis, in protectioun against our adversaries; and to schaw unto us suche indifferencie in our most just Petitionis, as it becumeth God's Lievetenentis to do to those that in his name do call for defence against cruell oppressouris and bloode thrustie tyrantes."760760No notice of this Protest occurs in the Acts and Proceedings of the Parliament held at Edinburgh on the 29th November 1558, when, from the reference to the Crown Matrimonial, at page 312, it must have been presented. Knox indeed says it was refused; but the proceedings of that Parliament, which also sat on the 5th December, seem not to have been fully recorded, or at least preserved.


These our Protestationis publictlie redd, we desyred thame to have bene inserted in the commoun Register; bot that by laubouris of ennemies was denyed unto us. Nochttheles, the Quein Regent said, "Me will remember what is protested; and me shall putt good ordour after this to all thingis that now be in contraversie." And thus, after that sche be craft had obteaned hir purpoise, we departed in good esperance of hir favouris, praysing God in our hartes that sche was so weall enclyned towardes godlynes. The goode opinioun that we had of hir synceritie, caused us not onlie to spend our goodis and hasarde our bodyes at hir pleasour, bot also, by our publict315 letters writtin to that excellent servand of God Johne Calvine, we did prayse and commend hir for excellent knowledge in Goddis worde and good will towarttis the advancement of his glorie; requyring of him, that by his grave counsall and godlie exhortatioun he wald animat hir Grace constantlie to follow that which godlie sche had begune. We did farther charplie rebuike, boith by word and writting, all suche as appeired to suspect in hir any vennoum of hypochrisie, or that war contrare to that opinioun which we had conceaved of hir godlie mynd. Bott how far we war deceaved in our opinioun, and abused by hir craft, did suddandlie appeare: for how sone that all thingis perteanyng to the commoditie of France war granted by us, and that peace was contracted betuix King Philip and France, and England and us,761761The treaty of peace referred to was concluded at Cateau-Cambrésis, between France, England, and Spain, on the 2d April 1559. The evident design of the Courts of France and Spain at this time was to endeavour the extirpation of heresy, or the Protestant Faith in England, as well as in other countries. sche began to spew furth, and disclose the latent vennome of hir dowble harte. Then began sche to frowne, and to look frowardlie to all suche as sche knew did favour the Evangell of Jesus Christ. Sche commanded her houshold to use all abhominationis at Pasche; and sche hir self, to geve exampill to utheris, did communicat with that idole in open audience: Sche comptrolled hir houshold, and wold know whare that everie ane receaved thare Sacrament. And it is supposed, that after that day the Devill took more violent and strong possessioun in hir762762In MS. G, "in hir hairt." then he had befoir; for, from that day fordwarte, sche appeared altogether altered, insomuche that hir countenances and factes did declair the vennome of hir harte. For incontinent sche caused our preachearis to be summoned;763763It has already been noticed that the preachers summoned were Paul Methven, John Christison, William Harlaw, and John Willock. As they did not appear on the day finally fixed, they and their cautioners were denounced as rebels, on the 10th of May 1559. See the sentence, in MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 447. for whome, when we maid316 intercessioun, beseiching hir Grace not to molest thame in thare ministerie, onles any man war able to convict thame of fals doctrin, sche could not bryddill hir toung from open blasphemy, but proudlie sche said, SCHE HAD GOTTIN HIR LESSOUN FROM THE CARDINALL "In dispite of yow and of your ministeris boith, thei shalbe banisshed owt of Scotland, albeit thei preached als trewlie as evir did Sanct Paule." Which proud and blasphemous ansuer did greatlie astoniss us; and yit ceassed we not moist humilie to seak hir favouris, and by great diligence at last obteaned, that the summoundis at that tyme war delayed. For to hir wer send Alexander Erle of Glencarne, and Sir Hew Campbell of Loudoun knycht, Schiref of Air, to reassoun with hir, and to crave some performance of hir manifold promisses. QUENE REGENTIS ANSURE To whome sche ansured, "It became not subjectis to burden thare Princess with promisses, farther then it pleaseth thame to keape the same." Boith thei Noble men faythfullie and boldly discharged thare dewitie, and plainlie foirwarned hir of the inconvenientis that war to follow; wharewyth sche somewhat astonied said, "Sche wald advise."764764In the outer margin, (fol. III,) Knox had written some words which have been scored through, and are partly cut away by the binder. As well as I can decipher the words, the sentence may be thus read:—"Luik quhether it be best to tak in heir the Beggars Warning, or in the place befoir appoynted." See note 725; 770.


In this meantyme did the toune of Perth, called Sanct Johnestoun, embrase the trewth, which did provok hir to a new fury; in which sche willed the Lord Ruthven, Provest of that toune,765765Patrick Lord Ruthven held the Provostship of Perth for many successive years: see note 787. to suppress all suche religioun thare. LORD RUTHVEN HIS ANSURE To the which, when he ansured, "That he could maik thare bodyes to come to hir Grace, and to prostrate thame selfis befoir her, till that sche war fullie satiate of thare bloode, bot to caus thame do against thare conscience, he could not promeise:" Sche in fury did ansure, "That he was too malaperte to geve hir suche ansure," affirmyng, "that boyth he and thei should317 repent it." Sche solisted Maister James Halyburtoun, Provest of Dundie,766766Mr. James Halyburton is usually styled Tuter of Pitcur. At the siege of Brochty, in 1547-8, he was left in command of certain companies of horse.—(Lesley's Hist. p. 203.) He filled the office of Provost of Dundee for a considerable period, as will afterwards be noticed. His name, as Provost, occurs in Parliamentary proceedings, 1554 and 1563.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. pp. 536, 603.) to apprehend Paule Methven,767767In MS. G, "Meffen." who, fearing God, gave secreat advertisement to the man to avoid the toune for a tyme. Sche send furth suche as sche thought most able to perswade at Pasche, to caus Montrose, Dundie, Sanct Johnestoun, and otheris suche places as had receaved the Evangell, to communicat with the idole of the Messe; bot thei could profeit nothing: the heartis of many war bent to follow the trewth reveilled, and did abhore superstitioun and idolatrie. Whareat sche more heighlie commoved, did summound agane all the preachearis to compear at Striveling, the tent day of Maij, the year of God 1559. Which understand by us, we, wyth all humble obedience, sowght the meanes how sche myght be appeased, and our preachearis not molested: bot when we could nothing prevaill, it was concluded by the hole brethrein, that the Gentilmen of everie cuntrie should accumpany thare Preachouris to the day and place appointed. THE FIRST ASSEMBLIE AT SANCT JOHNESTOUN Whareto all men war most willing; and for that purpose the toune of Dundy, the gentilmen of Anguss and Mernis, passed fordwarte with thare preachearis to Sanct Johnestoun, without armour, as peciable men, mynding onlie to geve confessioun with thare preachearis. And least that suche a multitude should have gevin fear to the Quein Regent, the Lard of Dun, a zelous, prudent, and godly man, passed befoir to the Quein, then being in Striveling, to declare to hir, that the caus of thare convocatioun was onlie to geve confessioun with thare preachearis, and to assist thame in thare just defence. Sche understanding the fervencie of the people, began to craft with him, solisting him to stay the multitude, and the preachearis318 also, with promeise that sche wald tak some bettir ordour. THE LARD OF DUN STAYED THE CONGREGATIOUN AND THE PREACHEARIS He, a man most gentill of nature, and most addict to please hir in all thingis not repugnant to God, wret to those that then war assembled at Sanct Johnestoun, to stay, and nott to come fordwarte; schawand what promess and esperance he had of the Quenis Grace favouris. At the reading of his letteris, some did smell the craft and deceat, and persuaded to pas fordwarte, unto the tyme a discharge of the formare summondis should be had, alledgeing, that otherwyis thare process of horning or rebellioun, should be executed against the preachearis; and so should not onlie thei, bot also all suche as did accumpanye thame, be involved in a lyik cryme. Otheris did reassone, that the Quenes promeisses was not to be suspected, neyther yitt the Lard of Dun his requeast to be contempned; and so did the hole multitude with thare preacheris stay.

In this meanetyme that the Preacheouris ware summoned, to wit, the secound of Maij 1559, arryved Johne Knox from France,768768At page 291, Knox says that the meeting of Provincial Council in 1558-9, continued till the day of his arrival; whilst according to Bishop Lesley, this Provincial Council, held at Edinburgh in 1559, "endit apoun the x daye of Apryle. Efter the quhilk, the Quene Regent immediatelie caused summounde John Knox, John Willox, John Douglas, and Paule Meffane, to compeir before the Justice in Striveling the x day of Maij, onder the pane of rebellioun."—(Hist, p. 271.) To reconcile this with the date of Knox's arrival in Scotland, Dr. MʻCrie has remarked, that "though the Acts were concluded on the 10th April, it was not agreed to close the Council on that day." who ludgeing two nychtis onlie in Edinburgh, hearing the day appointed to his brethren, repared to Dundee, whare he earnestlie requyred thame, "That he myght be permitted to assist his brethrein, and to geve confessioun of his faith with thame:" which granted unto him, [he] departed unto Sanct Johnestoun with thame; whare he began to exhorte, according to the grace of God granted unto him. The Quein, perceaving that the preachearis did nott compeir, began to utter her malice; and notwythstanding any requeist maid in the con319trarie, gave commandiment to putt thame to the horne, inhibiting all men under pane of thare rebellioun to assist, conforte, receave, or maynteane thame in any sorte. Whiche extremitie perceaved by the said Lard of Dune, he prudentlie withdrew himself, (for otherwyes by all appearance he had not eschaped empresonement;) for the Maister of Maxwell,769769Sir John Maxwell, second son of Robert fourth Lord Maxwell, being presumptive heir of his brother, was called Master of Maxwell, in charters granted to him and his wife Agnes, eldest daughter and co-heiress of William fourth Lord Herreis of Terregles, 1st February 1549-50. His elder brother Robert was served heir of his father, 1st August 1550, and married Lady Beatrix Douglas, second daughter of James Earl of Morton; but he died 14th September 1552; and his posthumous son John became sixth Lord Maxwell. But Sir John Maxwell of Terregles still retained his designation as Master, and was actively employed in public affairs. In December 1552, and again in 1557, he was one of the Commissioners for a treaty of peace with England; and was Warden of the West Marches.—(Lesley's Hist. p. 258.) From the above statement by Knox, it appears he had been committed to ward by order of the Queen Regent. Bishop Lesley thus makes mention of his having escaped from the Castle of Edinburgh. Although the date 1558, appears in the printed copy as supplied by the Editor, the events recorded from page 273 to page 277, belong to 1559:—"About this tyme, the Master of Maxwell, quho was keped presoner in the Castell of Edinburgh, departed furth of the same be ane corde our the wall thairof, quhair thair was certane horsis in redines with frendis of his owne, quho receaved and convoyide him in his owne countrey; and sone thaireftir he joyned him selfe with the Lordis of the Congregatione."—(Hist. p. 276.) ane man zelous and stout in God's caus, (as then appeired,) under the cloak of ane uther small cryme, was that same day committed to warde, becaus he did boldlie affirme, "That to the uttermost of his power, he wold assist the preachearis and the congregatioun; notwythstanding any sentence whiche injustlie was, or should be, pronunced against thame. The Lard of Dun, cuming to Sanct Johnestoun, expounded the caise evin as it was, and did conceill nothing of the Quenis craft and falshode. Whiche understand, the multitud was so enflammed, that neyther could the exhortatioun of the preacheare, nor the commandiment of the magistrat, stay thame from distroying of the places of idolatrie.


The maner whairof was this:770770   [In note 725, it is stated that Knox had changed his intention of inserting "The Beggars Summonds," at the end of Book First; and purposed introducing it into this place, with a sentence which was written on the top margin of the MS. The Glasgow Manuscript, fol. 83, b, in reference to this alteration, has this marginal note: "Thair is in this place, in the uther copie, inserted the Summoundis against the Freris, quhilk is in the end of the First Buke." Unfortunately the binder has cut away two lines at the top of the page, and the deficiency cannot be supplied from any other copy. In order, however, not to interrupt the narrative in the text, the Summonds is here inserted in a different type.]
   ....................... "Zealous Brether.................

   upon the gaittis and ports of all the Freiris places within this realme, in the moneth of Januar 1558, preceding that Whitsunday that they delodged, which is this, etc. And so tak in heir the Beggars Warning.
   "The Blynd, Cruked, Bedrelles, Wedowis, Orphelingis, and all uther Pure, sa viseit be the hand of God, as may not worke,
   To the Flockes of all Freires within this Realme, we wishe Restitutioun of Wranges bypast, and Reformatioun in tyme cuming, for Saluatioun.

   "Ye yourselfes ar not ignorant, and thocht ye wald be, it is now, thankes to God, knawen to the haill warlde, be his infallible worde, that the benignitie or almes of all Christian pepill perteynis to us allanerly; quhilk ye, being hale of bodye, stark, sturdye, and abill to wyrk, quhat under pretence of povertie, (and nevirtheles possessing maist easelie all abundance,) quhat throw cloiket and huided simplicitie, thoght your proudnes is knawen, and quhat be feynzeit holines, quhilk now is declared superstitioun and idolatrie, hes thir many yeirs, exprese against Godis word, and the practeis of his holie Apostles, to our great torment, (allace!) maist falslie stowen fra us. And als ye have, be your fals doctryne and wresting of Godis worde, (lerned of your father Sathan,) induced the hale people, hie and law, in sure hoip and beleif, that to cloith, feid, and nurreis yow, is the onlie maist acceptable almouss allowit before God; and to gif ane penny, or ane peice of bread anis in the oulk, is aneuch for us. Evin swa ye have perswaded thame to bigge to yow great Hospitalis, and manteyne yow thairin be thair purs, quhilk onlie perteinis now to us be all law, as biggit and dottat to the pure, of whois number ye are not, nor can be repute, nether be the law of God, nor yit be na uther law proceiding of nature, reasoun, or civile policie. Quhairfore seing our number is sa greate, sa indigent, and sa heavilie oppressit be your false meanis, that nane takes care of oure miserie; and that it is better for us to provyde thir our impotent members, quhilk God hes gevin us, to oppone to yow in plaine contraversie, than to see yow heirefter (as ye have done afoir) steill fra us our lodgeings, and our selfis, in the meintyme, to perreis and die for want of the same. We have thocht gude thairfoir, or we enter with yow in conflict, to warne yow, in the name of the grit God, be this publick wryting, aflixt on your yettis quhair ye now dwell, that ye remove furthe of our said Hospitalis, betuix this and the Feist of Whitsunday next, sua that we the onelie lawfull proprietaris thairof may enter thairto, and efterward injoye thai commodities of the Kyrk, quhilke ye have heirunto wranguslie halden fra us. Certifying yow, gif ye failye, we will at the said terme, in haile number, (with the helpe of God, and assistance of his sanctis in eirthe, of quhais reddie supporte we dout not,) enter and tak possessioun of our said patrimony, and eject yow utterlie furthe of the same.

   "Lat him thairfor that befoir hes stollen, steill na mair; but rather lat him wyrk wyth his handes, that he may be helpefull to the pure.

   "Fra he haill Cities, Townis, and Villages of Scotland, the Fyrst Day of Januare 1558."
The preacheouris befoir had declaired, how odiouse was idolatrie in God's presence; what commandiment he had gevin for the destructioun of the monumentis thairof; what idolatrie and what abhominatioun was in the Messe. It chanced, that the next day, whiche was the321 ellevint of Maij, after that the Preachearis wer exyled, that after the sermoun whiche was vehement against idolatrie, that a preast in contempt wold go to the Messe; and to declair his malapert presumptioun, he wold opin up ane glorious tabernacle which stoode upoun the Hie Altare. Thare stoode be322syde, certane godly men, and amonges otheris a young boy, who cryed with a lowd voce, "This is intollerable, that when God by his Worde hath planelie damned idolatrie, we shall stand and see it used in dispyte." The preast heirat offended, gave the chyld a great blow; who in anger took up a stone, and casting at the prcast, did hytt the tabernacle and brack doune ane ymage; and immediatlie the hole multitude that war about cast stones, and putt handis to the said tabernacle, and to all utheris monumentis of idolatrie; whiche thei dispatched, befoir the tent man in the toune war advertist, (for the moist parte war gone to dennar:) Whiche noysed abroad, the hole multitude convened, not of the gentilmen, neyther of thame that war earnest professouris, bot of the raschall multitude, who fynding nothing to do in that Churche, did run without deliberatioun to the Gray and Blak Freris; and nochtwythstanding that thei had within thame verray strong gardis keapt for thare defence, yitt war thare gates incontinent brust upe. The first invasioun was upoun the idolatrie; and thareafter the commoun people began to seak some spoile; and in verray deid the Gray Freiris771771The Monastery of the Observantine order of Franciscan or Grey Friars of Perth, is said to have been founded in the year 1460, by the Lord Oliphant.—(App. to Keith's Bishops, p. 452.) This was Sir Lawrence Oliphant of Aberdalgy, created Lord Oliphant, before 1458. According to Dempster, the founder was Hieronymus Lyndesay, Doctor of Laws, and brother to the Earl of Crawfurd.—(See. also Hay's Scotia Sacra, MS. p. 553.) It was situated near the walls, on the south side of the City of Perth; and after the destruction of the building, the ground was converted into a public burial place. was a place so weall provided, that oneles honest men had sein the same, we wold have feared to have reported what provisioun thei had. Thare scheittis, blancattis, beddis, and covertouris wer suche, as no Erle in Scotland hath the bettir: thair naiprie was fyne. THAIR PROVISIOUN Thei wer bot awght personis in convent, and yitt had viij punscheonis of salt beaff, (considder the tyme of the yeare, the ellevint day of Maij,) wyne, beare, and aill, besydis stoare323 of victuallis effeiring thareto. The lyik haboundance was nott in the Blak Frearis;772772The Monastery of the Dominican or Black Friars of Perth, was situated near the walls, on the north side of the town, and was founded by Alexander the Second, in the year 1231. In this building the Scotish Monarchs usually resided when at Perth; and meetings of Parliament were sometimes held within the Church, as well as several of the Provincial Councils. It was here where James the First met with his tragical fate, 20th February 1437-8. and yitt thare was more then becam men professing povertie. The spoile was permitted to the poore: for so had the preacheouris befoir threatned all men, that for covetousnes saik none shuld putt thare hand to suche a Reformatioun, that no honest man was enriched thairby the valew of a groate. Thare conscience so moved thame, that thei suffered those hypocreattis tak away what thei could, of that whiche was in thare places. The Priour of Charter-howse was permitted to tack away with him evin so muche gold and silver as he was weall able to cary.773773Adam Forman, last Prior of the Charter-House, along with the rest of his brethren, retired to Errol, of which Church they were patrons, carrying with them, no doubt, as much of the treasures they possessed as they were able to appropriate. He afterwards granted a feu to his relation, John Forman, of some lands belonging to the Monastery. In 1572, George Hay of Nethirlyff was created Commendator, and the lands erected into a lordship; but eventually, in 1598, he resigned his title, and the name of Lord and Prior of the Charter-House of Perth became extinct. So was menis consciences befoir beattin with the worde, that thei had no respect to thare awin particulare proffeit, bot onlie to abolishe idolatrie, the places and monumentis thareof: in which thei wer so busye, and so laborious, that within two dayis, these three great places, monumentis of idolatrie, to witt, the Gray and Blak theves,774774In MS. G, "the Blak and Gray Freiris;" Vautr. edit. has "theeves." and Charter-housse monkis, (a buylding of a wonderouse coast and greatness,775775Bishop Lesley, in describing the ruthless manner in which "the multitude of the people and craftismen" proceeded in demolishing the altars, images, &c., in the parish Kirk of Perth, says, they then "passed strait way to the Abbay of the Charter House, and pullit the hoill place downe, alsweill the Kirk thairof as uther housses, places, and all the coastlie bigginnis quhilkis was maid be King James the First, fundatour thairof, quhilk was the farest Abbay and best biggit of any within the realme of Scotlande; and cuttit downe the hoill growing trees and all uther policies."—(History, p. 272.) The destruction seems to have been very complete. But the Prior and his brethren were allowed to retire in safety: see note 773.) was so destroyed, that the walles onlie did remane of all these great edificationis.


Whiche, reported to the Quein, sche was so enraged that sche did avow, "Utterlie to destroy Sanct Johnestoun, man, woman, and child, and to consume the same by fyre, and thairafter to salt it, in signe of a perpetuall desolatioun." We suspecting nothing suche creweltie, bot thinking that suche wordis myght eschape hir in choler, without purpose determinate, becaus sche was a woman sett a fyre by the complaintes of those hypocrytes who flocked unto hir, as ravennis to a carioun; We, (we say,) suspecting nothing suche beastlie crueltie, returned to our awin housses; leaving in Sanct Johnestoun Johne Knox to instruct, becaus thei war young and rude in Christ. Bott sche, sett a fyre, partlie be hir awin malice, partelie by commandiment of hir freindis in France, and not a litill by brybes, whiche sche and Monsieur Dosell receaved from the Bischoppes and the Preastis heir at home, did continew in hir rage. THE COMPLAINT OF THE QUEIN REGENT And first, sche send for all the Nobilitie, to whome sche complaned, "That we meaned nothing bot a rebellioun." Sche did grevouslie aggreage the destructioun of the Charter-howse,776776The Charter-House, or, as it was called, "Monasterium Vallis Virtutis," at Perth, was a splendid edifice, founded and richly endowed by King James the First, in the year 1429. It was the only religious establishment of any extent in Scotland of the Order of Carthusians, or White Friars. Holinshed says it "was not as yet throughly finished" at the time of that Monarch's barbarous murder, in 1437-8; but he was buried there with great solemnity. James the Second, in the General Council held at Perth, 12th May 1450, granted a charter of several lands in Perthshire to the Prior and Convent of the Carthusian Monastery of the Valley of Virtue, near Perth.—(Reg. Magni Sigilli: Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 65.) A century later, in November 1541, Margaret, the mother of James the Fifth, having died at Methven, in the vicinity of Perth, was also "buried in the Charterhouse Church of Saint Johns Towne, by [beside] the tombe of King James the First. The King himself and many Nobles of the Realme were present at the funeralles, which were kept in most solemne and pompous maner."—(Holinshed's Chronicles, Scotland, p. 445; Chronicle of Perth, p. 2. Edinb. 1830.) becaus it was a Kingis325 fundatioun; and thare was the tumbe of King James the First; and by suche other perswasionis sche maid the most parte of thame grant to persew us. And then incontinent send sche for hir Frenchemen; for that was and hath ever bein hir joy to see Scottishmen dip one with anotheris bloode. No man was at that tyme more frack against us then was the Duke,777777James Duke of Chattelherault. lead by the crewell beast, the Bischope of Sanctandrois, and by these that yitt abuse him, the Abbot of Kilwynnyng,778778Gawin Hamilton, the fourth son of James Hamilton of Raploch, was born about the year 1515, and educated at St. Andrews. His name occurs as a Determinant of St. Leonard's College in 1534, and a Licentiate in 1536. His connexions early secured for him promotion in the Church; and in 1549, he sat as Dean of the Metropolitan Church of Glasgow, and as Vicar-General during the vacancy in that See. As already mentioned, (page 274,) Hamilton, in the year 1550, exchanged the Deanery of Glasgow for the Abbacy of Kilwinning. In 1552-3, he was sent in embassy to the King of France.—(Treas. Accounts.) In Anderson's House of Hamilton, p. 364; Keith's Catal. of Bishops, p. 408; and in Brunton and Haig's Senators, p. 101, his subsequent history is somewhat fully detailed. and Matthew Hammyltoun of Mylburne,779779Matthew Hamilton of Mylburne has already been noticed, at page 207, as the son of John Hamilton of Mylburne, who had been sent to France in 1547. He was succeeded by his brother Robert, who had a charter under the Great Seal, "Roberto Hamilton, fratri quondam Mathei Hamilton de Milburne, terrarum de Livingstone, in vic. de Linlithgow," dated 6th June 1569. two cheaf ennemeis to Christ Jesus; yea, and ennemeis780780Vautr. edit. omits six words, and reads, "two chiefe enemies to the Duke." to the Duke and to his hole house, bot in sa far as thairby thei may procure thair awin particulare proffeitt. These and suche other pestilent Papistes ceassed nott to cast faggotis on the fyre, continewalie cryeing, "Fordwarte upoun these Heretiques; we shall ones rydd this realme of thame."

The certantie heirof cuming to our knowledge, some of us repaired to the Toune agane, about the 22 day of Maij, and thare did abyde for the conforte of our brethrein. Whare, after invocatioun of the name of God, we began to putt the Toune and ourselfis in suche strenth, as we thought myght best for our just defence. And, becaus we war nott utterlie326 dispared of the Quenis favouris, we cawsed to forme a lettir to hir Grace, as followeth:—

"To the Quenis Grace Regent, all humill obedience and dewitie premissed.

"As heirtofoir, with jeopard of our lyves, and yitt with willing hartes, we haif served the Authoritie of Scotland, and your Grace, now Regent in this Realme, in service to our bodyes dangerous and painefull; so now, with most dolorous myndis we ar constraned, by injust tyrannye purposed against us, to declair unto your Grace, That except this crueltie be stayed by your wisdome, we wilbe compelled to tak the sweard of just defence aganis all that shall persew us for the mater of religioun, and for our conscience saik; whiche awght not, nor may nott be subject to mortale creatures, farder than be God's worde man be able to prove that he hath power to command us. We signifie moreover unto your Grace, That yf by rigour we be compelled to scale the extreme defence, that we will nott onlie notife our innocencie and petitionis to the King of France, to our Maistres and to her Housband, bot also to the Princes and Counsall of everie Christiane Realme, declairing unto thame, that this cruell, injust, and most tyrannicall murther, intended aganis townes and multitudis, wes, and is the onlie caus of our revolt from our accustomed obedience, whiche, in God's presence, we faythfullie promeise to our Soverane Maistres, to hir Husband, and unto your Grace Regent; provided, that our consciences may lyve in that peace and libertie whiche Christ Jesus hath purchassed till us by his bloode; and that we may have his worde trewlie preached, and holie Sacramentis ryghtlie ministrat unto us, without whiche we fermelie purpose never to be subject to mortall man: O WHAIR IS THIS FERVENCIE NOW! For better, we think, to expone our bodyes to a thowsand deathis, then to hasarde our soules to perpetuall condemnatioun, by denying Christ Jesus and his manifest veritie, whiche327 thing not onlie do thei that committ open idolatrie, bot also all suche as seing thare brethrene injustlie persewed for the caus of religioun, and having sufficient meanes to conforte and assist thame, do nott the less withdraw frome thame thair detfull supporte. O WALD GOD THAT THE NOBILITIE SHULD YITT CONSIDERE We wald nott your Grace should be deceaved by the fals persuasionis of those cruell beastis, the Churche men, who affirme, That your Grace nedith nott greatlie to regarde the losse of us that professe Christ Jesus in this realme. Yf (as God forbid) ye gif care to thare pestilent counsall, and so use against us this extremitie pretended; it is to be feared, that neyther ye, neyther yitt your posteritie, shall at any tyme after this fynd that obedience and faithfull service within this realme, whiche at all tymes yow have found in us. We declair our judgementis frelie, as trew and faithfull subjectis. God move your Graces harte favorablie to interpreite our faythfull meanyng. Further advertissing your Grace, that the self same thing, together with all thingis that we have done, or yitt intend to do, we will notifie by our letteris to the King of France; asking of yow, in the name of the eternall God, and as your Grace tenderis the peace and qwyetness of this realme, that ye invaid us nott with violence, till we receave ansur from our Maistres, hir Husband, and from thare advised counsall thare. And this we committ your Grace to the protectioun of the Omnipotent.

"Frome Sanet Johnestoun the 22 of Maij 1559.

(Sic subscribitur,) Your Grace's obedient subjectis in all
thingis not repugnant to God,
The faithfull Congregatioun of Christ Jesus
in Scotland

In the same tennour we wrate to Monsieur Dosell in Frenche, requiring of him, that by his wisdome he wold mitigate the Quenis raige, and the raige of the Preastis; otherwyis that flambe, whiche then begane to burne, wold so kendle that quhen some men wold, it culd not be slokenned; adding328 farder, that he declairit him self781781Monsieur D'Oysel, who had been resident Ambassador in Scotland from the King of France, in 1547, till his return in 1551, (see page 203,) was again sent in that capacity in 1554.—(Lesley's Hist. pp. 203, 250.) He continued from that time, as formerly, to be one of the Queen Dowager's principal counsellors in all her affairs. In 1555, he is called "Lord Dosell, Lieutenant of the King of France," (Crim. Trials, vol. i. p. *375;) and under this title he will be noticed in a subsequent page. But here I may add, that Doysel must have returned to France when the French troops left Scotland, in 1560, as, in the following year, he was a third time about to proceed to this country, "to haif remanit in the Castle of Dunbar and fort of Inchekeith, to the cuming of the Quenes Hienes, (Queen Mary, from France,) and than to haif randerit these strenthis at hir command. Notwithstanding, (Bishop Lesley continues,) whosone he come to London, the Queen of Ingland wald not suffer him to pas farder, but causit him returne agane in France, for that she affermit that he and Monsieur Rubie was the principall aucthoris of all the trubles quhilkis was in Scotland, betuix the Quene Regent and the Nobilitie thairof, and that it was to be fearit he wald do the lyke in tyme cuming, gif he war permittit to pas in thair cuntrey."—(History, p. 298.) no faithfull servand to his maister the King of France, yf for the plesour of the Preistis he wald persecut us, and so compell us to taik the sweard of just defence. In lyke maner we wrait to Capitane Serra la Burse, and to all uther Capitanis and Frenche soldiouris in generall, admonischeing thame that thair vocatioun was nocht to fyght aganis us naturall Scottishmen; nather yit that thai had any suche commandiment of thair maister. We besowght thame thairfoir nocht to provok us to inemitie aganest thame, considdering, that thay had found us favorable in thair most extreme necessiteis. We declairit farther unto thame, that yf thay enterit in hostilitie and bloody warre aganest us, that the same sould remane langar than thair and oure lyves, to witt, evin in all posteriteis to come, so lang as naturall Scottishmen suld have power to revenge suche crewelty, and maist horribill ingratitude.

Thease letteris war causit be spred abroade in great habundance, to the end that sum myght cume to the knawlege of men. The Quene Regent hir letter was layed upoun hir cussing in the Chapell Royall at Striveling, quhair sche accustomit to sitt at Messe. Sche looked upoun it, and329 put it in the pocket of hir goune. Monsieur Dosell and the Capitanis receavit thairis deliverit evin be thair awin soldiouris, (for sum amongis thame war favoraris of the treuth,) quho efter the reading of thame, began to ryve thair awin beardis; for that was the modest behaveour of Monsieur Dosell, quhen treuth was told unto him, so that it repugne to his fantasie. These our letteris war suppressed to the uttermost of thair power, and yit thay come to the knowlege of mony. Bot the raige of the Quene and Preistis culd nocht be stayed; bot fordwart thay move against us, quho than war bot are verrie few and meane number of gentilmen in Sanct Johnestoun. We perceaving the extremitie to approche, did wrytt to all bretherin, to repair towardis us for our releve; to the quhiche we fand all men so readie bent, that the work of God was evidentlie to be espyed. And becaus that we wold omitt na diligence to declair our innocencie to all men, we formit ane letter to those of the Nobilitie who than persecuted us, as efter followeth:—

"To the Nobilitie Of Scotland, the Congregationis of Chryst Jesus within the same, desyr the spreit of ryghteous judgement."

"Becaus we ar nocht ignorant, that the Nobilitie of this realme who now persecute us, employing thair hole study and force to manteyne the kingdome of Sathan, of superstitioun and idolatrie, ar yit nochttheles devidit in opinioun; We, the Congregatioun of Christ Jesus by yow injustlie persecuted, have thocht good, in one letter, to write unto yow severallie. Ye ar devidit, we say, in opinioun; for sum of yow think that we who have tackin upoun us this interpryise to remove idolatrie, and the monumentis of the same, to erect the trew preaching of Chryst Jesus in the boundis committit to our chargis, ar Heretickis, seditious men, and trubilleris of this commone wealth; and thairfoir that no punischment is suffi330cient for us: and so, blyndit with this rage, and under pretens to serve the Authoritie, ye proclame warre, and threattin distructioun without all ordour of law aganis us. To yow, we say, that nather your blynd zeale, nather yit the colour of authoritie, sall excuse yow in Godis presence, who commandeth "None to suffer death, till that he be opinlie convictit in jugement, to have offendit against God, and against his law writtin," whiche no mortall creature is able to prove against us: for quhatsoevir we have done, the same we have done at Godis commandiment, who planelie commandis idolatrie, and all monumentis of the same to be destroyed and abolisshed, Oure ernist and long requeist hath bein, and is, that in opin assemblie it may be disputit in presence of indifferent auditouris, THE PERPETUALL REQUEIST OF THE PROTESTANTIS OF SCOTLAND "Whether that theis abhominationis, namit by the pestilent Papistis, religioun, whiche thay by fyre and sweard defend, be the trew religioun of Christ Jesus or not?" Now, this our humbill requeast denyed unto us, our lyves ar sought in most crewell maner. And ye, the Nobilitie, (whose dewetie is to defend innocentis, and to brydle the fury and raige of wicked men, wer it of Princes or Emperouris,) do nochtwithstanding follow thare appetytis, and arme your selfis against us, your bretherin, and naturall cuntriemen; yea, against us that be innocent and just, as concerning all suche crymes as be layid to our chargis. Yf ye think that we be criminall becaus that we dissent from your opinioun, considder, we beseiche yow, that the Prophetis under the law, the Apostles of Christ Jesus efter his Assentioun, his primitive Churche, and holy Martyris, did disassent from the hole world in thare dayis; and will ye deny bot that thair actioun was just, and that all those that persecuted thame war murtheraris befoir God? May nocht the lyek be trew this day? What assurance have ye this day of your religioun, whiche the warld that day had nocht of thairis? Ye have a multitude that aggre with yow, and so had thay. Ye have antiquitie of tyme, and that331 thay lacked nocht. Ye have counsales, lawis, and men of reputatioun that have establisshed all thingis, as ye suppose: Bot none of all these can maik any religioun acceptable unto God, whiche onelie dependeth upon his awin will, revealled to man in his most sacred word. Is it nocht than a wonder that ye sleip in so deadlie a securitie, in the mater of your awin salvatioun, considdering that God gevith unto yow so manifest tockens, that ye and your leaderis ar boith declynit from God? PROBATIOUN AGAINST THE PAPISTIS For yf "the tree salbe judgit by the fruit," (as Christ Jesus affirmeth, that it must be,) than of necessitie it is that your Prelattis, and the hole rable of thair clergie, be evill treeis. For yf adultrie, pryde, ambitioun, dronknes, covetousnes, incest, unthankfulnes, oppressioun, murther, idolatrie, and blasphemye, be evill fructis, thare can none of that generatioun, whiche clame to thame selfis the title of Churche men,782782In MS. G, "Kirkmen." be judged gud treeis; for all these pestilent and wicked fruittis do they bring furth in greittest habundance: And gif thai be evill treis, (as ye your selfis must be compelled to confes thay ar,) advise prudentlie with what consciences ye can manteyne thame, to occupy the roume and place in the Lordis vyne yarde. Do ye nocht considder, that in so doing ye labour to manteyne the servandis of syne in thair filthie corruptioun; and so consequentlie ye labour, that the Devill may regne, and still abuse this realme, by all iniquitie and tyrannye, and that Chryst Jesus and his blessed Evangell be suppressed and extinguesshed?

"The name and the cloke of the Authoritie,AGAINST SUCHE AS UNDER COLOUR OF AUTHORITIE PERSEQUTE THAIR BRETHERIN. whiche ye pretend, will nothing excuse yow in Godis presence; but rather sall ye beir duble condempnatioun; for that ye burdeane God, as that his good ordinance wer the caus of your iniquitie. All authoritie quhilk God hath establisshed, is good and perfyte, and is to be obeyed of all men, yea under the pane of damnatioun. DIFFERENCE BETUIX THE PERSONE AND THE AUTHORITIE But do ye nocht understand, that thair is a great332 difference betuix the authoritie quhiche is Goddis ordinance, and the personis of those whiche ar placit in authoritie? The authoritie and Goddis ordinance can never do wrang; for it commandeth, That vice and wickit men be punischit, and vertew, with verteous men and just, be maynteaned. But the corrupt Persone placed in this authoritie may offend, and most commonelie doeth the contrare heirof; and is than the corruptioun of the persone to be followed, be ressone that he is cled with the name of the authoritie? Or, sall those that obey the wicked commandiment of those that ar placed in authoritie be excusable befoir God? Nocht so; nocht so. Bott the plagues and vengeances of God tackin upoun Kingis, thair servandis, and subjectis, do witnes to us the plane contrarie. Pharao was a King, and had his authoritie of God, who commandit his subjectis to murther and torment the Israelites, and at last most crewellie to persecut thair lyves. But was thare obedience, (blynd raige it should be called,) excusable befoir God? The universall plague doeth planelie declair, that the wicked commander, and those that obeyed, war alyke giltie befoir God. THE FACT OF KING SAULE And yf the example of Pharao shalbe rejected, becaus he was ane Ethnik, than lat us considder the factis of Saule: He was a King anoynted of God, appoynted to regne ower his people, he commanded to persecut David, becaus (as he alledged) David was a traytour and usurper of the Crowne; and lyekwyis commanded Abimelech the Hie Preast and his fellowis to be slane: But did God approve any parte of this obedience? Evident it is that he did nott. And think ye, that God will approve in yow that whiche he did dampne in otheris? Be nocht deceaved: with God thair is no suche partialitie.783783In MS. G, "particularitie." Yf ye obey the injust commandimentis of wicked rewlaris, ye sall suffer Goddis vengeance and just punishment with thame. And thairfoir as ye tender your awin salvatioun, we most earnistlie requyre333 of yow moderatioun, and that ye stay your selfis, and the furye of utheris, from persecuting of us, till our cause be tryed in lauchfull and opin judgement.

"And now, to yow that ar perswaded of the justice of our cause, that sumtyme have professed Chryst Jesus with us, and that also have exhorted us to this interpryse, and yit have left us in our extreme necessitie, or at the least look throw your fingaris, in this our truble, as that the matter apperteaned nocht unto yow; we say, that onles (all fear and warldlie respectis sett asyde) ye joyne your selffis with us, that as of God ye ar reputed traytouris, so shall ye be excomunicated from our societie, and from all participatioun with us in the administratioun of Sacramentis. The glorie of this victorie, quhilk God shall geve to his Churche, yea evin in the eyis of men, shall nocht apperteane to yow; bot the fearfull judgement, whiche apprehended Ananias and his wyfe Sapphyra, sall apprehend yow and your posteritie. LETT BOTH THE ONE PART AND THE UTHER JUDGE YF GOD HAVE NOCHT JUSTIFIED THE CAUS OF THE INNOCENTIS Ye may perchance contempne, and dispyise the excomunicatioun of the Churche now by Godis myghtie power erected amongis us, as a thing of no force; bot yit doubt we nothing, but that our Churche, and the trew ministeris of the same, have the same power whiche our Maister, Christ Jesus, granted to his Apostles in these wordis, "Whose synnis ye sall forgeve, shalbe forgevin; and whose synnis ye shall reteane, shall be reteaned;" and that, becaus thay preiche, and we beleve the same doctryne whiche is conteyned in his most blessed wourd. And thairfoir except that ye will contempne Chryst Jesus, ye nether can despyise our threatnyng, nether yit refuise us calling for your just defence. FROM QUHENS THIS CORAGE DID PROCEID THE ISHEW DECLAIRED By your faynting, and by extracting of your support, the enimeis ar incoraged, thinking, that thay shall find no resistance: In whiche point, God willing, thay salbe deceaved. For gif thay war ten thowsand, and we bot are thowsand, thai sall nocht murther the least of our bretherin, but we (God assisting us) shall first committ our lyves334 in the handis of God for thair defence. But this shall aggravat your damnatioun; for ye declair your selfis boith traytouris to the treuth ones professed, and murtheraris of us, and of your bretherin, from whome ye draw your detfull and promisshed support, whome your onelie presence (to manis judgement) myght preserve from this danger. For our enimeis looke nocht to the power of God, bot to the force and strenth of man. When the nomber is mean to resist thame, than rage thay as bloody wolvis; bot a party equall or able to resist thame in apperance, doeth brydill thair fury. Examinat your awin consciencis, and wey that sentence of our Maister, Chryst Jesus, saying, "Whosoevir denyeth me, or is aschamed of me befoir men, I shall deny him befoir my Father." Now is the day of his battell in this realme: Yf ye deny us, your bretherin, suffering for his name's saik, ye do also deny him, as him self doeth witnes in these wordis, "Whatsoevir ye did to any of these litill ones, that ye did to me; and what ye did nocht to one of those litill ones, that ye did nocht to me." Gif these sentencis be trew, as concerning meat, drink, cloithing, and suche thingis as apperteane to the body, shall thai not be lykewyis trew in these thingis that apperteane to the preservatioun of the lyves of thowsandis, whose bloode is now sought, for professioun of Christ Jesus? And thus schortlie leave we yow, who sumtymes have professed Christ Jesus with us, to the examinatioun of your awin consciencis. And yit ones agane, of yow, who, blynded by superstitioun persecute us, we requyre moderatioun, till our cause may be tryed, whiche gif ye will nocht grant unto us for Godis cause, yit we desyre yow to have respect to the preservatioun of our commone cuntree, whiche we can not sonnar betray in the handis of strangeris, than that one of us distroy and murther ane uther. Considder our petitionis, and call for the spreit of richteous judgement."

These our Letteris being divulgat, some man began to335 reasoun whether of conscience thai myght invaid us or not, considdering that we offered dew obedience to the Authoritie; requiring nothing bot the libertie of conscience, and our religioun and fact to be tryed by the word of God. Oure Letteris came with convenient expeditioun to the handis of the bretherin in Cuninghame and Kyle, who convened at the Kirk of Craggie,784784Craigie, a parish of that name in Ayrshire. whare, efter some contrarious reassonis, Alexander Erle of Glencarne, in zeall, burst furth in these wordis, "Lat everie man serve his conscience. I will, by Goddis grace, see my bretherin in Sanct Johnestoun: yea, albeit never man should accumpany me, I will go, and gif it war bot with a pick upoun my shulder; for I had rather dye with that cumpany, nor leve efter thame." These wordis so encoraged the rest, that all decreed785785In the MS. "decryed." to go fordward, as that thai did so stoutlie, that when Lyoun Herault, in his coat armour, commanded all man under the pane of treassone to returne to thair housses by publict sound of trumpett in Glasgw, never man obeyed that charge, but all went fordward, as we will efter hear. When it was clearlie understand that the Prelattis and thair adherantis, suppressing our petitionis so far as in thame lay, did kindill the furye of all men against us, it was thoght expedient to writt unto thame sum declaratioun of our myndis, whiche we did in this forme following:—


"To the end that ye shall not be abused, thinking to eschaipe just punishment, efter that ye in your blind fury have caused the bloode of many to be sched, this we notifie and declair unto yow, that yf ye proceid in this your malicious creweltie, ye shalbe entreated, wharesoevir ye shalbe apprehended, as336 murtheraris and oppin enimeis to God and unto mankind; and thairfoir, betymes cease from this blind raige. Remove first from your selfis your bandis of bloody men of warre, and reforme your selffis to a more quiet lyve; and thairefter mitigat ye the authoritie whiche, without cryme committed upoun our parte, ye have inflammit aganis us; or ellis be ye assured, that with the same measure that ye have measured against us, and yit intend to measure to utheris, it salbe measured unto yow: That is, as ye by tyranny intend nocht onelie to destroy our bodyis, bot also by the same to hold our sowllis in bondage of the Devill, subject to idolatrie, so shall we with all force and power, whiche God shall grant unto us, execut just vengeance and punishment upoun yow. Yea, we shall begyn that same warre whiche God commanded Israell to execut aganis the Cananites; that is, contract of peace shall never be maid, till ye desist from your oppin idolatrie and crewell persecutioun of Godis childrein. And this we signifie unto yow in the name of the eternall God, and of his Sone Christ Jesus, whose veritie we profess, and Evangell we will have preached, and holy Sacramentis ryghtlie minstrat, so long as God will assist us to ganestand your idolatrie. Tak this for Advertisment, and be nocht deceaved."


These our requeistis and advertismentis nochtwithstanding, Monsieur Dosell and his Frenchemen, with the Preastis and thair bandis, marched fordward against Sanct Johnestoun, and approched within ten myles to the town. Than repaired the bretherin from all quartaris for our releaff. The gentilmen of Fyffe, Anguss, and Mernis, with the town of Dundie, war thay that first hasarded to resist the enimie; and for that purpoise was chosin a platt of ground,786786In MS. G, "a piece of ground." a myle and more distant from the town. In this meantyme the Lord Ruthven, Provest of the town of Sanct Johnestoun, and a man whome many judged337 godlie and stout in that actioun, (as in verray dead he was evin unto his last breath,787787Patrick Lord Ruthven held the Provostship of Perth during the year 1554, (his father, William Lord Ruthven, having been Provost in 1552 and 1553,) and he was annually re-elected, without intermission, until the year of his death, 1566.) left the town, and depairtit first to his awin place, and efter to the Quene: whose defectioun and revolt was a great discoragement to the hartis of many; and yit did God so confort,788788Vautr. edit. has "comfort them;" and MS. G, "comfort his." that within the space of tuelf houris efter, the hartis of all men war erected agane; for those that war than assembillit did nocht so muche houp victorie by thair awin strenth, as by the power of Him whose veritie they professed; and began one to confort another, till the hole multitude was erected in a reasonable esperance. The day efter that the Lord Ruthven depairted, whiche was the 24 of Maij, cam the Erle of Argyle, Lord James, Priour of Sanctandrois, and the Lord Sempill, directed from the Quene Regent to inquire the caus of that convocatioun of liegis thare. To quhome, quhen it was ansuered, that it was onelie to resist that crewell tyranny devised against that poore town, and the inhabitants of the same, thay asked, "Gif we myndit nocht to hold that town against the authoritie, and against the Quene Regent?" To the whiche questioun ansuered the Lairdis of Dun and Pittarro, with the Congregatioun of Anguss and Mernis, the Maister of Lyndesay, the Lairdis of Lundy, Balvaird,789789Patrick Master of Lindesay, afterwards sixth Lord Lindesay of Byres; Walter Lundy of Lundy; and Sir Andrew Murray of Balvaird. and otheris Barronis of Fyffe, "That gif the Quenis Grace wald suffer the religioun thare begun to proceid, and nocht truble thair bretherin and sisteris that had professed Christ Jesus with thame, that the town, thay thame selffis, and quhatsoevir to thame perteaned, should be at the Quenis commandiment." THE FALS SUGGESTIOUN OF THE QUENE REGENT Whiche ansuer understand,790790For, "understood." the Erle of Ergyle and the Priour (quho boith war338 than Protestantis) began to muse, and said planelie, that thay war far utherwayis informed by the Quene, to witt, "That we mentt no religioun, but a plane rebellioun." To the whiche when we had answered simplie, and as the treuth was, to wit, "That we conveaned for none other purpose, bot onelie to assist our brethrein, who than war most injustlie persecuted; and thairfoir we desyred thame faithfullie to report our answer, and to be intercessouris to the Quene Regent, that suche creweltie suld nocht be usit against us, considering that we had offered in our former letteris, alsweill to the Quenis Grace, as to the Nobilitie, our mater to be tryed in lauchfull judgement." Thay promesed fidelitie in that behalff, whiche also thay keipt.

The day efter, whiche was the 25 day of Maij, befoir that the saidis Lordis depairted, in the morning Johne Knox desyred to speak with the same Lordis; whiche grantit unto him, he was conveyed to thair ludgeing by the Laird of Balvaird,791791In MS. G, "Balwaird;" in Vautr. edit. "Balwarde."—Sir Andrew Murray of Balvaird succeeded his father, Sir David Murray, who died in December 1550. and thus he began:—

"The present trublis, Honorable Lordis, owght to move the hartis, nocht onlie of the trew servandis of God, bot also of all suche as beare any favour to thare cuntree, and naturall cuntreymen, to discend withinTHE ORATIOUN OF JOHNE KNOX TO THE LORDIS. thame selfis and deiplie to considder quhat shalbe the end of this pretended tyranny. The raige of Sathan seaketh the destructioun of all those that within this realme professe Christ Jesus; and thay that inflambe the Quenis Grace, and yow the Nobles aganis us, regard nocht who prevaill, provided that thay may abuse the warld, and leve at thair pleasour, as heirtofoir thay have done. Yea, I fear that some seak nothing more than the effusioun of Scottis bloode, to the end that thair possessionis may be more patent to utheris. Bot, becaus that this is nocht the principall whiche I have to speak, omitting the same to be considderit339 by the wisdome of those to quhome the cair of the commone wealth apperteaneth.

"1st. I most humbillie require of yow, my Lordis, in my name, to say to the Quenis Grace Regent, that we, who sche in hir blynd raige doeth persecute, ar Goddis servandis, faithfull and obedient subjectis to the authoritie of this realme; that that religioun, whiche sche pretendeth to maynteyne by fyre and sweard, is nott the trew religioun of Christ Jesus, bot is expres contrarie to the same; a superstitioun devised be the brane of man; whiche I offer my selff to prove aganis all that within Scotland will maynteane the contrarie, libertie of towng being granted unto me, and Godis writtin word being admitted for judge.


"2d. I farder require your Honouris, in my name, to say unto hir Grace, that as of befoir I have writtin, sa now I say, that this hir interpryise shall nocht prosperouslie succeid in the end; and albeit for a tyme sche truble the sanctis of God, for sche feghteth nocht aganis man onelie, bot against the eternall God and his invincible veritie; and thairfoir, the end shalbe hir confusioun, oneles betymes sche repent and desist.

"These thingis I require of yow, in the name of the eternall God, as from my mouth, to say unto hir Grace; adding, that I have bein, and am a more assured friend to hir Grace, than thay that either flattering hir ar servandis to hir corrupt appetytes,792792In MS. G, "flattering hir Grace, ar servandis of," &c., "or else inflame." or ellis inflambe hir against us, who seik nothing bot Goddis glorie to be advanceit, vice to be suppressed, and veritie to be maynteaned in this poore realme."


Thei all three did promese to report his wordis sa fer as thai culd, whiche efterwardis we understoode thai did. Yea, the Lord Semple793793Robert third Lord Semple, who succeeded his father in 1548. him self, a man sold under syne, enymye to God and to all godlynes, did yit maik suche report, that the340 Quene was sumquhat offended, that any man suld use suche libertie in hir presence. Sche still proceaded in hir malice; for immediatelie thairefter sche send hir Lyoun Herauld,794794Robert Forman, at this time, was Lyon-King at Arms. with letteris, straitlie chargeing all man to avoid the toun, under the pane of treasone. Whiche letteris, efter he had declaired thame to the cheife men of the Congregatioun, he publictlie proclamed the same, upoun Sounday, the 27 [28th] of Maij.795795Sunday the 27th May. Keith (p. 199) takes notice, that if the proclamation was "done on a Sunday, it must have been on the 28th." In his other reference to the days of the week, during May and June 1559, Knox has fallen into a similar discrepancy. In this mean tyme, come sure knawlege to the Quene, to the Duke, and to Monsieur Dosell, that the Erle of Glencarne, the Lordis Uchiltrie and Boyd, the young Schiref of Air, the Lairdis of Cragy Wallace, Sesnock, Carnell, Barr, Gaitgirth,796796These Ayrshire gentlemen were Matthew Campbell, Sheriff of Ayr; John Wallace of Craigie; George Campbell of Cesnock; Hugh Wallace of Carnell; John Lockhart of Barr; and James Chalmer of Gadgirth. and the hole Congregatioun of Kyle and Cuninghame, approched for our releve; and in verray dead thay came in suche diligence, and suche a nomber, that as the enymie had just caus to fear, so have all that professe Christ Jesus just matter to praise God for thair fidelitie and stout corage in that nead; for by thair presence was the tyranny of the enymie brydilled. Thare diligence was suche, that albeit the passage by Striveling, and sex myles above, was stoppit, (for thair lay the Quene with hir bandis, and gart cutt the brigis upoun the watter of Forth, Gwdy and Teath,797797The water of Goodie flows from the lake of Monteath in Strathern, and falls into the Forth, about nine miles above Stirling. The Teith is a beautiful stream connected with some of the Perthshire lakes, (Lochs Katrine, Achray, &c.,) and loses its name, at its junction with the Forth, thirteen miles from Callander. above Striveling,) yit maid thay suche expeditioun throw desert and montane, that thay prevented the enymie, and approched within sex myles to our campe, whiche than lay without the town, awaiting upoun the enymie,341 befoir that any assured knawlege come to us of thair cunning. Their number was judged to798798In MS. G, "was of good compt, fyve and twentie hundreth men," &c. to tuentie fyve hundreth men, whairof thair was 12 hundreth horsmen. The Quene understanding how the said Erle and Lordis, with thair cumpany approched, causit to besett all wayis, that na advertisment should come to us, to the end that we, dispared of support, myght condiscend to suche appointment as sche required; and send first to require, that some discreat men of our number wald cum and speik the Duke and Monsieur Dosell, (who than with thair armye did lye at Auchterardour,799799Auchterarder, a village, in the parish of that name, in Perthshire, about fourteen miles from Perth, on the road to Stirling. ten myles fra Sanct Johnestoun,) to the end that some reasonable appointment myght be had. Sche had perswaded the Erle of Ergyle, and all utheris, that we ment nothing bot rebellioun; and thairfoir had he promisshed unto hir, that in case we should nocht stand content with ane reasonable appointment, he should declair him self plane enymie unto us, nochtwithstanding that he professed the same religioun with us. From us war send the Laird of Dun,800800John Erskine of Dun. the Lard of Inverquharitie,801801John Ogilvy of Inverquharity, in the parish of Kirriemuir, Forfarshire. and Thomas Scot of Abbotishall,802802He is afterwards mentioned as one of the sons of Sir William Scott of Balwearie. to heir quhat appointment the Quene wald offer. The Duke and Monsieur Dosell required, "That the town should be maid patent, and that all thingis should be referred to the Quenis plesour." THE PETITIOUN OF THE PROTESTANTIS FOR RANDERING OF SANCT JOHNESTOUN To the whiche thai answered, "That nather had thay commissioun so to promese, nather durst thay of conscience so perswaid thair bretherin. Bot yf that the Quenis Grace wald promeise, that no inhabitant of the town should be trublit for any suche crymes as myght be alledged aganis thame for the lait mutatioun of religioun, and abolishment of idolatrie, and for douncasting the places of the same; yf sche wald suffer the342 religioun begun to go fordward, and leif the town at hir depairting free from the garysonis of Frenche soldiouris, that thay wald labour at the handis of thair bretherin that the Quene should be obeyed in all thingis." Monsieur Dosell perceaving the danger to be great, yf that are suddane appointment should nocht803803In Vautr. edit. "nocht" is omitted. be maid; and that thay war nocht able to execut thair tyranny against us, after that the Congregatioun of Kyle (of quhose cuming we had no advertisment) should be joyned with us; with gud wordis dismissed804804In the MS. "dimisshed." the saidis Lairdis to perswaid the bretherin to quiet concord. To the whiche all men war so weill mynded, that with one voce thay cryed, "Curssed be thay that seak effusioun of bloode, war, or dissentioun. Lett us possess Christ Jesus, and the benefite of his Evangell, and none within Scotland shalbe more obedient subjectis than we shalbe." With all expeditioun war send from Striviling agane, (efter that the cuming of the Erle of Glencarne was knawin, for the enymie for fear quaiked,) the Erle of Ergyle and Lord James foirsaid, and in thair cumpany a crafty man, Maister Gavine Hammiltoun, Abbot of Kilwynning,805805See note 778. who war send by the Quene to finishe the appointment foirsaid. Bot befoir that thay came, was the Erle of Glencarne and his honorable cumpany arryved in the town; and then began all men to praise God, for that he had so mercifullie hard thame in thare maist extreme necessitie, and had send unto thame suche releafe as was able, without effusioun of bloode, to stay the raige of the ennemy. The Erle of Ergyle and Lord James did earnistlie perswaid the agreement,806806In the MS. "swaid the argument." to the whiche all men was willing. But sum did smell the craft of the adversarie, to wit, that thay war mynded to keip no point of the promeise longar than thay had obteanit thair intent.


With the Erle of Glencarne come our loving brother Johne343 Willok; Johne Knox was in the town befoir. These two went to the Erle of Ergyle and Priour, accusing thame of infidelitie, in sa fer as thay had defrauded thair brethering of thair debtfull support and confort in thair greatest necessitie. Thay ansuered boith, "That thair hart was constant with thair bretherin, and that thay wald defend that caus to the uttermost of thair power. Bot becaus thay had promesed to laubour for concord, and to assist the Quene, in case we refuised ressonable offerris, of conscience and honour, thay culd do na less than be faithfull in thair promeise maid: And thairfoir thay required that the bretherin myght be perswaided to consent to that reassonable appointment; promesing, in Goddis presence, that yf the Quene did break in ony joit thairof, that thay, with thair hole poweris, wald assist and concur with thair bretherin in all tymes to cum." THE PROMEISE OF THE FOIRSAIDIS This promeise maid, the Preacheouris appeased the multitude, and obteaned in the end that all men did consent to the appointment foirsaid, whiche thay obteaned nocht without great labouris. And no wonder, for many foirsaw the danger to follow; yea, the Preacheouris thame selfis, in oppin sermone, did affirme planelie, "That thay war assuredlie perswaided that the Quene mentt no treuth: Bot to stop the mouth of the adversarie, who injustlie did burthein us with rebellioun, thay moist earnistlie requyred all men to approve the appointment, and so to suffer hypocresie to discloise the selff."

This appointment was concluded the 28th of Maij, and the day following, at tua efter none, depairted the Congregatioun from Sanct Johnestoun, after that Johne Knox had, in his sermone, exhorted all men to constancie, and unfeanedlie to thank God, for that it had pleased his mercie to stay the raige of the ennemy, without effusioun of bloode; also, that no brother should weary nor faint to support suche as should efter be lykewyis persecuted, "For, (said he,) I am assured, that no pairt of this promeise maid shalbe longar keipit than the344 Quene and hir Frenchemen have the upper hand." Many of the ennemeis war at the same sermone; for after that the appointment was maid, they had free entres in the town to provide ludgeingis.

Befoir the Lordis depairted, was this Band made, quhose tenour followis, as it was writtin and subscryved.—

"At Perth, the last day of Maij, the yeir of God Jm. Vc. fiftie nyne yeiris, the Congregationis of the West cuntrey, with the Congregationis of Fyfe, Perth, Dundie, Anguss, Mearnis, and Munross, being conveaned in the town of Perth, in the name of Jesus Christ, for furthsetting of his glorie; understanding na thing mair necessar for the samin than to keap ane constant amitie, unitie, and fellowschipe togidder, according as thay ar commanded be God, ar confederat, and become bundin and obleast in the presence of God, to concur and assist together in doing all thingis required of God in his Scripture, that may be to his glorie; and at thair haill poweris807807In Vautr. edit. "and that, that hole powers." to distroy, and away put, all thingis that dois dishonour to his name, so that God may be trewlie and puirelie wirschipped: And in case that any truble beis intended aganis the saidis Congregationis, or ony part, or member808808In the MS. "number." thairof, the haill Congregatioun shall concur, assist, and conveane togidder, to the defence of the samin Congregatioun, or persone trubled; and shall nocht spair laubouris, goodis, substancis, bodyis, and lyves, in manteaning the libertie of the haill Congregatioun, and everie member thairof, aganis whatsomevir power that shall intend the said trubill, for caus of religioun, or ony uther caus dependand thairupoun, or lay to thair charge under pretence thairof, althocht it happin to be coloured with ony uther outward caus. In witnessing and testimony of the quhilkis, the haill Congregationis foirsaidis hes ordeyned and appointit the345 Noblemen and personis underwrittin to subscrive thir presentis.

(Sic subscribitur,)

Arch. Ergyle. Glencarne.
James Stewart. R. Lord Boyd.
Mathow Campbell of Teringland.809809Or Terinzean: in Vautr. edit. "Teringland."—At page 340, he is called young Sheriff of Ayr. He succeeded his father, Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudoun, in 1561. Uchiltrie.

The tuenty nine day of Maij entered the Quene, the Duke, Monsieur Dosell, and the Frenchemen, who, in dischargeing thair voley of hacquebuttis, did weill mark the hous of Patrik Murray,810810This was no doubt Patrick Murray of Tibbermuir, in Perthshire, who became cautioner for William Harlaw, and was amerciated for his non-appearance to underly the law, &c., on the 10th May 1559. a man fervent in religioun, and that baldlie had susteaned all dangeris in that trubill; against whose stair thay directed vj or vij schott, evin aganis the faces of those that war thare lyand. All man eschaped, except the sone of the said Patrik, a boy of ten or tuelf yearis of aige, who being slane, was had to the Quenis presence. Bot sche understanding whose sone he was, said in mokage, "It is a pitie it chanced on the sone, and nocht on the father; bot seing that so is chanced, me can nocht be against fortune." This was hir happie entress to Sanct Johnestoun, and the great zeall sche tendeth to justice. IDOLATRIE ERECTED AGAINST THE APPOINTMENT The swarme of Papistis that entered with hir began streyght to mak provisioun for thair Messe; and becaus the altaris war nocht so easy to be repaired agane, thay provided tables, whairof sum befoir used to serve for drunkards, dysaris, and carteris;811811In Vautr. edit. "dizardes;" in MS. G, "dycearis," that is, players at cards and dice. bot thay war holy aneuch for the Preast and his padgean. The Quene began to raige against all godlie and honest men; thair housses was oppressed by the Frenchemen; the lauchfull Magistratis, alsweall Provest as Bailies, war injustlie, and without all346 ordour, deposed from thair authoritie. A wicked man, void of Godis fear, and destitut of all vertew, the Lard of Kinfawnse, was intrused by hir Provest above the town,812812The Queen Regent, upon the tumults in Perth, and the destruction of the religious houses there, in May 1559, may have intended to supersede Patrick Lord Ruthven, as Provost of Perth; but it does not appear that either Thomas Charteris, or his son John Charteris of Kinfauns, ever held the office during the reign of Queen Mary. wharat all honest men was offended. Thay left thair awin housses, and with thair wyeffis and childrein sought amongis thare bretherin some resting place for a tyme. AGAINST THE APPOINTMENT THE SECUND TYME Sche tuk ordour that four ensenzeis of the soldiouris should abyde in the town to maynteane idolatrie, and to resist the Congregatioun. Honest and indifferent men asked, Why sche did so manifestlie violat hir promeise? SECUND ANSUER OF QUENE REGENT Sche answered, "That sche was bundin to keap na promeise to Hereticques: and moreover, that sche promeist onelie to leave the town free of Frenche soldiouris, whiche, (said sche,) sche did, becaus that those that thairin war left war Scottishmen." Bot when it was reasoned in hir contrair, That all those that took waiges of France, war counted Frenche soldiouris: THE THRID ANSUER sche answered, "Princes must nocht so straitlie be bundin to keap thair promesses. Myself, (said sche,) wold mak litill conscience to tak from all that sorte thair lyves and inheritance, yf I myght do it with als honest ane excuise." And than sche left the town in extreme bondage, efter that hir ungodlie Frenche men had most crewelly entreated the maist parte of those that remaned in the same. THE DEPARTURE OF THE ERLE OF ERGYLE AND LORD JAMES FRA THE QUENE REGENT, WITH SUCHE AS ASSISTED THAME AND THAIR FIRST BAND The Erle of Argyle, and Lord James foirsaidis, perceaving in the Quene nothing but meare tyrranny and falshode, myndfull of thair former promesses maid to thair bretherin, did secreidlie convey thame selfis and thair cumpanyeis of the town; and with thame departed the Lord Ruthven, (of whome befoir mentioun is maid,) the Erle of Menteith, and the Laird of Tullibardin;813813Sir William Murray of Tullibardin, ancestor of the Atholl family. He died in 1562. who, in Godis pre347sence, did confiderat, and bynd thame selfis togidder, faithfullie promessing one to assist and defend another against all personis that wald persew thame for religionis saik; and also that thay, with thair hole force and power, wald defend the bretherin persecuted for the same caus. The Quene, heyghlie offended at the suddane departure of the personis foirsaidis, send charge to thame to returne, under the heighest pane of hir displeasour. Bot thay ansuered, "That with saif conscience thay culd nocht be partakaris of so manifest tyrranny as by hir was committed, and of so great iniquitie as thay perceaved devised, by hir and hir ungodlie Counsale the Prelattis."

This ansuer was gevin to hir the first day of Junij, and immediatlie the Erle of Ergyle and Lord James repaired toward Sanctandrois, and in thairTHE ANSUER OF THE ERLL OF ERGYLE jorney gaif advertisment, by wrytting, to the Laird of Dun, to the Laird of Pittarrow, to the Provest of Dundie,814814James Halyburton, as formerly noticed, was Provost of Dundee. and otheris, professouris in Anguss,815815Vautr. edit. reads, "in Anguish." to visite thame in Sanctandrois the feird816816In MS. G, "the fourt." of Junij, for Reformatioun to be maid thair. Whiche day thay keap, and broght in thair cumpany Johne Knox, who, the first day, after his cuming to Fyfe, did preache in Carraill, the nixt day in Anstruther, mynding the thrid day, whiche was the Sounday,817817In MS. G, "mynding the Sonday, quhilk was the thrid, to preiche in Sanct Androis." Sunday was the 4th of June. to preache in Sanctandrois. The Bischope, hearing of Reformatioun to be maid in his Cathedrall Churche, thoght tyme to sturr, or ellis never; and thairfoir assembled his collegis818818Vautr. edit. makes this "colledges." and confederat fellowis, besydis his uther freindis, and came to the town upoun the Setterday at night, accumpanyed with a hundreth spearis, of mynd to have stopped Johne Knox to have preached. The two Lordis and gentilmen foirsaid war onlie accumpanyed with thair quyet housholdis, and thairfoir348 was the suddane cuming of the Bischope the more fearfull; for than was the Quene and hir Frenchmen departed from Sanct Johnestoun, and war lying in Falkland, within tuelf myles of Sanctandrois; and the town at that tyme had not gevin professioun of Christ, and thairfoir could nocht the Lordis be assured of thair freindschip. Consultatioun being had, many war of mynd that the preaching should be delayed for that day, and especiallie that Johne Knox should nocht preache; for that did the Bischope affirme that he wald nocht suffer, considdering that by his commandiment the picture of the said Johne was befoir brunt. THE BISCHOPE HIS GOOD MYNDE TOWARD JOHNE KNOX He willed, thairfoir, ane honest gentillman, Robert Colvile of Cleishe,819819Robert Colville of Cleish was a natural son of Sir James Colville of Easter Wemyss. He had a charter of the barony of Cleish, 15th July 1537. He was forfeited by Parliament, 10th December 1540; but his forfeiture was rescinded, 12th December 1543. He was killed at the siege of Leith, 7th May 1560, and was succeeded by his son Robert Colville, the ancestor of the Lord Colvilles of Ochiltree. to say to the Lordis, "That in case Johne Knox presented him selff to the preaching place, in his town and principall Churche, he should gar him be saluted with a dosane of culveringis, quherof the most parte should lyght upoun his nose." After long deliberatioun had, the said Johne was called, that his awin judgement might be had. When many perswationis war maid that he should delay for that tyme, and great terrouris gevin in caise he should interpryse suche a thing, as it war in contempt of the Bischope. He ansuered, "God is witnes that I never preached Christ Jesus in contempt of any man, nather mynd I at any tyme to present my selff to that place, having ather respect to my awin privat commoditie, eyther yit to the warldlie hurt of any creature; but to delay to preache the morrow, (onless the bodie be violentlie withholdin,) I can nocht of conscience: for in this Town and Churche began God first to call me to the dignitie of a preacheour, from the whiche I was reft by the tyrranny of France, by procurement349 of the Bischopis, as ye all weall aneuch know: How long I continewed prisoneir, what torment I susteaned in the galaies, and what war the sobbes of my harte, is now no tyme to receat: This onelie I can nocht conceall, whiche mo than one have hard me say, when the body was far absent from Scotland, that my assured houp was, in oppin audience, to preache in Sanctandrois befoir I depairtod this lyeff. And thairfoir (said he,) My Lordis, seing that God, above the expectatioun of many, hath brocht the body to the same place whair first I was called to the office of a preacher, and from the whiche most injustlie I was removed, I beseak your Honouris nocht to stop me to present my selff unto my bretherin. And as for the fear of danger that may come to me, lett no man be solist; for my lyef is in the custody of Him whose glorie I seak; and thairfoir I can nocht so fear thair boast nor tyrranny, that I will cease from doing my dewetie, when of his mercie820820In MS. G, "quhen God of his mercie offereth." He offereth the occasioun. I desyre the hand nor weapone of no man to defend me; onelie do I crave audience; whiche, yf it be denyed heir unto me at this tyme, I must seak farther whare I may haif it."


At these his wordis,821821In MS. G, "At these wordis, quhilk he spak;" in Vautr. edit. "At these wordes, the Lordes." the Lordis war fullie content that he should occupie the place; which he did upoun Sounday, the 10 [11th] of Junij, and did entreat of the ejectioun of the byaris and the sellaris furth of the Tempill of Jerusalem, as it is writtin in the Evangelistis Mathow and Johne; and so applyed the corruptioun that was thair822822In MS. G, and Vautr. edit. "that was then." to the corruptioun that is in the Papistrie; and Christis fact, to the dewetie of those to whome God geveth power and zeall thairto; that alsweill the magistratis, the Provest and Bailies, as the communaltie for the most parte, within the town,823823MS. G, has "the comonalty of the town;" but the edit. 1732 omits the words, "of the town." did aggree to350 remove all monumentis of idolatrie, whiche also thay did with expeditioun.


The Bischope advertisshed heirof, departed that same day to the Quene, who lay with hir Frenchmen, as said is, in Falkland. The hote furie of the Bischope did so kendill hir choler, (and yit the luif was verrie cold betuix thame,) that without farder delay, conclusioun was taikin to invaid Sanctandrois, and the two young Lordis foirsaidis,824824The Earl of Argyle, and Lord James Stewart. who than war thare verrie sklendarlie accumpanyed. Postis war send from the Quene with all diligence to Cowper, distant onelie sex myles from Sanctandrois, to prepair ludgeingis and victuallis for the Quene and hir Frenchemen. Ludgeingis war sygned, and furiouris825825In MS. G, "curriors were send before, and lugeingis war assignit." In Vautr. edit. "Lodgings were assigned, and furriers were," &c. war send befoir. Whiche thing understand, counsale was gevin to the Lordis to marche fordward, and to prevent thame befoir thay came to Cowper; whiche thay did, geving advertisment to all bretherin with possible expeditioun to repair towardis thame; whiche thay also did, with suche diligence, that in thair assemblie the wonderous wark of God myght have bene espyed: for when at nyght the Lordis came to Cowper, thay war nocht a hundreth horse, and a certane footmen, whom Lord James brocht fra the coast syde; and yit befoir the nixt day at 12 houris, (whiche was Tyisday, the 13 of Junij,) thair number passed three thowsand men, whiche by Godis providence came unto the Lordis; from Lowthiane, the Lairdis of Ormestoun, Calder, Haltoun, Restalrig, and Coilstoun,826826The persons here named, were John Cockburn of Ormiston, John Sandilands of Calder, William Lauder of Halton, Robert Logan of Restalrig, and George Brown of Colstoun. who, albeit thay understood at thair depairting from thair awin houssis no suche truble, yit war thay by thair good counsale verrie confortable that day. The Lord Ruthven came from Sanct Johnestoun, with some horsmen with him. The Erle of Rothess, Schireff of Fyffe, came with a351 honest cumpany. The townis of Dundie and Sanctandrois declaired thame selffis boith stout and faithfull. Cowper, becaus it stoode in greatest danger, assisted with the hole force. Finallie, God did so multiplie our number, that it appeared as men had rayned from the cloodis. The ennemy understanding nothing of our force, assured thame selffis of victorie. Who had bene in Falkland the nicht befoir, mycht have sene embrasing and kyssing betuix the Quene, the Duke, and the Bischope. MAISTER GAVINE HAMMILTOUNIS VOW Bot Maister Gavine Hammiltoun, gapare for the Bischoprik of Sanctandrois, above all other was lovinglie embrased of the Quene; for he maid his solempne vow, "That he wald feght, and that he should never returne till he had brought those traytouris to hir Grace, eyther quick or dead." And thus, befoir midnyght, did thay send fordward thair ordinance; thame selffis did follow befoir three houris in the morning.

The Lordis heirof advertised, assembilled thair cumpany airelie in the morning upoun Cowper Mure;827827To the west of the town of Cupar; but now all under tillage or planting. whare by the advise of Maister James Halyburtoun, Provest of Dundie, was chosen a place of ground convenient for our defence; for it was so chosen, that upoun all sydis our ordinance mycht have bett the ennemie, and yit we have stand in saiftie,828828In MS. G, "yit we to have standin in saiftie." gif we had bene persewed, till we had cumed to hand straikis. The Lord Ruthven tuik the charge of the horsmen, and ordered thame so, that the ennemy was never permitted to espy our nomber: the day was dark, whiche helpit thairto. The enemy, (as befoir is said,) thinking to have fundin no resistance, after that thay had twyis or thryis practised with us, as that thay wald retyre, marched fordward with great expeditioun, and approched within a myle befoir that evir thair horsmen stayed; and yit thay keipit betuix us and them a wattir for thair strenth. It appeared to us that ather thay marched for352 Cowper or Sanctandrois; and thairfoir our horsmen in thare trowpe, and a parte of the footemen, with the ordinance,829829MS. G omits "with the ordinance." marched somewhat alwayis befoir thame for safetie of the town: The Lordis, with the gentilmen of Fyffe, and sa many of Anguss and Mearnes as war present, keape thame selffis close in a knott, neye to the nomber of a thowsand speiris.

The townis of Dundie and Sanctandrois war arrayed in ane uther battell, who come nocht to the sight of the ennemy, till that efter xij houris the mist began to evanish, and than passed some of thair horsmen to a montane, from the height whairof thay mycht discerne our nomber. Whiche perceaved by thame, thare horsmen and footemen stayed incontinent. Postis ran to the Duke and Monsieur Dosell, to declair our nomber, and what ordour we keaped; and than was mediatouris send to maik appointment. But thay war nocht suffered to approche neye to the Lordis, neyther yit to the view of our camp; whiche put thame in greatter fear. FIRST ANSWER AT COWPER MURE Answer was gevin unto thame, "That as we had offended no man, so wald we seak appointment of no man; bot yf any wald seak our lyves, (as we war informed thay did,) thay should find us, yf thay pleased to mak diligence." This answer receaved, war send agane the Lord Lyndesay and Laird of Wauchtoun,830830Patrick Hepburn of Wauchton. who earnestlie requeasted us to concord, and that we wold nocht be the occasioun that innocent bloode should be sched. THE SECUND ANSUER We ansuered, "That nather had we querrall against any man nather yit sought we any manis bloode; onelie we war conveaned for defence of our awin lyves injustlie sought by uther." We added forther, "That yf thay culd find the meane that we and our bretherin myght be free from the tyrranny devised against us, that thay should reasonabillie desyre nothing whiche should be denyed for our parte."

This ansuer receaved, the Duke and Monsieur Dosell, have353ing commissioun of the Quene Regent, required that Assurance mycht be taikin for eight dayis, to the end that indifferent men in the meantyme micht commone upoun sum finall aggrement of those thingis whiche than war in controversie. Heirto did we fullie consent, albeit that in nomber and force we war far superiour; and for testificatioun heirof, we send unto thame our hand-writtis, and we lykewyis receaved thairis, with promess that within two or three dayis some discreat men should be send unto us, to Sanctandrois, with farther knawlege of the Quenis mynd. The tennour of the Assurance was this:—


"We, James Duke of Chattellerault, Erle of Arrane, Lord Hammiltoun, &c., and MY LORD DOSELL, Lievtenant for the King in thir partis, for our selffis, our assistaris and partakeris, being presentlie with us in cumpany, be the tennour heirof promittis faithfullie of honour to My Lordis Archibald Erle of Ergyle, and James Commendatar of the Priorie of Sanctandrois, to thair assistaris and partakeris, being presentlie with thame in cumpany; That we, and our cumpany foirsaidis, shall reteir incontinent to Falkland, and shall, with diligence, transport the Frenchemen and our uther folkis now presentlie with us; and that na Frencheman, or other souldiouris of ouris, shall remane within the boundis of Fyffe, bot sa mony as befoir the raising of the last armye lay in Disart, Kirkcaldy, and Kinghorne, and the same to ly in the same places onelie, yf we shall think goode: And this to have effect for the space of eight dayis following the dait heirof exclusive, that in the meantyme certane Noble men, be the advise of the Quenis Grace, and rest of the Counsale, may conveane to talk of sick thingis as may maik goode ordour and quyetnes amongis the Quenis liegis. And further, we, nor nane of our assistaris, being present with us, shall invade,354 truble, or inquyet the saidis Lordis, nor thair assistaris, dureing the said space: And this we bind and obleise us, upoun our lautie, fidelitie, and honour, to observe and keape in everie point above writtin, but fraude or gyle. In witnes whairof we have subscrivit thir presentis with our handis.

"At Garlabank,831831The MSS. and printed copies give the name of this place variously, as Gartabank, Gartabanks, Garlebank, Garlie Bank, &c.—This place, of which no other mention occurs in Scotish History, may be called a hill-farm, situated about a mile to the south of Cupar of Fife, and the highest ground in the parish. "The hostile camps, (says the author of the Stat. Account of that parish, in 1796,) were only separated by the river Eden.... The principal men in both armies repaired to the highest eminence of the Garlie Bank, a spot known by the name of the Howlet, or Owl Hill, and which commanded a full view of the whole plain, wherein the troops were now drawn up in order of battle, and there adjusted and signed that truce," &c. (vol. xvii. p. 161.) the xiij daij of Junii 1559.



The uther subscriptioun we culd nocht read, bot the simile is this,—832832   This memorandum, "The uther subscriptioun," &c., evidently shows that Knox's amanuensis must have had the original paper before him; although it is possible he has failed in giving a minutely accurate fac-simile. In Vautr. edit. the above words are retained; but instead of any fac-simile, the name is printed "Meneits." MSS. A, E, and W, follow Vautrollier's edit. in copying this unmeaning name, "Meneits;" MS. I, makes it "Menetis." In MS. L2, only the first half of the paper is transcribed. In MS. G, a different reading appears, the names being given, without any explanation,
    "James Ducke. L.l. Ennen J."

    The above Assurance, which is only known to have been preserved by Knox, has been often reprinted. Calderwood, for instance, (Hist. vol. i. p. 463,) includes it, and evidently upon conjecture he gives the signatures as

    "James Duke. L. Lieutenant etc.."

    I have tried the sagacity of many skilful persons of the present day, to decipher the fac-simile; and I think the only plausible interpretation is, that since it must necessarily have been D'Oysel's signature, it may be the initials of his name, joined with his title as Locum tenens, or Lieutenant of Henry the Second, King of France, For this explanation I am indebted to John Riddell, Esq., Advocate; accompanied with notices of a contract, dated Edinburgh, March 1556, between George Lord Seyton and some of his connexions, which begins, "We Marie be the Grace of God Quene Dowerar, and Regent of Scotland, being riplie and at lenth advisit wyth our deir cousingis and counsalaris Lord Henry Clewtyne, Lord Vile Pareise, Doysel and Sanct Augnen, Lieutenant General to the Kingis Majestie of France, in thir partis of Scotland; Monsieur Ruber, Keipar of the Grete Seill of Scotlande," &c. Further, in Anselme's "Histoire Genealogique," &c., vol. iv. p. 334, among the Peers of France, in the account of Gaspard de Schomberg, we find that his wife was "Jeanne Chasteigneir," whom he married 15th July 1573. She survived till the 83d year of her age, in 1622, and is described as D'Oysel's widow: "Veuve d' Henry Clutin, Seigneur De Villeparisis, D'oysel et de S. Aignan au Maine, Vice Roy en Escoce; depuis Ambassadeur pour le Roy Charles IX. a Rome, et fille de Jean Chasteignier III. du nom, Seigneur de le Rocheposay," &c.


And, this receaved, we departed first, becaus we war thairto requeasted355 be the Duke, and so we returned to Cowper, lawding and praising God for his mercie schewed; and thairefter everie man departed to his duelling place. The Lordis, and a great part of the gentilmen, passed to Sanctandrois, who thair abode certane dayis, still looking for those that war promessed to come frome the Quene, for appointment to be maid. Bot we perceaving hir craft and disceat, (for under that assurance sche ment nothing ellis, but to convey hir selff, hir ordinance, and Frenche men, over the wattir of Forth,) took consultatioun what should be done833833In MS. G, the words "what shuld be done," are omitted. for delivering of Sanct Johnestoun from these ungodlie soldiouris, and how our bretherin, exiled from thair awin housses, mycht be restored agane.


It was concluded, that the bretherin of Fyffe, Anguss, Mearnis, and Stratherin, should convene at Sanct Johnestoun, the 24 day of Junij for that purpoise; and in the meantyme, war these letteris writtin be the Erle of Ergyle and Lord James, to the Quene than Regent.356

"Madame,—Efter our hartlie commendationis of service, this shalbe to schaw your Grace, that upoun the 13 day of Junij, we war informed by thame that war communeris betuix my Lord Duke, Monsieur Dosell, and us,LETTERIS TO THE QUENE REGENT. that we should have spoken irreverentlie of your Grace, whiche we beseik your Grace, for the trew service that we have maid, and ar reddy to maik at all tymes to your Grace; that of your goodnes ye will lat us knaw the sayeris thairof, and we shall do the dewetie of trew subjectis to defend our awin innocencie; as we tak God to witnes of the gud zeale and love we beir towardis yow, to serve yow with trew hartis and all that we have, alsweill landis as goodis, desyring na uther thing for our service bot the libertie of our conscience, to serve our Lord God as we will ansuer to him, whiche your Grace aucht and should geve to us frelie unrequired. Mairover, please your Grace, that my Lord Duik, and the Noble men being in Striveling for the tyme, be your Gracis avise, solisted us to pass to the Congregatioun convened at the town of Perth, to commoun of concord, whair we did our exact diligence, and brocht it to pas, as your Grace knawis. And thair is a point that we plane is nocht observed to us, whiche is, that na soldiour should remane in the town, after your Grace departing. And suppois it may be inferred, that it was spokin of Frenche soldiouris allanerlie, yit we tuik it utherwais, lyik as we do yit, that Scottishmen, or any uther natioun, takand the King of Francis waiges, ar repute and haldin Frenche soldiouris. Thairfoir, sen we of good will and mynde brocht that matter to your Gracis contentment, it will please your Grace, of your goodnes, to remove the soldiouris and thair Capitanes, with utheris that hes gottin charge of the town, that the same may be guyded and reulled frelie, as it was befoir, be the Baillies and Counsale, conforme to thair infeftmentis gevin to thame be the ancient and maist excellent Kingis of this realme, to elect and cheise thair officiaris at357 Michelmess, and thai to indure for the space of one yeir, conforme to the auld ryte and consuetude of this realme; whiche being done be your Grace, we traist the better success shall follow thairupoun to your Grace contentatioun,834834In MS. G, "contentment." as the bearar will declair at mair lenth to your Grace; whome God preserve."


To Sanct Johnestoun, with the Gentilmen befoir expressed, did conveane the Erle of Menteath,835835William (Graham) 5th Earl of Menteith, succeeded his father, John, 4th Earl, who was killed in a scuffle with the tutor of Appin, in October 1547. He married, while under age, the daughter of Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig, relict of Edward Lord Crichton of Sanquhar. He survived till 1587. the Lard of Glenurquhar,836836Sir Colin Campbell of Glenurchy: see note 659. and diverse utheris who befoir had nocht presented thame selffis for defence of thair bretherin. When the hole multitude was conveaned, a trumpet was send by the Lordis, commanding the Capitanes and thair bandis to avoid the town, and to leave it to the ancient libertie and just inhabitantis of the same; alsua commanding the Laird of Killfaunes,837837John Charteris of Kinfauns, near Perth: see notes 787, 812. insett Provest be the Quene, with the Capitanes foirsaidis, to cast up the portis of the town, and maik the same patent to all our Soveraneis liegis, to the effect, that alsweill trew religioun now aneis begun thairin may be maynteaned, and idolatrie utterlie suppressed; as alsua the said town mycht joise and brooke thair ancient lawis and liberteis unoppressed by men of wear, according to thair old privilegis granted to thame be the ancient Princes of this realme, and conforme to the provisioun conteaned in the Contract of Mariage maid be the Nobilitie and Parliament of this realme with the King of France, beirand, that nane of our aid lawis nor liberteis should be alterat: adding thairto, gif they folishlie resisted, and thairin happined to commit murther, that thay should358 be entreated as murtheraris. To the whiche thay ansuered prowdlie, "That thay wald keap and defend that town, according to thair promess maid to the Quene Regent."


This answer receaved, preparatioun was maid for the seage and assault; for amangis all it was concluded, that the town should be sett at libertie, to what dangeris soever thair bodyis should be exponed. Whill preparatioun was in making, came the Erle of Huntlie, the Lord Erskin, and Maister Johne Bannatyne, Justice Clerk,838838Sir John Bannatyne, or Bellenden, eldest son of Thomas Bellenden of Auchinoul, whom he succeeded as Lord Justice Clerk, 25th June 1547. At this time he was employed by the Queen Regent to negotiate between her and the Lords of the Congregation; whom he afterwards joined. requireing that the persute of the town should be delayed. To speak thame war appointed the Erle of Ergyle, Lord James, and Lord Ruthven, who, perceaving in thame nothing but a drift of tyme, without any assurance that the former wrangis should be redressed, gave unto thame schort and plane ansuer, "That thay wald nocht delay thair purpoise ane hour; and thairfoir willed thame to certifie the Capitanes in the town, that gif by pryde and foolishnes thay wald keape the town, and in so doing slay any of thair bretherin, that thay should everie one dye as murtheraris." The Erle of Huntlie displeased at this ansuer, departed, as hielie offended that he culd nocht dress suche appointment as should have contented the Queue and the Preastis. After thair departing, the town was agane summondit; bot the Capitanes, supposing that na suddane persute should be maid, and looking for releif to have bein send from the Quene, abode in thair former opinioun. And so upoun Setterday, the 25 [24th] of Junij, at ten houris at nycht, commanded the Lord Ruthven, who beseaged the west quarter, to schoote the first voley; whiche being done, the town of Dundie did the lyke, whose ordinance lay upoun the eist syde of the brig. The Capitanes and soldiouris within the town, perceaving that359 thai war unable long to resist, required assurance till xij houris upoun the morne, promessing, "That gif or that hour thair came unto thame na releaf frome the Quene Regent, that thay wald rander the town, providing that thay should be suffered to departe the town with ensenzie displayed." We, thrusting the bloode of no man, and seaking onlie the libertie of our bretherin, condiscended to thair desyris, albeit that we mycht have executed against thame jugement without mercie, for that thay had refused our former favouris, and had slane one of our bretherin, and hurt two in thair resistance;839839In MS. G., "assistance." and yit we suffered thame freelie to depart without any forther molestatioun.


The Town being delivered from thare thraldome, upoun Sounday the 26 [25th] of Junij, thankis war gevin unto God for his great benefite receaved, and consultatioun was taikin what was forder to be done. In this meantyme, four840840In Vautr. edit. "four" omitted. zealous men, considdering how obstinat, prowde, and dispitefull the Bischope of Murray841841Patrick Hepburn, whom Knox introduces in an earlier part of his History, as Prior of St. Andrews (see page 41,) was advanced to the See of Moray in 1535; and at the same time he held the Abbacy of Scone in perpetual Commendam. In all his assedations or leases of lands, as Keith makes mention, the Bishop of Moray, until his death, 20th June 1573, employed his additional title of "Monasterii de Scone Commendatarius perpetuus." Various charters, showing his alienation of the Church lands, will be seen in the "Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis," printed for the Bannatyne Club, bu the Duke of Sutherland. Edinb. 1837, 4to. had bein befoir; how he had threatned the town be his soldiouris and freindis, who lay in Skune,842842MS. G, has, "in the Abbay of Scone." This Monastery of Canon-Regulars of St. Augustine, situated about a mile above Perth, was founded by King Alexander the First, in the year 1114. It was long used as a Royal residence; and the famous Stone, or Chair of Coronation, having been brought to Scone at a remote period, it continued for several centuries to be the place where our Kings were accustomed to be crowned. thought good that some ordour should be taikin with him and with that place, whiche lay neir to the town end. The Lordis wrait unto him, (for he lay843843In MS. G, "lay in the said Abbay, quhilk was within." within two myles to Sanet Johnestoun,)360 "That oneles he wald cum and assist thame, thay nather culd spair nor save his place." He ansuered be his writing, "That he wold cum, and wold do as thay thoght expedient; that he wold assist thame with his force, and wald vote with thame against the rest of the Clargie in Parliament." Bot becaus this ansuer was slaw in cuming, the town of Dundie, partelie offended for the slauchter of thair man, and especiallie bearing no goode favour to the said Bischope, for that he was and is cheif ennemy to Christ Jesus, and that by his counsale alone was Walter Mylne our brother put to death, thay marched fordward. To stay thame was first send the Provest of Dundie, and his brother Alexander Halyburtoun, Capitane, who litill prevaling, was send unto thame Johne Knox; bot befoir his cuming, thay war entered to the pulling down of the ydollis and dortour. And albeit the said Maister James Halyburtoun, Alexander his brother, and the said Johne, did what in thame lay to have stayed the furie of the multitude, yit war thay nocht able to put ordour universalie; and tharfoir thay send for the Lordis, Erle of Ergyle, and Lord James, who, cuming with all diligence, laboured to have saved the Palace and the Kirk. THE DISTRUCTIOUN OF SCONE Bot becaus the multitude had fundin, bureid in the Kirk, a great number of idollis, hid of purpose to have preserved thame to a bettir day, (as the Papistis speak,) the townis of Dundie and Sanct Johnestoun culd nocht be satisfeit, till that the hole reparatioun and ornamentis of the Churche, (as thay terme it,) war distroyed. And yit did the Lordis so travell, that thay saved the Bischopis Palace, with the Churche and place, for that nicht: for the two Lordis did nocht depart till thay brocht with thame the hole nomber of those that most sought the Bischopis displesour. The Bischope, greatlie offended that any thing should have bein interprised in Reformatioun of his place, asked of the Lordis his band and hand-writting, whiche nocht two houris befoir he had send to thame. Whiche delivered to361 his messinger, Sir Adame Brown,844844MS. G, omits "Sir" before the name of Adam Brown. This title indicates his having been in priest's orders. advertisment was gevin, that yf any farder displesour chanced unto him, that he should nocht blame thame. The Bischopis servandis, that same nycht, began to fortifie the place agane, and began to do violence to some that war careing away suche baggage as thay culd cum by. The Bischopis girnell was keapt the first nycht by the laubouris of Johne Knox, who, by exhortatioun, removed suche as violentlie wald have maid irruptioun. That same nycht departed from Sanct Johnestoun the Erle of Ergyle, and Lord James, as efter shalbe declaired.


The morrow following, some of the poore, in houp of spoyle, and sum of Dundie, to considder what was done, passed up to the said Abbay of Scone; whairat the Bischopis servandis offended, began to threattene and speak proudlie: and, as it was constantlie affermed, one of the Bischopis sonis stogged throuch with a rapper one of Dundie, for becaus he was looking in at the girnell door. This brute845845In MS. G, "The brute heirof." noysed abrode, the town of Dundie was more enraged than befoir, who, putting thame selffis in armour, send word to the inhabitants of Sanct Johnestoun, "That onles thay should supporte thame to avenge that injurie, that thai should never after that day concur with thame in any actioun." The multitud easelie inflambed, gave the alarme,846846In the MS. "alarmezand." and so was that Abbay and Palace appointit to saccag; in doing whairof thay took no lang deliberatioun, bot committed the hole to the merciment of fyre; wharat no small nomber of us war offended, that patientlie we culd nocht speak till any that war of Dundie or Sanct Johnestoun. SPEAKING OF ANE ANCIENT MATRONE WHEN SCONE WAS BURNING A poore aged matrone, seing the flambe of fyre pas up samichtelie, and perceaving that many war thairat offended, in plane and sober maner of speaking, said, "Now I see and understand that Goddis judgementis ar just, and that no man362 is able to save whare he will punische. Since my remembrance, this place hath bein nothing ellis bot a den of hooremongaris. It is incredible to beleve how many wyffes hath bein adulterat, and virginis deflored, by the filthie beastis whiche hath bein fostered in this den; bot especiallie by that wicked man who is called the Bischope. Yf all men knew alsmuche as I, thay wald praise God; and no man wald be offended." This woman duelt into the toun, neye unto the Abbay; at whose wordis war many pacifeid; affirming with hir, that it was Goddis just judgement. And assuredlie, yf the laubouris or travell of any man culd have saved that place, it had nocht bein at that tyme destroyed;847847Knox in this place not only disclaims any share in the destruction of the Abbey; but he expressly states he exerted himself for its preservation. According to "The Chronicle of Perth," the burning of Scone, took place "on Tuysday efter Midsomer day, the 27th of Junij 1660 zeiris;" and the same authority says, "the Reformation of the Charter House and Freiris beside Perth," was on the 10th of May 1660, (pp. 2, 3. Edinb. 1831, 4to.) for men of greattest estimatioun lawboured with all diligence for the savetie of it.


Whill these thingis war done at Sanct Johnestoun, the Quene, fearing what should follow, determinat to send certane bandis of Frenche soldiouris to Striveling, for purpose to stop the passage to us that than war upoun the north syde of Forth. Whiche understand, the Erle of Ergyle and Lord James departed secreatlie upoun the nycht, and with great expeditioun, preventing the Frenchemen, thay took the town, (befoir whose cuming the rascheall multitude put handis in the thevis, I should say, frearis places and utterlie distroyed thame;) wharat the Quene and hir factioun nocht a litill affrayed, with all diligence departed from Edinburgh to Dumbar. And so we with reasonable diligence merched fordwart to Edinburgh, for Reformatioun to be maid thair, whare we arrived the 29 of Junij. LORD SEYTOUN The Provest for that tyme, the Lord Seytoun, a man without God, without honestie, and often363tymes without reasone, had befoir greatlie trubled and molested the bretherin; for he had taikin upoun him the protectioun and defence of the Blak and Gray Frearis; and for that purpose did nocht onelie lyeTHE CUMING OF THE CONGREGATIOUN TO EDINBURGH him self in the one everie nicht, bot also constraned the most honest of the town to wache those monstouris, to thair great greaf and truble. Bot hearing of our suddane cuming, he abandoned his charge, and had left the spoile to the poore, who had maid havock of all suche thingis as was movable in those placis befoir our cuming, and had left nothing bot bair wallis, yea, nocht sa muche as door or windok; wharthrow we war the less trubilled in putting ordour to suche places.

After that certane dayis we had deliberat what was to be done, and that ordour was tackin for suppressing of all monumentis of idolatrie within that town, and the places nixt adjacent, determinatioun was taikin, to send some message848848In MS. G, "messingers." Vautr. edit. has "message." to the Quene, than Regent; for sche had bruted, (as hir accustomed maner was, and yit hir Dochteris is, ever to forge lyes,) that we sought nothing bot hir lyef, and a plane revoltment from the lawfull obedience dew to our Soverane, hir authoritie, as by the tennour of these Letteris may be sene:—

"Frances and Marie, be the Grace of God, King and Quene of Scottis, Daulphine and Daulphines of Viennois, to our lovittis, Lyoun King of Armes, &c., our Schireffis in that parte, conjunctlie and severallie, specialie constitute, greting: For sa mekle as our darrest moder Marie, Quene Dowager, Regent of our Realme, and Lordis of our Secreat Counsale, perceaving the seditious tumult rased be ane parte of our liegis, nameing thame selffis The Congregatioun, who, under pretense of religioun, have putt thame selffis in armes;849849In MS. G, "in armour." Vautr. edit. has "in armes." and that hir Grace, for satisfeing of everie manis conscience, and pacifeing of the364 saidis trubles, had offerred unto thame to affix ane Parliament to be haldin in Januare nixt to cum, (this was a manyfest leye, for this was nether offerred, nor by hir ancis thought upoun, till we required it,) or sonnar, gyf thay had pleased, for establissing of ane universall ordour in matteris of religioun, be our advise and Estatis of our Realme;850850In Vautr. edit. "of our religion." and, in the meantyme, to suffer everie man to leaf at libertie of conscience, without truble, unto the tyme the said ordour war tackin be advise of our foirsaid [Estates.851851"Estates" omitted in the orig. MS., and supplied from Vautr. edit. It is "Statis" in MS. G.] And at last, becaus it appeared mekle to stand upoun our burght of Edinburght, offerred in lyke maner to latt the inhabitants thairof chease what maner of religioun thai wald sett up and use for that tyme; swa that na man mycht alledge that he was forsed to do against his conscience: Quhilk offer the Quenis Grace, our said darrest Moder, was at all tymes, and yit is, ready to fulfill. Nochttheles, the said Congregatioun being of mynd to receave no reasonable offerris, hes sensyne, by oppin dead, declaired, that it is na religioun, nor any thing thairto perteaning, that thai seak, bot onelie the subversioun of our authoritie, and usurpatioun of our Crown; in manifest witnessing whairof, thay daylie receave Inglismen with messagis unto thame, and sendis siclyk in Ingland; and last of all, have violentlie intrometted with, taikin, and yit withhaldis the irnis of our Cunzee hous,852852Vautr. edit. reads, "have violently intermitted withtaken, and yet withholdes the irones of our counsell house:" see subsequent note. quhilk is ane of the cheife pointis that concernis our Crown; and siclyke lies intrometted with our Palice of Halirudhouse. Oure will is heirfoir, &c., that ye pas to the Mercat Croce of our said burght of Edinburght, or any uther publict place within the same, and thair, be oppin proclamatioun in our name and authoritie, command and charge all and sindrie personis of the said Congregatioun,365 or yit being presentlie within our said burght other than the inhabitantis thairof, that thay, within sex houris nixt efter our said charge, depart furth of the same under the pane of treasone; and als, that ye command and charge all and sindrie personis to leave thair cumpany, and adhear to our authoritie; with certificatioun to suche as do the contrare, shalbe repute and haldin as manifest traytouris to our Crowne, &c."

These letteris did nocht a litill greave us, who most injustlie war accused; for thare is never a sentence of the narrative trew, except that we stayed the irnes, and that for most just causses, to witt, because that daylie thair was suche nomber of Hard-headis printed,853853In MS. G, "numbers of Lions (alias called Hardheids) prented;" that is, a particular kind of coin struck. Some explanation will be given in a subsequent note of the coins here mentioned, which were in ordinary circulation. that the basenes thairof maid all thingis exceiding dear; and thairfoir we war counsaled by the wysest to stay the irnes,854854Irons, or instruments made use of in coining money. whill farther ordour mycht be tackin. Sche, with all possible diligence, posted for hir factioun. Maister James Balfour was nocht ydill in the meantyme. The Lordis, to purge thame of these odious crymes, wrait unto hir a letter, in forme as efter followeth:—

"Pleas your Grace, be advertist, it is cum to our knowlcge, that yourTHE THRID LETTER TO THE QUENE REGENT. Grace hath sett furth, be your letteris openelie proclamed that we, called by name The Congregatioun, under pretence and colour of religioun, convene togidder to na uther purpose bot to usurpe our Soveraneis authoritie, and to invaid your persone representand thairis at this present: Quhilkis thingis appeiris to have proceidit of sinister informatioun, maid to your Grace be our ennemeis, considdering that we never mynded sic thing, bot onelie our mynd and purpose was and is to promote and sett furth the glorie of God, maynteane366 and defend the trew preacharis of his word; and according to the same, abolish and put away idolatrie and false abuses, whiche may nocht stand with the said word of God: Beseaking your Grace to bear patientlie thairwith, and interpone your authoritie to the furtherance of the same, as is the dewetie of everie Christiane Prince and good magistrat. For as to the obedience of our Soveraneis authoritie in all civile and politick matteris, we ar and shalbe als obedient as ony uther your Gracis subjectis within the realme; and that our Conventioun is for na uther purpose bot to save our preacheouris and thair auditouris fra the injurie and violence of our enymeis, quhilk should be mair amplie declaired be some of us in your Gracis presence, yf yow war nocht accumpanyed with such as hes persewit our lyves and sought our bloode. Thus, we pray Almyghtie God to have your Hienes in his eternall tuitioun.

"At Edinburght, the secund of Julij 1559."

And for farther purgatioun heirof, it was thocht necessar that we should sempillie expone, alsweill to hir Grace as to the hole people, what war our requeastis and just petitionis. And for that purpoise, after that salf conduct was purchessed and granted, we directed unto hir two grave men of our counsale, to witt, the Lardis of Pittarrow and Cuninghamheid,855855John Wishart of Pittaro, and William Cunningham of Cunninghamhead, in the parish of Dreghorn, Ayrshire. Respecting the latter, it may be mentioned, that he sat in the Parliament, August 1560; and that his name occurs in the proceedings of the General Assembly, June 1565, and August 1570.—(Booke of the Universall Kirk, vol. i. pp. 38, 60, 200.) to whame we gaif commissioun and power, First, To expone our hole purpose and intent, whiche was none other than befoir at all tymes we had required, to witt, That we mycht injoy the libertie of conscience. Secundlie, [That] Christ Jesus mycht be trewlie preached, and his holie Sacramentis rychtlie ministrat unto us. [Thirdly,] That unable ministeris micht be367 removed from ecclesiasticall administratioun; and that our preacheouris mycht be relaxit from the horne, and permitted to execut thair chargis without molestatioun, unto such tyme as ather by a Generall Counsale, lauchfullie convened, or by a Parliament within the realme, the contraverseis in religioun wer decided. And, for declaratioun that hir Grace was heirto willing, that the bandis856856In the MS. "bonds." of Frenche men, who than war a burthein untollerable to the cuntrey, and to us so fearfull, that we durst nocht in peaciable and quiet maner hant the places whare thay did lye, should be send to France, thair native cuntrey: Whiche thing is granted, hir Grace should have experience of our accustomed obedience.


To these headis sche did answer at the first so plesandlie, that sche put boith our Commissioneris in full esperance that all should be granted; and for that purpose, sche desyred to speak with sum of greatter authoritie, promesing, that yf thay wald assure hir of thair detfull857857In MS. G, "dutifull;" in Vautr. edit. "dutiefull." obedience, that sche wald deny nothing of that whiche was required. For satisfactioun of hir mynd, we send agane the Erle of Glencarne, the Lord Ruthven, the Lord Uchiltrie, and the said Lard of Pittarrow, with the same commissioun as of befoir. Bot than sche began to handill the matter more craftelie, compleaning that sche was nocht sought in a gentill maner; and that thay in whome sche had put maist singular confidence, had left hir in hir greattest neid; and suche uther thingis, perteaning nothing to thair commissioun, proponed sche, to spend and dryve the tyme. Thai answered, "That, by injust tyranny devised aganis thame and thair bretherin, (as hir Grace did weill know,) thay war compelled to seak the extreme remedie; and thairfoir, that hir Grace aucht nocht to wonder thocht godlie men left the cumpany whare thai nether fand fidelitie nor treuth." In the end of this communing, whiche was the xij day of Julij 1559,368 sche desyred to have talked privelie with the Erle of Ergyle, and Lord James, Priour of Sanctandrois, "For ellis, (as sche alledged,) sche culd nocht bot suspect that thai pretendit to some uther hiear purpose nor religioun." ACCUSATIONIS Sche and hir craftie Counsale had abuesd the Duke, perswaiding unto him, and unto his freindis, that the saidis Erle and Priour had conspyred, first to deprive our Soverane hir dochter of hir authoritie, and thairefter the Duke and his successioun of thair titill to the Crown of Scotland. By these invented lyes, sche inflambed the hartis of many against us, in so muche that some of our awin number began to murmur; whiche perceaved, alsweall the preacheouris, in thair publict sermonis, as we our selffis, by our publict proclamationis, gave purgatioun and satisfactioun to the people, planelie and simplie declairing what was our purpose, tacking God to witnes, that no suche crymes ever entered in our hartis as most injustlie was layed to our charge. The Counsale, efter consultatioun, thocht nocht expedient that the saidis Erle and Priour should talk with the Quene in ony sort; for hir former practises put all men in suspitioun, that some deceat lurked under suche colorat commoning. Sche had befoir said, That yf sche culd by any meane sunder those two from the rest, sche was assured schortlie to cum by hir hole purpose; and one of hir cheaf Counsale in those dayis, (and we fear bot over inward with hir yit,) said, "That or Michelmess day, thay two should leaf thair headis;" and thairfoir all men feared to committ two suche young plantis to hir mercie and fidelitie. It was, thairfoir, finallie denyed that thai should talk [with] the Quene, or ony to hir apperteaning, bot in places void of all suspitioun, whare thay should be equall in nomber with those that should talk [with] thame.


The Quene perceaving that hir craft culd nocht prevaill, was content that the Duke's Grace and the Erle of Huntlie, with utheris by hir appointed, should convene at Prestoun, to369 commone [with] the saidis Erle and Priour, and suche utheris as the Lordis of the Congregatioun wald appoint, to the nomber of ane hundreth on the syde, of the whiche nomber aucht personis onelie should meit for conference. The principallis for thair partie war, the Duke, the Erle Huntlie, the Lordis Erskin and Somervell, Maister Gavine Hammiltoun, and the Justice Clerk.858858Sir John Bellenden of Anchinoul, Justice-Clerk: See note 838. From us war directed the Erlis of Ergyle and Glencarne, the Lordis Ruthven, Lord James, Boyd, and Uchiltrie, the Lairdis Dun and Pittarrow, who, conveaning at Prestoun, spak the hole day without any certane conclusioun: For this was the practise of the Quene, and of hir factioun, by dryft of tyme to weary our cumpany, who, for the most parte, had bein upoun the feildis from the tent day of Maij, that we being dispersed, sche mycht cum to hir purpose. In whiche sche was nocht altogidder deceaved; for our commonis war compelled to skaill for lack of expenssis, and our gentilmen, partelie constraned be lack of furnessing, and partlie houping sum small appointment, after so many communingis, returned for the most parte to thair duelling places, for reposing of thame selffis.


The Quene, in all these conventionis, seamed that sche wald geve libertie to religioun, provided, "That wharesoever sche was, our Preacheouris sould cease, and the Masse sould be maynteaned." We perceaving hir malitious craft, ansuered, "That as we wald compell hir Grace to no religioun, so could we nocht of conscience, for the pleasur of any earthlie creature, put silence to Godis trew messingeris; nather culd we suffer that the rycht administratioun of Christis trew sacramentis should gif place to manifest idolatrie; for in so doing, we should declair ourselffis ennemeis to God, to Christ Jesus his Sone, to his eternall veritie, and to the libertie and establishment of his Churche within this realme;370 for your requeist being granted, there can no Kirk within the same be so estableshit but at your pleasour, and by your residence and remaning thare ye myeht overthrow the samin." THE LAST OFFERIS OF THE PROTESTANTIS TO THE QUENE REGENT This our last answer we send unto hir with the Lord Ruthven and Laird of Pittarrow; requiring of hir Grace, in plane wordis, to signifie unto us what houpe we myeht have of hir favouris toward the outsetting of religioun. We also required that sche wald remove hir Frenchemen, who war a fear to us, and a burthein most grevouse to our cuntrey: And that sche wald promess to us, in the word of a Prince, that sche wald procure no mo to be send in; and than should we nocht onelie support, to the uttermost of our poweris, to furnish schippis and victuallis for thair transporting, bot also, upoun our honouris, should we tak hir body in our protectioun; and should promess, in the presence of God and the hole realme, to serve our Soverane hir Dochter, and hir Grace Regent, als faithfullie and als obedientlie as ever we did Kingis within Scotland: That, moreover, we should caus our Preacheouris geve reasone of thair doctrin in hir audience, till any that pleased till impugne any thing that thay did or taught: Finallie, that we should submit our selflis to a lauchtfull Parliament, provided that the Bischoppis, as the party accused, and our plane ennemeis, should be removed from judgement.


To no point wald sche answer directlie; bot in all thingis sche was so generall and so ambigua, that hir craft appeared to all men. Sche had gottin assured knowlege that our cumpany was skailled, (for hir Frenchemen war daylie amongis us, without molestatioun or hurt done unto thame,) and thairfoir sche began to discloise hir mynde, and said, "The Congregatioun hes roung these two monethis bypast: me my selff wald ring now other two." The malice of hir hart being planelie perceaved, deliberatioun was had what was to be done. It was concluded, that the Lordis, Barronis, and gentil371men, with thare substantious housholdis, should remane in Edinburgh that hole winter, for establissing of the Church859859In MS. G, "the Kirk." Vautr. edit. has "the Church there." thair. THE CAUS QUHY THE IRNES STAYED And becaus it was found, that by the corrupting of our money, the Quene maid to hir selff immoderat gaines for maynteaning of hir soldiouris, to the distructioun of our haill commone weill, it was thocht necessar860860In MS. G, "it was thought expedient and necessarie." Vautr. edit. is the same as the text, but omits "to thame," before the word "pertaining." that the printing irnes, and all thingis to thame perteaning, should be stayed, for fear that sche should privelie caus transport thame to Dumbar.


In this meantyme came the assured word, first, that the King of France was hurt, and after, that he was dead861861A reference to the History of France will explain Knox's allusion to the treacherous conduct of Henry the Second, in the arrestment and execution of two of his councillors who had avowed their attachment to the Protestant faith. The death of the French King, which followed almost immediately after, was occasioned in a tournament held in honour of the marriage of his daughter with the King of Spain. In jousting with the Count de Montgomery, a splinter of his lance inflicted a deep wound over the King's left eye, and after lingering for twelve days, he expired on the 10th July 1559. His son the Dauphin, and husband of Mary Queen of Scots, was only sixteen years of age when he succeeded to the throne, under the name of Francis the Second. whiche, albeit it aucht to have put hir in mynd of hir awin estait and wicked interprise: for he that same tyme, in the fulnes of his glorie, (as sche hir self useth to speak,) had determined most crewell persecutioun aganis the sanctis of God in France, evin as sche hir selff was heir persecutand in Scotland: and yit he so perished in his pryde, that all men mycht see that Godis just vengeance did stryke him, evin quhen his iniquitie was cumed to full rypenes. Albeit, (we say,) that this wonderouse wark of God in his suddane death, aucht to have dantoned hir furie, and gevin unto hir admonitioun, that the same God culd nocht suffer her obstinat malice against his treuth long to be unpunished; yit culd hir indurat hart nothing be moved to repentance: for hearing the staying372 of the printing irnes, sche raiged more outragiouslie than of befoir, and sending for all suche as wer of hir factioun, exponed hir grevous complaint, aggredging the same with many lyes, to wit, "That we had declaired that whiche befoir sche suspected; for what culd we meane ellis, bot usurpatioun of the Crown, when we durst put handis to the Cunze-hous, whiche was a portioun of the patrimony of the Crown." Sche farther alleged, "That we had spoyled the Cunze-house of great sowmes of money." To the whiche we ansuered, boith by our letteris send to hir, and hir Counsale, and by publict proclamatioun to the people, that we, without usurpatioun of any thing justlie perteaning to the Crown of Scotland, did stay the printing irnes, in consideratioun that the commone wealth was greatlie hurt by corrupting of our money; and becaus that we war borne counsalouris of this realme, sworne to procure the proffite of the same, we culd do no less of dewetie and of conscience than to stay that for a tyme, whiche we saw so abused, that oneles remedy war fundin, should turne to the detriment of the hole body of this realme. And as to hir fals accusatioun of spuilzie, we did remit us to the conscience of Maister Robert Richesone862862Mr. Robert Richardson, according to one of the most accurate of our Antiquarian Genealogists, "was descended of a stock of ancient and opulent burgesses of Edinburgh, where they had long remained in reputation and respect;" and he being "a person of great wealth and credit, was upon the fame of his integrity preferred to the Treasurer's place by the Queen Regent, on the death of the Earl of Cussilis, anno 1558, and made also General of the Mint. When Mr.Richardson came first to the office, he designs himself Burgense de Edinburgh; but soon after that, having got the Commendatory of St. Mary Isle, which was a cell of Holyroodhouse Abbay, from that he henceforth took his title."—(Crawfurd's Officers of State, p. 383.), Maister of the Cunze-hous, who373 from our handis receaved silver, gold, and mettall, alsweill cunzeit as uncunzeit; so that with us thair did nocht remane the valour of a bawbie.863863A bawbee, the vulgar name for a halfpenny. In the reign of Queen Mary, it was equivalent to three pennies Scotish money, but was afterwards raised to six pennies. The particular coins so designated, were billon or copper, and are described in Lindsay's "Coinage of Scotland," p. 183. Cork, 1844, 4to.

Richardson's name occurs as one of the Auditors of the Treasurer's Accounts, 1551, 1552; and as connected with the Mint, in 1554-5. As Clerk of the Treasury, he rendered the Accounts of the late Gilbert Earl of Cassillis on the 24th March 1558-9, that Nobleman having died in France, on the 14th November 1558, (Register of Conf. Testaments, Feb. 24, 1575,) and not on the 28th of that month, as stated at page 263. Richardson continued to officiate in the room of the High Treasurer, until his own appointment to the office 5th March 1560-1. He also held more than one lucrative ecclesiastical situation. On the 10th February 1555-6, a charter under the Great Seal, of the lands of Nether Gogar, in the county of Edinburgh, was granted to Mr. Robert Richardson, Vicar of Exfurde. On the last of March 1558-9, he obtained a gift of the Priory of St. Mary's Isle of Trail, near Kirkcudbright (Reg. Secr. Sig.): this dignity entitled him to sit as a Lord and member of Parliament. At a later date, (in 1567,) we find him styled Archdeacon of Teviotdale. He died in 1571: and William Lord Ruthven, on the 24th June 1571, was appointed High Treasurer, the office being vacant by the death of the Commendator of St. Mary's Isle. Sir John Scott says, that Richardson had "conquest a great estate." This is very evident, from the various charters he had of lands in the counties of Edinburgh and East Lothian; and his estates were apportioned to his two sons, Sir James Richardson of Smeaton, and Sir Robert Richardson of Pencaitland, Baronet: see Crawfurd, ut supra, and Scott's Staggering State, p. 27.

This our declaratioun and purgatioun nochtwithstanding, sche, partelie by hir craft and policie, and partelie by the lawbouris of the Bischopis of Sanctandrois and Glasgw; procured the hole nomber that war with hir to consent to persew us with all creweltie and expeditioun, befoir that we culd haif our cumpany (whiche than was dispersed for new furnessing) assembled agane. The certantie heirof cuming to our knawlege, the Setterday at nycht, the 25. [22d] of Julij, we did in what us lay to gif advertisment to our bretherin; bot impossible it was that those of the West, Anguss, Mearnis, Stratherin, or Fyeff, in any nomber culd come to us; for the ennemie marched from Dumbar upoun the Sounday, and approched within two myles of us befoir the sone-rysing upoun Monunday; for thay verrelie supposed to have found no resistance, being assured that the Lordis onelie with certane gentillmen remaned, with thair privat housses. Calling upoun God for counsale in that straytt, we soght what was the nixt defence.374 We mycht have left the town, and mycht have reteired our selffis without any danger; bot than we should have abandoned our bretherin of Edinburgh, and suffered the ministrie thairof to have decayed, whiche to our hartis was so dolorous, that we thocht better to hasard the extreamitie than so to do. For than the most parte of the town appeared rather to favour us than the Quenis factioun; and did offer unto us the uttermost of thair support, whiche for the most parte thay did faithfullie keap. LEYTH LEFT THE CONGREGATIOUN The same did the town of Leyth, bot thay keapit nocht the lyek fidelitie; for when we war upoun the feild, marching fordward for thair support, (for the Frenche marched neye to thame,) thai randered thame selffis, without ferther resistance. And this thay did, as was supposed, by the treasone of some within thame selffis, and by the perswasioun of the Lard of Restalrig,864864Robert Logan of Restalrig, in the vicinity of Edinburgh, and parish of South Leith. This ancient family possessed considerable influence, from their connexion with Leith, of which they held the superiority; as will be more fully detailed in a subsequent note. who of befoir declaired himselff to have bein one of us, and nochtwithstanding,865865In MS. G, "and yit, notwithstanding." that day randered him selff undesyred to Monsieur Dosell. Thair unprovided and suddane defectioun astonished many; and yit we retyred quyetlie to the syde of Cragingatt,866866This name is probably a corruption of Craig-end gate. The Calton Hill was then known as the North Craigs, and the street called the Low Calton, the road leading from Edinburgh to Leith, was also known by that name; although the Easter Road would better suit the localities, as elsewhere described.—(Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. pp. 65-67.) which place we tooke for resisting the ennemie.

In the meantyme, diverse mediatouris passed betuix, amongis whome the Lord Ruthven, for our parte, wes principall. Alexander Erskin867867Better known as Sir Alexander Erskine of Gogar, fourth son of John fourth Lord Erskine. He was born about the year 1521; and was Captain of the Castle of Edinburgh, under his brother Lord Erskine, Earl of Mar, who became Regent of Scotland. After the Regent's death, in 1572, he had the charge of Stirling Castle, and the custody of James the Sixth. In 1578, he was Constable of Edinburgh Castle; and died sometime between 1588 and 1594. His eldest surviving son was created Earl of Kelly, in 1619. did muche travell to stay us and375 our soldiouris, that we should nocht joyne with thame of Leyth, till that thay, as said is, had randered thame selffis to the Frenche. The said Alexander did oft promese, That the Frenche wald stay, provided that we wold nocht joyne with these of Leyth. Bot efter that thai war randerit, we hard nothing of him bot threatning and disconfortable wordis. Befoir it was eight houris in the morning, God had gevin unto us boith curage, and a reasonable nomber to withstand thair furie. The town of Edinburght, sa mony as had subject thame selffis to discipline, and diverse utheris besydis thame, behavit thame selffis boith faithfullie and stoutlie. The gentilmen of Lowthiane, especiall Caldar, Haltoun, and Ormestoun, war verrey confortable, alsweill for thair counsale as for thair hole assistance. Some gentilmen of Fiffe prevented the Frenche men; otheris war stopped, be reasone that the Frenche had possessed868868In Vautr. edit. "passed." Leyth. Alwais the ennemie tooke suche a fear, that thai determined nocht to invaid us whare we stoode, bot tooke purpose to have passed to Edinburgh, by the other syde of the Watter of Leyth, and that becaus thay had the Castell to thair freind, whiche was to us unknawin; for we supponed the Lord Erskin, Capitane of the same, ather to have bein our freind, or at the least to have bein indifferent. THE LORD ERSKIN AND HIS FACT Bot when we had determined to feght, he send word to the Erle of Ergyle, to Lord James, his sister sone,869869Lord James Stewart, as already noticed, was son of James the Fifth, by Lady Margaret Erskine, daughter of John fourth Lord Erskine: see note 644. He was thus sister's son of the Governor of the Castle of Edinburgh, who maintained at this time a strict neutrality between the Queen Regent's party and the Reformers. "There is something very gallant, (says Sir Walter Scott,) in the conduct of this Nobleman, who, during such a period, was determined to refuse admittance either to French or English, the two powerful allies of the contending factions."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 712.) and to the uther Noble men,870870MS. G reads, "the uther Nobillmen that war with us." that he wald declair him selff boith ennemie to376 thame and to the town, and wald schoote at boith, gif thay maid any resistance to the Frenche men to enter in the town. This his treasonable defyence, send unto us by the Lard of Ricartoun,871871He was no doubt the same person who appears at page 251, as the Earl Marischal's "counsaillour," in 1556; but it may be doubted whether it was not his son who was killed at the seige of Leith, in May 1560. General Drummond, afterwards Lord Strathallan, in his "Genealogie of the House of Drummond," refers to the former passage in Knox, as an incident in the life of Henry Drummond of Riccarton, the second son of Sir John Drummond of Innerpeffrey. Having married Janet Creichton, who was heiress of the property of Riccarton, (in the parish of Linlithgow,) he became the founder of the family of Drummond of Riccarton. Lord Strathallan says, "He was a valiant gentleman, and of good breeding, and served the French King Henrie the Second, as Capitane of his Archer-Guard," (p. 152. Edinb. 1831, 4to.) In the Appendix to that volume, the Editor says, "This 'Counsaillour' was certainly no great clerk, as among the Balcarras Letters and Papers in the Advocates Library, is an original receipt, in French, for 500 crowns, (Cinq cens cscuz,) which is thus signed, 'Hary Drōmond, wyt my hand at the pen, led be my Lord Marschallis servand, Maister Jhone Elder.' It has no date, but was probably about the year 1560." (Ib. p. 291.)—On the 18th July 1555, the Treasurer paid 8s. to a boy "passand to Dumblane to Hairie Drummond with ane clois writting of the Quenis Grace, with deligence." did abait the corage of many; for we culd nocht feght nor stop the ennemie, bot under the mercie of the Castell and hole ordinance thairof.

Heirupoun was consultatioun tackin; and in conclusioun, it was found less domage to tak ane Appointment, albeit the conditionis war nocht suche as we desyred, than to hasard battall betuix two suche ennemeis. After lang talkin, certane Headis war drawin by us, whiche we desyred to be granted:—

"First, That no member of the Congregatioun should be trubled in lief, landis, goodis, or possessionis by the Quene, hir Authoritie, nor any uther Justice within the realme, for any thing done in the lait innovatioun, till a Parliament (whiche should begin the tent of Januar nixt) had decyded thingis in contraversie.

"2. That idolatrie should nocht be erected, whare it was at that day suppressed.377

"3. That the preacheouris and ministeris should nocht be trubled in thair ministrie, whare thai war alreadie establessed, nather yit stopped to preache, wharesoever thai should chance to come.

"4. That no bandis of men of warr should be layed in garneshing within the town of Edinburght.

"5. That the Frenche men should be send away at a reasonable day, and that none uther should be broght in the cuntrey without consent of the haill Nobilitie and Parliament."

But these our Articles872872Bishop Lesley has given the articles of this pacification in a different form from Knox: see Keith's History, (vol. i. p. 220,) whose remarks, however, apply to the Latin History, De Rebus Gestis, &c., p. 552. Romæ, 1578, 4to. In the corresponding passage of his English History, Lesley has given the erroneous date 23d July; and says the Appointment took place "be mediatione and labouris of the Erle of Huntlie, quha travelled ernistlie for stanching of bluidshed that day."—(Hist. p. 276.) war altered, and ane uther forme disposeth, as efter followeth:873873In MS. G, "and in ane uther forme disposed, as efter followis."

"At The Lynkis of Leith, the 24. of Julij 1559, it is Appointed in maner following:—

"In the first, the Congregatioun and thair cumpany, utheris than the inhabitants of the said Town, shall remove thame selffis furth of the said town, the morne at ten houris befoir none, the 25. of Julij, and leaf the same void and red of thame and thair said cumpany, conforme to the Quenis Grace pleasour and desyre.

"Item, The said Congregatioun shall caus the irnes of the Cunze-hous,874874The office of the Mint, of which Richardson was then General. See subsequent note. tacken away be thame, be randered and delivered to Maister Robert Richardsone; and in lykewyis the Quenis Grace Palace875875In MS. G, "hir Palace." of Halirudhous to be left and randered agane to Maister Johne Balfour, or ony uther haveand hir Grace suf378ficient power, in the same maner as it was receaved, and that betuix the making of thir Articles and the morne at ten houris.—(For observing and keaping of thir tua Articles abovewrittin, the Lord Ruthven and the Lard of Pittarrow hes entered thame selffis pledges.)

"Item, The saidis Lordis of Congregatioun, and all the memberis thairof, shall remane obedient subjectis to our Soverane Lord and Ladyis authoritie, and to the Quenis Grace Regent in thair place; and shall obey all lawis and lovable consuetudis of this realme, as thai war used of befoir the moving of this tumult and contraversie, exceptand the caus of religioun, whiche shalbe heirafter specifeid.


"Item, The said Congregatioun, nor nane of thame, shall nocht truble nor molest a Kirk-man be way of dead, nor yit shall maik thame any impediment in the peaciable bruiking, joising, and uptaking of thair rentis, proffittis, and deweties of thair benefices, bot that thai may frelie use and dispone upoun the same, according to the lawis and consuetude of this realme, to the tent day of Januar nixt to cum.

"Item, The said Congregatioun, nor nane of thame, shall in no wayis from thynefurth use ony force or violence, in casting down of kirkis, religious placis, or reparrelling thairof, bot the same sall stand skaithles of thame, unto the said tent day of Januar.

"Item, The town of Edinburght shall, without compulsioun, use and cheise what religioun and maner thairof thay please to the said day; sua that everie man may have fredome to use his awin conscience to the day foirsaid.

"Item, The Quenis Grace sall nocht interpone hir authoritie, to molest or truble the preacheouris of the Congregatioun, nor thair ministrie, (to thame that pleasis to use the same,) nor na uther of the said Congregatioun, in thair bodyis, landis, goodis, or possessionis, pensionis, or whatsumever uther kynd of goodis thai possess; nor yit thoill the Clargie, or any uther379 haveand spirituall or temporall jurisdictioun, to truble thame, in ony maner of sort, privatlie or openelie, for the caus of religioun, or uther actioun depending thairupoun, to the said tent day of Januar within writtin; and that everie man in particular leife in the meantyme according to his awin conscience.

"Item, That na man of warr, Frenche nor Scottis, be layed in daylie garnesoun within the town of Edinburght, bot to repair thairto to do thair lefull besynes, and thairefter to reteir thame to thare garnesounis."876876In Vautr. edit. "garrisons."

This alteratioun in wordis and ordour was maid without knowledge and consent of those whose counsale we had used in all cases befoir. For sum of thame perceaving we began to faynt, and that we wald appoint with inequall conditionis, said, "God hath wonderfullie assisted us in our greatest dangeris: He hath strikin fear in the hartis of our ennemeis, when thai supposed thame selffis most assured of victorie: our case is nocht yit sa disperat that we nead to grant to thingis unreasonable and ungodlie; whiche, yf we do, it is to be feared that thingis sall nocht so prosperouslie succeid as thai have done heirtofoir."


When all thingis war commoned and aggreed upoun by myd personis, the Duke and Erle of Huntlie, who that day war against us, desyred to speak the Erlis of Ergyle and Glencarne, the Lord James, and utheris of our partie: who obeying thare requeastis, mett thame at the Querrell Hollis,877877The Quarrel or Quarry Holes, afterwards called the "Upper Quarries," towards the east declivity of the Calton Hill, at the head of the Easter Road to Leith, opposite Maryfield. betuix Leyth and Edinburght, who in conclusioun promest to our Lordis, "That yf the Quene breake to us any one joyt of the Appointment than maid, that thai should declair thame selffis plane ennemeis unto hir, and freindis to us." Alsmuche380 promeshed the Duke that he wold do, in case that sche wald nocht remove hir Frenche men at are reasonable day; for the oppressioun whiche thai did was manifest to all men.

This Appointment maid and subscrived by the Duke, Monsieur Dosell, and the Erle of Huntlie, the 25. of Julij, we returned to the town of Edinburght, whare we remanit till the nixt day at none; when, efter sermone, dennar, and a proclamatioun maid at the Mercat Croce in forme as followeth, we departed.

Forme of the Proclamatioun.

"Forasmuche as it hath pleased God, that Appointment is maid betuix the Quene Regent and us the Lordis, hole878878In MS. G, "and haill Protestantis." Protestantis of this Realme, we have thocht good to signifie unto yow the cheafe Headis of the same, whiche be these:—

"1. First, That no member of the Congregatioun shalbe trubled in lief, landis, goodis, or possessionis, by the Quene, by hir Authoritie, nor by any uther Justice within this realme, for any thing done in this lait innovatioun, till that a Parliament hath decyded thingis that be in contraversie.

"2. That idolatrie shall nocht be erected, whare it is now at this day suppressed.

"3. That the preachearis and ministeris shall nocht be trubled in the ministratioun, whare thai ar already established, nather yit stopped to preache whairsoevir thai shall happin to travaill within this realme.

"4. That no bandis of men of warr shalbe layed in garnesoun within the town of Edinburght.

"These cheafe headis of Appointment concerning the libertie of religioun and conservatioun of our bretherin, we thoght goode to notifie unto yow, by this our Proclamatioun, that in case wrong or injurie be done, by any of the contrarie factioun, to any member of our body, complaint may be maid to us, to381 whome we promese, as we will ansuer to God, our faitlifull support to the uttermost of our poweris."


At this proclamatioun, maid with sound of trumpett, war offended all the Papistis: for, first, Thai alledged it was done in contempt of the Authoritie: secundarlie, That we had proclamed more than was conteaned in the Appointment: and last, That we, in our proclamatioun, had maid no mentioun of any thing promished unto thame. To suche mummeris879879In MS. G, "murmuirs." Vautr. edit. also has "murmures." we answered, "That no just Authoritie culd think the selff contempned, becaus that the treuth was by us maid manifest unto all, who utherwayis mycht have pretendit ignorance. Secundlie, That we proclamed nathing, whiche [was] nocht finallie aggreit upoun in word and promeiss betuix us and thame with quhame the Appointment was maid, whatsoevir thair scribeis had efter writtin, quha in verray deid had alterit, bayth in wordis and sentenceis, oure Articles, as thay war first consavit; and yitt, gif thair awin writtingis war diligentlie examinit, the self same thing sall be found in substance. And last, To proclame any thing in thair favouris, we thocht it nocht necessarie, knawing that in that behalf thay thame selfis sould be diligent aneweh." And in this we war not desavit; for within fyftene dayis efter, thair was not ane schaveling in Scotland, to wham teyndis, or any uthor rentis pertenit, bot he had that Article of the Appointment by hart, "That the Kirk men sould be ansuerit of teyndis, rentis, and all uthir dewties, and that no man sould trubill nor molest thame."

We depairting from Edinburgh, the 26. of Julij, came first to Lynlythqw, and efter to Striviling; whair, efter consultatioun, the band of defence, and mentenance of religioun, and for mutuall defence, evere ane of uther, was subscrivit of all that war thair present. The tennour of the Band was this:382

"We foirseing the craft and slycht of our adversaries, tending all maner of wayis to circumvene us, and be prevy meanis intendis to assailzie everie ane of us particularie be fair hechtis and promisses, thairthrow to separat ane of us frome ane uthir, to oure utter rewyne and destructioun: for remedy heirof, we faythfullie and trewlie byndis us, in the presence of God, and as we tender the mentenance of trew Religioun, that nane of us sall in tymeis cuming pas to the Queneis Grace Dowriare, to talk or commun with hir for any letter [or] message send be hir unto us, or yitt to be send, without consent of the rest, and commone consultatioun thairupoun. And quhowsone that ather message or writt sall cum fra hir unto us, with utter diligence we sall notifie the same ane to ane uther; swa that nathing sall proceid heirin without commune consent of us all.

"At Striveling, the first day of August 1559."

This Band subscrivit, and we foirseing that the Quene and Bischopis menit nathing bot desait, thocht guid to seik ayde and support of all Christiane Princeis against hir and hir tyrrannie, in caise we sould be mair schairplie persewit. And becaus that Ingland was of the same religioun, and lay nixt unto us, it was jugeit expedient first to prove thame; quhilk we did be ane or twa messingeris, as heirefter,880880Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne of England 17th November 1558. At the beginning of Book Third, Knox has entered more into detail respecting the application which was made by the Protestants of Scotland for aid at this time. in the awin place, mair ampill sall be declairit.

Efter we had abiddin certane dayis in Striviling, the Erle of Argyle depairtit to Glasgw; and becaus he was to depairt to his awin cuntrey, (with wham also past Lord James,) to pacifie sum trubill quhilk, be the craft of the Quene, was rasit in his absens, he requyreit the Erle of Glencairne, Lord Boyde, Lord Uchiltre, and utheris of Kyle, to meit thair, for sum ordoure383 to be taikin, that the brethren sould not be oppressit; quhilk with ane consent thay did, and appoyntit the tent of September for the nixt Conventioun at Striveling.


Quhill thir thingis war in doing at Glasgw, letteris and ane servand came fra the Erle of Arraine881881James third Earl of Arran was the eldest son of the Duke of Chatetherault. About the year 1554, he went to France, and obtained the command of the Scotish Guard, at the Court of Henry the Second. In 1559, he fell into so much disgrace, on account of his expressing himself to the Duke of Guise in favour of the Reformed doctrines, that, as stated in the next note, his life was in danger. Having made his escape from Paris, he came to Geneva, and returning by the north of Germany to England, he was received with much distinction by Queen Elizabeth. He arrived in Scotland, on the 7th September 1559, (Sadler's State Papers, vol. i. p. 435,) and openly joined the Reformers. to the Duik his father, signifeing unto him, that be the providence of God, he had eschaipit the Frensche Kyngis handis, quha maist treason abillie and maist crewellie had socht his lyfe, or at leist to have committit him to perpetuall presoun: LET THIS BE NOTIT for the same tyme, the said Frensche King, seing he could [not] have the Erle him self, gart put his youngar brother,882882Lord David Hamilton was the third son of the Duke of Chatelherault. He had a charter of lands in Fife, granted to him 31st August 1547. He was in France, along with his eldest brother the Earl of Arran, in 1559, as mentioned in the previous note. Secretary Cecil, in a letter dated 28th July 1559, as quoted by Mr. Tytler, says, "What may the Duke's Grace there (in France) look for, when his eldest son was so persecuted, as, to save his life, he was forced to flee France and go to Geneva, not without great difficulty; his second brother, the Lord David, now cruelly imprisoned by Monsieur Chevigny, one chosen out to show cruelty to your nation; divers Scots of the Earl's (Arran's) family put to torture; and, finally, all the Duchy of Chastelherault seised to the Crown."—(Hist. vol. vi. p. 124.) ane bairne of sick aige as could not offend, in strait presoun, quhair he yitt remaneis, to witt, in the moneth of October, the yeir of God Jm. Vc. lix yeiris: quhilk thingis war done be the craft and policie of the Quene Dowager, quhat tyme the Duik and his freyndis war maist frack to sett fordwart hir caus. Thir letteris resavit, and the estait of his twa soneis knawin, of whame the ane was escaipit, and the uthir in vyle preassoun cassin,883883In Vautr. edit. "the other cast in vile prison." the Duke desyreit communing of the Erle of Argyle,384 quha, pairtlie against the will of sum that lovit him, raid unto the Duik fra Grlasgw to Hammiltoun; quhair, abyding ane nycht, he declairit his jugement to the Duik and to his freindis, especiallie to Maister Gawyne Hamyltoun. The Duik requyreit him and the Lord James to write thair freindlie and confortabill letteris to his sone, quhilk thay baith maist willinglie did, and thairefter addressit thame to thair jornay. Bot the verray day of thair depairting, came one Bowtencourt,884884The Sieur de Béthencourt arrived from France about the end of July 1559. A letter of recommendation from Mary Queen of Scots, addressed to the Duke of Chatelherault, dated at Paris (16th) July, is contained in Prince A. Labanoff's collection of "Lettres de Marie Stuart," vol. i. p. 67. He was sent to this country, in the view to ascertain and use all means that were necessary, for restoring matters to the good estate in which they had previously been. After thanking the Duke for his good offices rendered to the Queen Regent her mother, in circumstances of great difficulty, her words are,—"S'estant pour ceste cause delibéré y mectre la main et chercher tous moïens pour réduire les choses au bon estat ou elles estoient, il a advisé dépescher par dela le Sieur de Béthencourt, présent porteur, par lequel j'ay bien voullu vous faire entendre le contentement quo j'ay du service quo vous vous este essayé m'y faire, et prier, mon Cousin, emploïer tous moïens pour faire rabiller les faultes doulcement et oster l'occasion de faire par autre voye sentir aux mauvais combien ils ont offencé le Roy, mondit Seigneur, et moy: estant asseurée que jamais vous ne sçaurez faire chose qui me soit plus agréable."—(Lettres, &c., vol. i. p. 68.)—Among various payments by the Treasurer, after the Queen Regent's death, (in June 1560,) to her attendants and other persons, we find, "Item, to Monsieur Buttonecourt and his wife, lxxx lib." from the Quene Regent, with letteris, as was allegeit, from the Kyng and Quene of France to Lord James, whilk he delyverit with ane braggin countenance and many threatning wordis. The tennour of his letteris was this:—

"Le Roy.

"My Cousing, I have bein greittumlie mervellitt, having understand the trubillis that ar happinnit in thir pairtis; and yit mair mervell that ye, of wham I had ane haill confidence, and alsua hes this honour to be sua neir the Quenis Grace, my wiffe, and hes resavit of umquhile the Kyngis Grace my385 father, hir Grace, and me, sick graceis and favouris, that ye sould be sa forgetfull as to mak youre self the heid, and ane of the principall begynnaris and nureischaris of the tumultis and seditiounis thar ar sene thair. The quhilk, becaus it is sa strange as it is, and syne against the professioun that ye at all tymeis have maid, I can not gudlie beleif it; and gif it be sa, I can not think bot ye have bene entyseit and led thairto be sum personis that haif seduceit and caussit yow commit sic ane falt, as I am assureit ye repent of alreddy, quhilk will be ane greit emplesour885885In MS. G, "plesour;" in Vautr. edit. "displeasure." to me, to the effect I mycht lose ane pairt of the occasioun I have to be miscontent with yow, as I will yow to understand I am, seing sua far ye have dissavit the esperance I had of yow, and your effectioun towart God, and the weill of our service, unto the quhilk ye knaw ye ar als mekill and mair obleist nor ony uther of the Lordis thair. For this cause, desyrand that the materis mycht be dutelie886886In MS. G, "duetifullie," Vautr. edit. has "dewly amendid." amendit, and knawand quhat ye may heirintill, I thocht gude on this maner to write unto yow, and pray yow to tak heid to returne to the guid way, from quhilk ye ar declyneit, and caus me knaw the samin be the effectis that ye have ane uther attentioun nor this quhilk thir folies bipast makis me now to beleif; doing all that ever ye can to reduce all thyngis to thair first estait, and put the samin to the rycht and gud obedience that ye knaw to be dew unto God and unto me: BRAGGIS NOW.887887In this marginal note, Vautr. edit. has "Brages inough." Utherwayis, ye may be weill assureit, that I will put to my hand, and that in gud eirnest, that ye and all thay have done, and dois as ye, sall888888In MS. G, "that yow and all they that hes done, and dois as ye do, sall." feill, (throw thair awin falt,) that quhilk thay have deservit and meritit; evin as I have gevin charge to this Gentilman, present beirar, to mak yow knaw mair largelie of my pairt; for386 quhilk caus, I pray yow creddeit him, evin as ye wald do my selff. Prayand God, my Cousing, to haif yow in his holy and worthy protectioun.

"Writtin at Pareis, the xvij day of July 1559."

The samyn messinger brocht alssua letteris frome the Quene our Soverane, mair scharp and threatning than the former; for hir conclusioun was, "Vous senteras la poincture a jamais."889889These words may be rendered, "You will feel the point of it for ever." The letter referred to is not contained in Prince A. Labanoff's collection of Queen Mary's Letters; but an English copy of it is preserved in Spotiswood's History, p. 130, and will be inserted in the Appendix to the present volume.

This creddeit was, "That the Kyng wald spend the Croun of France, or that he war not revengeit upoun sick seditious personis. That he wald never have suspectit sick inobedience and sick defectioun frome his awin sister in him." To the quhilk the said Lord James ansuerit, first by word, and than by writting, as followis:—


"My dewtie rememberit. Your Majestieis letter I resavit frome Pareis, the xvij of Julij last, proporting in effect, that your Majestie sould mervell that I, being forgetfull of the graceis and favouris schawing me be the King, of blissitt memorie, your Majestieis Father, and the Quenis Grace, my Soverane, sould declair my selff heid, and ane of the principall begynnaris of the allegeit tumultis and seditioun in thir pairtis, desaving thairby your Majestieis expectatioun at all tymis hard of me; with assurance, that gif I did not declair by contrarie effectis my repentance, I, with the rest that had put, or yitt putis handis to that wark, sould resave the rewaird quhilk we had deservit and meritit.

"Schir, it grevis me heavelie that the cryme of ingratitude sould be laid to my charge be your Hienes, and the rather387 that I persave the same to haif proceidit of sinister informatioun, of thame quhais pairt it was not sua to have reportit, gif trew service bigane had bene regairdit. And as tuiching the repentance, and declaratioun of the same be contrar effectis,890890In MS. G, "be certaine effectis." that your Majestic desyris I schaw, my conscience perswaidis me in thir proceidingis to have done na thing aganeis God, nor the debtfull891891In MS. G, "dewtiefull;" Vautr. edit. "duteifull obedience." obedience towartis your Hienes and the Queneis Grace my Soverane, utherwayis it sould have bene to repent, and als amendit allreddy, according to your Majestieis expectatioun of me. Bot your Hienes being treulie informeit, and perswaidit that the thyng quhilk we have done makis for the advancement of Godis glorie, (as it dois in deid,) without ony maner derogatioun to your Majesteis dew obedience, we dowt not bot your Majestie sall be weill contentit with our proceidingis, quhilk being groundit upoun the commandiment of the eternall God, we dar [nocht] leif the samyn unaccompleischeit; onelie wisching and desyreing your Majestie did knaw the same, and treuth thairof, as it is perswaidit to our conscience, and all thame that ar treulie instructit in the eternall word of our God, upoun quham we cast our cair for all daingearis that may follow the accompleisment of his eternall will; and to quham we commend your Hienes, beseiking him to illuminat your hart with the evangell of his eternall trewth, to knaw your Majestieis dewtie towartis892892In MS. G, "towards us your." your pure subjectis, Godis chosin pepill, and quhat ye aucht to craif justlie of thame agane; for than we sould haif na occatioun to feir your Majestieis wraith and indignatioun, nor your Hienes suspitioun in our inobedience. The samyn God mot893893"Mot" is omitted both in MS. G. and Vautr. edit. have youre Majestie in his eternall saifgard.

388"At Dumbartane, the 12 of August 1559."

This answer, directit to the Quene our Soverane, and to Francis hir husband, the Quene Dowager resavit, and was bold upoun it, as sche mycht weill yneuch; for it was suppoisit that the former letteris war forgeit heir at hame in Scotland. The answer red by hir, sche said, "That sua proud ane answer was never gevin to King, Prince, or Princess." And yitt indifferent men thocht that he mycht have answerit mair schairplie, and not have transgressit modestie nor treuth. For quhair thay burding him with the greit benefitis quhilk of thame he had resavit, gif in plane wordis he had purgeit him self, effirming, that the greitest benefit that ever he receavit of thame was to spend in thair service, that quhilk God be utheris had providit for him, na honest man wald have accusit him, and na man wald have bene abill to have convickit him of ane lye. Bot Princeis must be pardonit to speik quhat thay pleise.


For confort of the brethren, and contynewance of the Kyrk in Edinburgh, was left thair our deir brother Johnne Willock, quha, for his faithfull laubouris and bald curage in that battell, deserves immortall prayse. For quhan it was fund dangerous that Johnne Knox, quha befoir was electit Minister894894The inhabitants or Congregation of Edinburgh, met in the Tolbooth or Council House, on the 7th July 1559, and publickly elected Knox as their Minister.—(Historie of the Estate of Scotland, in Wodrow Miscellany, p. 63.) "With this choice, (Dr. MʻCrie remarks,) which was approved by his brethren, Knox judged it his duty to comply, and immediately began his labours in the City." He was soon afterwards obliged to leave Edinburgh, but John Willock, who became his colleague, supplied his place, and in the month of August dispensed the Sacrament in St. Giles's Church.—(ib. p. 67.) to that Kyrk, sould contynew thair, the brethren requeistit the said Johnne Willock to abyde with thame, least that, for laik of ministeris, idolatrie sould be erectit up agane. To the quhilk he sua glaidlie consentit, that it mycht evidentlie appeir, that he preferrit the confort of his brethren, and the contynewance of the Kirk thair, to his awin lyiff. One pairt389 of the Frensche men war appointtit to ly in garnesoun at Leith, (that was the first benefit thai gat for thair confideracie with thame,) the uthir pairt war appointit to ly in the Cannogait; the Quene and hir tryne abydeing in the Abbay. Oure brother Johnne Willock, the day efter our departure, prechit in Sanct Geillis Kirk, and ferventlie exhortit the brethren to stand constant in the trewth quhilk thay had professit. At this and sum uther sermondis was the Duke, and diverse utheris of the Queneis factioun. This libertie and preching, with resort of all pepill thairto, did hielie offend the Quene and the uther Papistis. And first thay began to gif terrouris to the Duke; affirmyng, that he wald he repute as ane of the Congregatioun, gif he gaif his presence to the sermondis. Thairefter thay begould895895In MS. G. and Vautr. edit. "began." to requyre that Messe sould be sett up agane in Sanct Geillis kirk, and that the pepill sould be sett at libertie to chuse what religioun thay wald; for that, say thay, was contenit in the Appointmentt, that the town of Edinburgh sould cheis quhat religioun thay list. For obtening heirof, was send to the Tolbuith,896896The Tolbooth or Council House must not be confounded with the Old Tollbooth or Jail, which was described in 1561 as ruinous, and ordered to be demolished. It was, however, repaired, and has been immortalized as "The Heart of Mid-Lothian." In Chambers's "Reekiana," a number of curious and interesting notices are collected regarding this building, which was situated at the west-end of St. Giles's Church, and encroached so much on that part of the High Street, called the Luckenbooths, as to leave only a kind of lane to the north, of 14 feet wide. Further to the south, and connected with the south-west corner of St. Giles's Church, with a covered passage to the Parliament Square, there was a large mass of buildings, which included what was known as the New Tolbooth or Council House, the Goldsmith's Hall, &c. All these were pulled down when the Signet Library was built, and the ornamented exterior of the Parliament House, (begun in 1632, and completed in 1640,) was so unfortunately sacrificed. The Old Tolbooth or Jail was demolished in 1817; and the changes which took place in and around the Parliament Square at that time, completely altered the singularly picturesque character of the Old Town of Edinburgh. the Duke, the Erle of Huntlie, and the Lord Seytoun, to solist all men to condiscend to the Quenis mynd; quhairin the twa last did390 laubour that thay could, the Duik not sa, bot as ane behalder, of quham the brethren had guid esperance. And efter many perswationis and threatningis maid be the saidis Erle and Lord, the brethren, stoutlie and valiantlie in the Lord Jesus, ganesaid thair maist injust petitionis, reasonyng, "That as of conscience thay mycht nocht suffr idolatrie to be credit quhair Christ Jesus was treulie precheit, sua could nocht the Quene nor thay requyre any sick thyng, unless sche and thay wald plainlie violat thair faith and cheif article of the Appointment; for it is planelie appointit, That na member of the Congregatioun sall be molestit in any thing that, the day of the Appointment, be peaceabillie possessit. Bot sua it was that we, the Brethren and Protestantis of the toun of Edinburgh, with oure ministeris, the day of the Appointment, did peaceabillie possess Sanct Geilis Kirk,897897Here, and in other places, Vautr. edit. has "Church." appointit for us for preching of Christis trew Evangell, and rycht ministratioun of his holy Sacramentis. Thairfoir, without manifest violatioun of the Appointment, ye can not remove us thairfra, quhill ane Parliament have decydit the contraversie."


This answer gevin, the haill brethren depairtit, and left the foirsaid Erle, and Lord Seytoun the Provest of Edinburgh, still in the Tolbuyth; quha persaving that thay could not prevaill in that maner, bot began to entreat that thay wald be quyett, and that thay wald sa far condiscend to the Quenis plesour, as that thay wald chuse thame ane uthir Kirk898898In Vautr. edit. the word "Kirk" or "Church" is omitted. within the toun, or at the least be contentit that Messe sould be said ather efter or befoir thair sermonis. To the quhilk, ansuer was gevin, "That to gif place to the Devill, (quha was the cheif inventar of the Messe,) for the plesour of ony creature, thay could not. Thay war in possessioun of that391 Kirk, quhilk thay could not abandone; nether could thay suffer idolatrie be erectit in the samyn, unless be violence thay sould be constrancit sa to do; and than thay war determinit to seik the nixt remedy." Quhilk ansuer resavit, the Erle of Huntlie did lovinglie intreat thame to quyetnes; faithfullie promissing that in na sort thay sould be molestit, sa that thay wald be quyett, and mak na farther uproir. To the quhilk thay war maist willing; for thay socht onlie to serve God as he had commandit, and to keip thair possessioun, according to the Appointment; quhilk be Goddis grace thay did till the moneth of November, nochtwithstanding the greit bosting of the ennemy. For thay did not onlie convene to the preching, dailie supplicatiounis, and administratioun of Baptisme, bot alssua the Lordis Tabill was ministratt, evin in the eyis of the verray ennemy, to the greit confort of mony afflictit conscience. And as God did potentlie wirk with his trew Minister, and with his trubillit Kirk, so did nocht the Devill cease to enflamb the malice of the Quene, and of the Papistis with hir. For schort efter hir cuming to the Abbay of Halyrudhouse, sche caussit Messe to be said, first in hir awin Chapell, and efter in the Abbay, quhair the altaris befoir war cassin doun. Sche dischargit the Commoun Prayeris, and foirbad to gif ony portioun to sick as war the principall young men quha redd thame. Hir malice extendit in lik maner to Cambuskynneth;899899The Abbey of Cambuskenneth was founded by King David the First, in the year 1147. This House, of the order of Canon-Regulars of St. Augustine, although connected with Stirling, is in the parish of Logie, and shire of Clackmannan. It was situated on the north side of the river Forth, about one mile N.E. from the town of Stirling. During the wars with England, it was often plundered, but in 1569, it was nearly all demolished; and there now remains little besides a square tower of fine proportions, to indicate its site.—See Sir J.G. Dalyell's "Brief Analysis of the Chartularies of the Abbey of Cambuskenneth, Chapel Royal of Stirling," &c. Edinb. 1828. 8vo. for thair sche dischargeit the portionis of als many of the Channonis as had forsaikin Papistrie. Sche gaif command and inhibitioun, that the392 Abbot of Lundoris900900In Vautr. edit. "Lyndors."—The Abbey of Lindores, in the parish of Newburgh, Fife, was, like most of our monastic buildings, finely situated, overlooking the fertile shores of the Tay. It was founded by David Earl of Huntingdon, brother to King William the Lion, upon his return from the Holy Land, about the year 1178. It was erected into a temporal lordship by King James the Sixth, 20th December 1600, in favour of Sir Patrick Lesley of Pitcairly, son of Andrew fifth Earl of Rothes, who had held the Abbacy in Commendam, since 1581.—John Abbot of Lindores who is here mentioned, must have been a person of some importance; yet his name has not been discovered, although he sat in Parliament in 1542 and subsequent years, and he appears in the Sederunt of the Lords of Session, in November 1544. Some further particulars respecting him will be given in a subsequent note. sould be901901MS. G, "sould not be." ansuerit of any pairt of his leving in the North, becaus he had submitit him self to the Congregatioun, and had put sum reformatioun to his place. Be hir consent and retrahibitioun902902In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "procurement was the preiching stooll." was the preching stuleis brokin in the Kirk of Leith, and idolatrie was erectit in the samyn, quhair it was befoir suppressit. Hir Frensche Capitaneis, with thair suldiouris in greit companeis, in tyme of preching and prayeris, resortit to Sanct Geillis Kirk in Edinburgh, and maid thair commune deambulatour thairin, with sick lowd talking, as na perfyte audience could be had; and althocht the Minister was ofttymes thairthrow compellit to cry out on thame, praying to God to red thame of sick locustis; thay nevirtheless continewit still in thair wickit purpoise, devisit and ordaneit be the Quene, to have drawin our brethren of Edinburgh and thame in cummer; swa that sche mycht have had ony cullorat occatioun to have brokin the liegue with thame. Yitt, be Goddis grace, thay behaveit thame selfis swa, that sche could fynd na falt with thame; albeit in all thir thingis befoir nameit, and in every ane of thame, sche is worthelie comptit to have contravenit the sayd Appointment. We pass over the oppressing done of oure brethren in particular, quhilk had bene sufficient to have provin the Appointment to have bene playne violatit; for the Lord Seytoun, without ony occasioun offerrit unto him, brak a393 chaise upoun Alexander Quhitelaw,903903Alexander Whitelaw of New Grange, had been a pensioner in England so early as the time of Edward the Sixth, for which the Earl of Huntly caused him to be forfeited, 5th July 1549. See before, Note 538. At a later period, he became an active and confidential agent of Knox and the Reformed party; and his name frequently occurs in their correspondence in Sir Ralph Sadler's State Papers. Knox speaks of Whitelaw as a man who had often hazarded himself, and all he had, for the cause of God. Throgmorton calls him "a very honest, sober, and godly man, and the most truly affectionate to England of any Scotsman." Accordingly, he gave him a letter of recommendation to Elizabeth's Council, and, as he was very religious, he counsels them to let him see as little sin in England as possible.—(Note by Sir Walter Scott, in Sadler's Papers, vol. i. pp. 468, 537.) In the Account of the Collector of the Thirds of Benefices, 1561, two bolls of wheat are deducted—or "defalkit for the teindis of the Newgrange of Aberbrothock, be reasone the same was nocht lauborit the zeir compted, be occasion of the pley dependand thairupon, betuix Alexander Quhytlaw and William Stewart." Three bolls of bear, and eight bolls of meal, were deducted for the same cause. as he came frome Prestoun, accumpaneit with Williame Knox,904904William Knox, a younger brother of the Reformer, was then a merchant. In September 1552, the English Council, out of respect to his brother, granted a patent "to William Knox, a merchant, giving him liberty, for a limited time, to trade to any port of England, in a vessel of one hundred tons burden."—(Strype's Memorials, vol. ii. p. 299.) And Knox himself, in a letter written in 1553, says, "My brother, William Knox, is presentlie with me. What ye wold haif frome Scotland, let me know this Monunday at nycht; for hie must depart on Tyisday."—(MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. i. pp. 90, 91.) He afterwards became a preacher, and was for many years minister of Cockpen in Mid-Lothian.—(MS. Books of Assignation of Stipends; Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. pp. 369, 408.) towartis Edinburgh, and ceassit not to persew him till he came to the toun of Ormestoun: And this he did, supposing that the said Alexander Quhitelaw had bene Johnne Knox. In all this menetyme, and quhill that ma Frensche men arryvit, thay ar not abill to pruif that we brak the Appointment in any jote, except that ane hoirnit capp was taikin of ane proud preistis heid, and cut in four quarteris,905905In MS. G, "in four pieces." becaus he said he wald weir906906In the MS. "wald nott weir." it in dispyte of the Congregatioun.

In this menetyme, the Quene, then Regent, knawin assuredlie quhat force was schortlie to cum unto hir, ceassit not, by all meneis possibill, to cloik the incuming of the Frensche, and394 to enflamb the hartis of oure cuntrey men aganis us. And for that purpoise, sche first wrait to my Lord Duike, in forme as followis:—

"My Lord and Cousing,

"Efter hartlie commendatioun; We ar informit that the Lordis of theTHE QUENE REGENTIS FALSE FLATTERING LETTER TO THE DUKE.907907In MS. G, this marginal note, and that on the next page, are taken into the text. Westland Congregatioun intendis to mak ane conventioun and assembillie of thair kyn and freyndis upoun Govane Mure, besyde Glasgw, on Monnunday cum viij dayis, the [21st] day908908In the MS. the date is left blank, "the &c. day." Vautr. edit. and MS. G, read, "the 28th day of August." of August instant, for sum hie purpoise aganeis us, quhilk we can nott skantlie beleve,909909In MS. G, "we can skairslie beleve." considdering thay have na occasioun upoun our pairt sa to do. And albeit ye knaw the Appointment was maid be our avise,910910In MS. G, "was maid against, or without our advyse." In Vautr. edit. "was made by." yitt we acceptit the samin at your desyre, and hes sensyne maid na cause quhairby thay mycht be movit to cum in the contrair thairof. Lyke as we ar yitt myndit to keip firme and stabill all thingis promesit be yow in our behalf. We think, on the uther pairt, it is your dewatie to requyre tham, that thay contravene not thair pairt thairof in na wyise;911911In MS. G, "in na cais." and in caice thay meane ony evill towartis us, and sua will breck thaire promeise, we beleif ye will, at the uttermost of your power, convene with us, and compell tham to do that thing quhilk thay aucht, gif thay will nocht. Praying yow to have your selff, your kin and freyndis, in reddynes to cum to us, as ye sall be adverteist be proclamatioun, in caise the Congregatioun assembill tham selffis for any purpoise aganeis us, or the tennour of the said Appointment: assureand yow, without thay gadder, and mak first occasioun, we sall nott put yow to any paneis in that behalf; and that ye adverteis us in395 writt, quhat we may lippin to heirin with this beirar, quha will schaw yow the fervent mynd we beir to have concord with the said Congregatioun, quhat offeris we haif maid to thame, and how desyrous we ar to draw thame to the obedience of our Soveranis authoritie, to quham ye sall gif creddeit; and God keip yow.

"At Edinburgh, the tent day of August 1559."

The lyke letter sche wrait to everie Lord, Barroun, and Gentilman, of this tennour:—


"Efter hartlie commendatioun; We dowt nott bot ye have hard of theTHE REGENTIS LETTER TO THE BARRONIS. Appointment maid besyde Leith, betuix my Lord Duik, the Erle of Huntlie, and Monsieur Dosell, on the ane pairt, and the Lordis of the Congregatioun, on the uther syde; quhilk Appointment we have approvit in all poyntis, albeit it was taikin by our avise; and is myndit to observe and keip all the contentis thairof for our pairt. Nochtheless, we ar informeit, the saidis Lordis of the Congregatioun intendis schortlie to convene all sick personeis as will assist to thame, for interprysing of sum heycht purpoise aganis us, our authoratie, and tennour of the said Appointment, quhilk we can not beleif, seing thay nather haif, nor sall have, ony occasioun gevin thairto on our pairt, and yit thinkis not reassonabill, in caise thay meane ony sick thing: and thairfoir have thocht it guid to gif wairning to oure speciall freyndis of the adverteisment we have gottin, and amangis the rest, to yow, quham we esteme of that nomber. Praying yow to have your self, youre kin, and folkis in reddynes to cum to us."—And sua furth, as in the uthir letter above sent to the Duike, word efter word.


Efter that by thir letteris, and by the dissaitfull furnissing of hyr solistaris, sche had sumquhat steirit up the hairtis of396 the pepill against us, than sche began oppinlie to complayne, "That we war of mynd to invaid hir persone; that we wald keip na pairt of the Appointment; and thairfoir sche was compellit to crave the assistance of all men against our injust persute." And this practise sche usit, as befoir is said, to abuse the simplicitie of the pepill, that thay sould not suddanlie espy for quhat purpois sche brocht in hir new bandis of men of weir, quha did arryve about the middis of August to the nomber of ane thousand men. The rest war appointit to cum efter, with Monsieur de la Broche,912912Monsieur de la Brosse, and the Bishop of Amiens, arrived in Scotland on the 24th September 1559. Sir Ralph Sadler, on the 27th, says, "the Bishop arrived in Leith three days previously, with three vessels, and 800 men." On the 29th he writes, "La Brosse, and the Bishop of Amyens, are arrived at Leyth, with so gret company, besyds ther housholde men, as far as we can lerne. And the Bishop, as they say, cometh to curse, and also to dispute with the Protestants, and to reconcile them, if it wolbe," &c.—(Sadler's Letters, vol. i. p. 470.) "Jacques de la Brosse, knycht," had been one of the French ambassadors, who were present at the Parliament, 11th December 1543, for treating of a renewal of the amity between the two kingdoms.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 432.) When again sent to this country, in September 1559, on the accession of Francis the Second to the throne of France, Bishop Lesley calls him "Monsieur de La Broche."—(History, p. 278.) The Bishop of Amiens was Nicholas de Pellevé, who was afterwards Archbishop of Sens, and elected Cardinal. He came in the character of Legate a latere from the Pope, and was accompanied by three Doctors of the Sorbonne, whom Spotiswood calls Dr. Furmer, Dr. Brochet, and Dr. Ferretier.—(Hist. p. 133.) and with the Bischop of Amiance,913913In Vautr. edit. "Ammiance." quha arryvit the nynetene day of September following, as gif thay had bene Ambassadouris: THE ARRYVELL OF THE FRENSCHE.914914In MS. G, "The arryval of 1000 Franchemen and ma." Vautr. edit. corresponds with the text. bot quhat was thair negotiatioun, the effect did declair, and thay thame selffis could not long conceill; for baith be tung and pen thay utterit, "That thay war send for the utter exterminatioun of all thame that wald not professe the Papisticall religioun in all pointis." The Quenis practise nor craft could not blynd the eyeis of all men; nether yitt could hir subtiltie hyde hir awin schame, bot that many did espy hir desait: and sum spairit not to speik thair jugement liberallie; quha397 foirseing the dainger gaif adverteisment, requyring that provisioun mycht be fund, befoir that the evill sould exceid our wisdome and strenth to put remedy to the same; for prudent men foirsaw, that sche prctendit ane plane conqueist. Bot to the end, that the pepill sould not suddanlie stur, sche wald nocht bring in hir full force at aneis, (as befoir is said,) bot by continewall traffique purposit to augment hir army, so that in the end we sould not be abill to resist. Bot the greitest pairt of the Nobilitie, and many of the pepill, war so enchantit by hir treassonabill solistaris, that thay could not heir, nor creddeit the treuth planelie spokin. The Frensche than, efter the arryvell of thair new men, began to brag: THE DEVISIOUN OF THE LORDIS LANDIS BY THE FRENSCHE than began thay to devyde the landis and lordschippis according to thair awin fantaseis; for ane was styleit Monsieur de Ergyle; ane uther, Monsieur le Priour; the thrid, Monsieur de Ruthven; yea, thay war assureit, in thair awin opinioun, to possesse quhatsoever thay list, that sum askit the rentallis and revenewis of dyverse mennis landis, to the end that [thay] mycht chuse the best. And yitt in this menetyme, sche eschame nott to sett out ane Proclamatioun, in this forme:—

"Forsamekle as we understand that certane seditious personis hesANE PROCLAMATIOUN SETT OUT BE THE QUENE REGENT, TO BLIND THE VULGAR PEPILL.915915This marginal note is taken into the text in MS. G.] inventit and blawin abrod dyvers rumouris and evill brutis, tending thairby to steir up the hartis of the pepill, and swa to stope all reconciliatiounis betuix us and our subjectis, being of the nomber of the Congregatioun, and consequentlie to kyndill and nureise continewall stryfe and devisioun in this realme, to the manifest subvertioun of the haill Estaitis thairof; and amangis uther purpoisses, hes maliciouslie devisit for that effect, and hes perswaidit too many, that we haif violatit the Appointment laitlie tane, in sa far as ony ma Frensche men sensyne ar cumit in: and that we ar398 myndit to draw in greit forceis of men of weir furth of France, to suppres the libertie of this realme, oppres the inhabitantis thairof, and mak up straingaris with thair landis and goodis: Quhilk reportis ar all (God knawis) maist vayne, fenzeit, and untrew. For it is of treuth, that nathing hes bene done on oure pairt sen the said Appointment, quhairby it may be allegeit, that ony point thairof hes bene contravenit: nor yitt was at that tyme any thing communit or concludit to stope the sending in of Frensche men; as may cleirlie appeir be inspectioun of the said Appointment, quhilk the beirar heirof hes presentlie to schaw. LETT THE BISCHOP OF AMIANCE AND MONSIEUR DE LA BROCHE LETTERIS WRITTIN TO FRANCE, WITNESS THAT.916916In MS. G, this marginal note ends, "witness how this was kept;" but Vautr. edit. is the same with the text. The Letters here referred to as having been sent to France, are not contained in any printed collection. Quhat[evir] nomber of men of weir be arryveit, we [have] sick regaird to our honour, and quyetnes of this realme, that in caise in the rowme of everie ane Frensche man that is in Scotland thair war ane hundreth at our command, yitt sould not for that any joyt that is promesit be brokin, or any alteratioun be maid be oure provocatioun; bot the said Appointment917917In the orig. MS. and in Vautr. edit. "proclamation." treulie and surelie observit in everie point, gif the said Congregatioun will in lyk maner faithfullie keip thair pairt thairof. Nor yitt meane we to truble any man in the peaceabill possessioun of thair guidis and rowmes, nor yitt to enreache918918In MS. G, "inriche." the Crowne, and far less any strangear, with your substance; for our derrest sone and dochter, the King and Quene, ar by Godis provisioun placeit in the rowme, quhair all men of jugement may weill considder thay have na neid of any manis guidis. And for our self, we seik na thing bot debtfull obedience unto thame, sick as guid subjectis aucht to gif to thair Soveraneis, without deminutioun of your liberteis and priveleigeis, or alteratioun of your lawis.919919In MS. G, "our liberties," and "our laws." Thairfoir, we thocht guid to notifie unto yow our guid mynd foirsaid,399 and desyreis yow not to gif eir nor creddeitt to sic vayne imaginationis, quhairof, befoir God, no pairte ever enterit in our consait; nor suffer your selfis be thairby led frome youre dew obedience; assureing yow, ye sall ever fynd with us trewth in promeisses, and ane moderlie luif towartis all; yow behaifand your selffis our920920In MS. G, "as obedient." obedient subjectis. FEW DAYIS EFTER DECLAIRIT THE TREUTH OF THIS Bot of one thing we gif yow wairning, that quhairas sum Prechearis of the Congregatioun, in thair publict sermonis, speikis irreverentlie and sklanderouslie, alsweill of Princeis in generall, as of our self in particulare, and of the obedience to the hiear poweris; induceing the pepill, be that pairt of thair doctrine, to defectioun frome thair dewatie, quhilk pertenis na thing to religioun, bot rather to seditioun and tumult, thingis direct contrar to religioun: thairfoir we desyre yow to tak ordour in youre toun and boundis, that quhan the Prechearis repairis thair, thay useJESABELL WALD BE HONOURIT, BOT HELIAS WALD NOTT thame selfis mair modestlie in thay behalfis, and in thair precheing not to mell sa mekle with civill policie and publict governance, nor yit name us, or uther Princeis, bot with honour and reverence, utherwayis it will nocht be sufferrit. Attour,921921In MS. G, "And seing ye have presently." Vautr. edit. has, "And seeing you have presently." sen ye haif presentlie the declaratioun of our intentioun, we desire to knaw lykwayis quhat sall be your pairt to us, that we may understand quhat to lippin for at your handis; quhairof we desire ane playne declaratioun in writt, with this beirar, without excuise or delay.

"At Edinburgh, the twentie aucht of August 1559."

This proclamatioun sche send be hir messingeris throwch all the cuntrey, and had hir solistaris in all pairtis, quha paynefullie travellit to bring men to hir opinioun; amangis quham thir war the principallis, Sir Johnne Bellenden, Justice Clerk; Maister James Balfour, Officiall of Lowthiane, Maister Thomas and Maister Williame Scottis, sonnis to the Laird of400 Balwerie,922922A genealogical account of the ancient family of the Scots of Balweary, in Fife, is inserted in Douglas's Baronage, pp. 302-306. From this we learn, that there were five persons of the same name, in regular succession, at the end of the 15th, and during the 16th century. Sir William Scott, who was taken prisoner at Floddon, was nominated the first of the Lords of Session on the Temporal side, at the institution of the College of Justice in May 1532; but he died very soon after; as Thomas Scott of Petgormo, his second son, was appointed his successor, 19th November that year. This Thomas Scott was Justice-Clerk, whose death, in 1539, Knox has recorded: see page 69. Another Thomas Scott of Petgormo, probably a younger son of his brother Sir William, had a charter of the lands of Petgormo, confirmed 22d March 1551. I have some old deeds, between the years of 1570 and 1574, in some of which he is styled of Abbotshall, in others, of Petgormo. Sir Robert Carnegy, and Maister Gawane Hammiltoun; quha for faynting of the bretheris hairtis, and drawing many to the Queneis factioun against thair natyve cuntrey, have declairit thame selfis ennemeis to God, and traytouris to thair commune wealth. Bot abuiff all utheris Maister James Balfour, Officiall for the tyme, aucht to be abhoirrit; for he, of ane auld professoure, is becum ane new denyare of Christ Jesus, and manifest blasphemar of his eternall veritie, aganis his knawlege and conscience; seiking to betray his brethren and natyve cuntrey in the handis of ane crewell and unfaithfull natioun.

The answer to this former proclamatioun was maid in forme as followis:—

"To the Nobilitie, Burghis, and Communitie of this Realme of Scotland, the Lordis, Baronis, and utheris, Bretherin of the Christiane Congregatioun, wischis encrease of wisdome, with the advancement of the glorie of God, and of the Communwealth, &c. &c.

"The love of oure natyve cuntrey craifis, the defence of oure honouris requyreis, and the synceritie of oure conscienceis compellis us, (derrest Brethren,) to answer sum pairt to the last writtingis and proclamatiounis sett furth be the Queneis401 Grace Regent, no less to mak us and oure caus odiouse, than to abuse your simplicitie to youre finall destructioun, conspyreit of auld, and now alreaddy put to wark. And first, quhair sche allegeis certane seditious personeis have of malice inventit and blawin abrod diverse rumouris, [tending] thairby (as sche allegeis) to steir up the hartis of the pepill to seditioun, be reassone that the Frensche men ar croppin in of lait in our cuntrey; trew it is, (deir Brethren,) that all sick as beir naturall lufe to thair cuntrey, to yow, thair brethren, inhabitantis thairof, to our housses, wyffis, bairneis, the esperance of your posteratie, and schortlie to your commun-wealth, and the ancient lawis and libertieis thairof, can not bot in hart lament, with mowth and teiris complayne, the maist craftie assaultis devisit and practisit, to the utter rewyne of all thir thyngis foirnameit; and that sua manifestlie is gane to wark, that evin in our eyeis oure derrest brethren, trew memberis of oure commun-welth, ar maist crewellie oppressit by strangearis; in sa far that sum ar baneissit thair awin housses, sum robbit and spuilzeit of thair substance, conqueist by thair just laubouris in the sweit of thair browis; sum crewellie murtherit at the pleasour of thir inhumane souldiouris; and altogidder have thair lyvis in sick feir and dreddour, as gif the ennemy war in the myddis of thame; so that nathing can seme plesand unto thame, quhilk thay possess in the bowellis of thair natyve cuntrey; sa neir jugeis everie man, (and not but just caus,) the practise usit upoun thair brethren to approche nixt unto thame thair selffis, wyffeis, bairneis, housses, and substanceis, quhilk altogidder ar cassin at the feit of straingearis, men of weir, to be by thame thus abusit att thair unbrydillit lustis desyre. Now, if it be seditioun, (deir Brethren,) to complane, lament, and pour furth befoir God the sorrowis [and] sobbis of oure dolorouse hartis, crying to him for redress of thir enormyteis, (quhilk ellis quhair is not to be found;) and thir altogidder dois [proceid] of the402 unlauchfull halding of strange suldiouris over the heidis of oure brethren; gif this to complayne be sedition, then indeid, (deir Brethren,) can nane of us be purgeit of that cryme; for as in verray hart we dampne sick inhumayne creweltie, with the wickit and craftie pretence thairof, sua can we, nor dar we nott, neather be mouthis speiking, nor yitt by keiping of silence, justifie the same. Neather do we heir aggrege the breking of the Appointmentt maid at Leith, (quhilk alwayis hes manifestlie bene done;) bot quhan we remember quhat aith we have maid to our commun-welth, and how the dewatie we aucht to the same compellis us to cry outt, that hir Grace, be wickit and ungodlie counsall, gais maist craftelie about utterlie to oppress the same, and ancient lawis and libertieis thairof, alsweill aganeis the King of Francis promeise, hir awin dewatie, in respect of the heich promotionis that sche resavit thairby, quhilk justlie sould have caussit hir to have bene indeid that quhilk sche wald be callit, (and is nathing less in veritie,) to wit, ane cairfull mother ovir this commun-wealth; bot quhat motherlie cair sche hes usit towardis yow, ye can not be ignorant. LETT THE NOBILITIE JUGE HEIROF Haif ye nocht bene, evin frome the first entres of hir regne, ever smytit and oppressit with unaccustomit and exhorbitant taxatiounis, [more] than ever war usit within this realme? Yea, and how far was it socht heir to have bene brocht in upoun yow and your posteritie, under cullour to have bene laid up in stoir for the weiris? The inquisitioun tane of all your guidis, movable and immovabill, be way of testament; the seiking of the haill coill and saltt of this realme, to have bene laid up in stoir and gernall, and sche allane to have bene merchant thairof, dois teache yow be experience sum of her motherlie cair.

"Agane, Quhat cair ower your commun-wealth dois hir Grace instantlie beir, quhan evin now presentlie, and of ane lang tyme bygane, be the ministerie of sum, (quha better deserve the gallowis, than ever did Cochrane,923923See note 197.) sche dois sua403 corrupt the layit924924In the MS. "laid;" Vautr. edit. has "laied money;" MS. G, "layit mony." In September 1554, the Treasurer delivered to an English miner, "aucht unce of siluer, to mak ane assay of siluer and layit mony." In 1587, it is called "allayed" (alloyed) money. money, and lies brocht it in sick basenes, and sic quantatie of scruiff, that all men that hes thair eyis oppin may persaif ane extreme beggarie to be brocht thairthrow upoun the haill realme, swa that the haill exchange and traffique to be had with forane natiounis, (ane thing maist necessarie in all commun-wealthis,) sall thairby be utterlie extinguissitt; and all the ganeis resavit thairby is, that sche thairwith intertenis strangearis upoun oure heidis. For, Brethren, ye knaw that hir money hes servit for na uther purpoise in our commun-wealth this lang tyme bigane; and the impunitie of thir wickit ministeris, (quhame laitlie we spak of,) hes brocht the mater to sick ane licentious enormitie, and plane contempt of the commun-wealth, that now thay spair not planelie to brek doun and convert the guid and stark money, cunzeit in our Soveraneis less age, into this thair corruptit skruiff and baggage of Hard-heidis and Non Suntis,925925During the minority of Queen Mary, great quantities of base money had been struck, or brought from France and Flanders, and obtaining circulation, had the effect of raising the prices of provisions and other necessaries in this country. Many enactments were made in regard to the currency at this time, apparently without much effect; at length, in the year 1574, all such money was called in by public proclamation, to prevent the further circulation of false, counterfeit, and clipped money. The particular kinds here named, were Hard-heads, or Lions, a small coin with the royal cypher crowned, on one side, and a Lion rampant on the other. The Non Sunts, so called in Acts of Parliament, had the arms of Francis and Mary, mostly bearing the date 1559. This name was given them from the legend, on the obverse, iam. non. svnt. dvo. sed. vna. caro. The comparative value of these coins is determined by an Act of Parliament, December 1567, by which "all Non Sunts were proclamit to 6d., Bawbies to 3d., Plakis to 2d., and Hard-heidis to half-penyis; and the penneis to stand as thai ar."—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 43; Lindsay's Coinage of Scotland, p. 239.) maist lyik that sche and thay had conspyreit to destroy all the haill gud cunzey of LETT SIR ROBERT RICHARTSOUN, AND UTHERIS,926926See page 372. ANSWER TO THIS this realme, and consequentlie that pairt of the commun-wealth. Besydeis all this, thair clyppit404 and rowngeit soussis,927927In MS. G, "thair clippit and rongit sollis." Vautr. edit. has "clippit and rounged souses." That is, clipped or ronged sols or sous, (a kind of small French money well known,) worn away, or reduced in size by a file: the sou being equivalent to 10 centimes, and 10 sous to a franc. quhilk had no passage thir three yeiris past in the realme of France, ar commandit to have course in this realme, to gratifie thairby hir new cumit suldiouris. And all thir thingis togidder, ar done without the avise or consent of the Nobilitie and Counsall of this realme, and manifestlie thairthrow, against our ancient lawis and liberteis.

"Thridlie, Hir last and maist wechty proceiding, mair fullie declairis hir motherlie cair hir Grace beiris to our commun-wealth and us, quhan in tyme of peace, but any occatioun of forane weiris, thowsandis of strangearis ar layd heir and thair upoun the neckis of our pure memberis of this commun-wealth; thair idill bellyis fed upoun the pure substance of the communitie, conqueist by thair just laubouris in the panefull sueit of thair browis. Quhilk to be trew, Dumbar, North-Berwick, Tranent, Prestounpanis, Mussilburgh, Leith, Cannogait, Kingorne, Kirkcaldy, Dysert, with the depauperat saullis that this day dwell thairin, can testifie; quhais oppressioun, as doutless it is enterit in befoir the justice sait of God, sa aucht it justlie to move oure hartis to have reuth and compassioun upoun thir oure pure brethren, and at oure poweris to provide remedy for the same. And albeit hir strangearis had bene garneissit with money, (as ye knaw weill thay war nott,) yitt can thair heir lying be na wayis bot maist hurtfull to our commun-wealth, seing that the fertilitie of this realme hes never bene sa plenteouse, that it was abill of any continewance to sustene the self, and inhabitantis thairof, without support of forane cuntreis; far less abill, besydeis the same, to susteane thowsandis of strangeris quhairwith it is burdenit, to the derthing of all viweris,928928In MS. G, "derthning of all victuillis;" Vautr. edit. has "vivaris." as the murmour and complaint405 of Edinburgh this day dois testifie. Bot to quhat effect the commun-wealth is this way burdenit, the end dois declair; for schortlie war thair brocht to the feyldis against our Soveraneis trew liegeis, even us youre Brethren, quha, (God knawis,) socht not ellis bot peace of conscience, under protectioun of oure Soverane, and reformatioune of thir enormiteis, for na uther caus bot that we wald nott renunce the Evangell of Jesus Chryst, and subdew oure neckis under the tyranie of that man of syn, the Romane Antichrist, and his foirsworne schavillingis, quha at all tymeis moist tyrannicalie oppressit oure saullis with hunger of Goddis trew word, and reft oure guidis and substanceis, to waist the same upoun thair foull lustis and stynking harlottis.

"Bot, (O deir Brethren,) this was nocht the cheif pretence and finall scope of hir proceidingis, (as thir dayis do weill declair;) for had not God gevin in oure hartis to withstand that oppressioun with weaponis of maist just defence, thow, O Sanct Johnestoun and Dundie, had bene in na better estait nor youre sister of Leyth is this day. For thocht we in verray deid (God is witnes) menit then na thing bot, in the simplicitie of oure hartis, the mentenance of trew religioun, and saiftie of oure brethren professouris of the same, yit lay thair ane uther serpent lurking in the breist of our adversareis, as this day, (prayse to God,) is planelie oppinnit to all that list behald, to witt, to bring yow and us baith under the perpetuall servitude of strangearis; for we being appointit, as ye knaw, tuiching religioun to be reassonit in the Counsall at the day affixt, and na occatioun maid to brek the same on our syde, (as is weill knawin,) yitt come thair furth writtingis and complayntis, that this day and that day we war prepairit to invaid hir Graceis persone, (quhan in verray treuth thair was never sic thing thocht, as the verray deid hes declairit;) bot becaus sche was befoir deliberatt to bryng in Frensche men to bayth oure destructionis, that ye sould nott stur thair406with, sche maid yow to understand, that thay bandis came onlie for the saiftie of hir awin persone. O craft, Brethren! O subtiltie! Bot behald the end. THE CAUS OF THE FRENCHE MENIS CUMING WITH WYFFIS AND BAIRNEIS Thay ar cum, (yitt not sa mony, na, not the saxt pairt that sche desyreit and lukit for,) and how?929929In MS. G, "and how are they cum?" Not onlie with weaponis to defend hir Graceis persone, bot with wyffis and bairneis, to plant in youre natyve rowmeis,930930In MS. G, "townes;" in Vautr. edit. "roomes." as thay have alreddy begun in the toun of Leith, the principall port and stapill of all this realme, the gernall and furnitour of the Counsall and Sait of Justice: and heir will thay duell, quhill thay may rainforce thame with greitar nomber of thair fallow suldiouris, to subdew than the rest, gif God withstand not. And yitt hir Grace feirit nor eschamit not to write, 'Gif thay war ane hundreth Frensche men for everie ane of thame that is in Scotland, yitt thay sould harme na man.' Tell thow now, Leith! gif that be trew: gif this be not ane crafty entrie to ane manifest conqueist, foirthocht of auld, juge yow, deir Brethren! Thus to forte our tounis, and evin the principall port of our realme, and to lay sa strang garnisouns931931In the other copies "garrisouns." of straingearis thairin, without any consent of the Nobilitie and Counsall of this realme, bot expres aganeis thair mynd, (as our writtingis send to hir Grace beiris record,) gif this be not to oppres the ancient lawis and libertieis of oure realme, lett all wise men say to it.932932In MS. G, "see to it;" in Vautr. edit. as above. And farther, to tak the barne-yairdis new gatherrit, the gernallis replenischeit, the houssis garnissit, and to sitt doun thairin, and be force to putt the just possessouris and ancient inhabitantis thairfra, with thair wyffis, bairneis, and servandis, to schyft [for] thame selfis in begging, gif thair be na uthir meaneis, thay being trew Scottis men, memberis of our commun-wealth, and our deir brethren and sisteris, borne, fosterit, and brocht up in the bowellis of oure commune and natyve407 cuntrey: gif this be not the manifest declaratioun of thair auld pretence and mynd to the haill Scottis natioun, lett your awin conscience, (Brethren,) be juge heirin. Was all Leith of the Congregatioun? Na, I think nott; yitt war all alyk servit.

"Let this motherlie cair than be tryit be the fruttis thairof: First, Be the greit and exhorbitant taxatiounis usit upoun yow, and yitt ten tymeis greittar preissit at, as ye knaw. Secundlie, The utter depravatioun of our counzie, to conqueiss tharby money to interteyne strangearis, Frensche suldiouris, upoun yow, to mak thame strong haldis, leist ye sould sumtyme expell thame out of your natyve rowmeis.933933In MS. G, "realme;" in Vautr. edit. "roomes." Thridlie, Be the daylie rainforceing of the said Frensche souldiouris, in strenth and nomber, with wyffis and bairneis, planting in your brethrenis houssis and possessiouns. Indeid, hir Grace is, and lies bene at all tymes cairfull to procure be hir craft of fair wordis, fair promeissis, and sumtyme buddis, to allure your simplicitie to that poynt, to joyne your self to hir suldiouris, to dantoun and oppres us, that ye the remanent, (we being cut of,) may be ane easie pray to hir slychtis, quhilk God, of infinite gudnes, lies now discoveritt to the eyeis of all that list to behald. Bot credeit the warkis, (deir Brethren,) gif ye will not creddeit us; and lay the exampill of forane natiouns, yea, of your awin brethren, befoir your eyis and procure not your awin rewyne willinglie. Yff ye tender trew religioun, ye see how hir Grace beiris hir[self] plane ennemy thairto, and mentenis the tyrannie of thair idill bellies, the Bischopis, aganeis Godis Kirk. Giff religioun be nott perswaidit unto yow, yit cast ye not away the cair ye aucht to have ower your commun-welth, quhilk ye see manifestlie and violentlie rewyneit befoir your eyis. Gif this will nott move yow, remember your deir wyffis, children, and posteratie, your ancient heretageis and houssis;408 and think weill thir strangearis will regaird na mair your rycht thairunto, than thay have done your brethrenis of Leyth, quhan ever occatioun sall serve. Bot gif ye purpoise, as we dout not bot that all thay that ather haif wit or manheid will declair and prove indeid, to bruik your ancient rowmeis and heretageis, conquerit maist valiantlie, and defendit be your maist nobill progenitouris against all strangearis, invaidaris or the same, as the Frenscheis pretendis planelie this day; gif ye will not he slavis unto thame, and to have your liffis, your wiffis, your bairnes, your substance, and quhatsoever is deir unto yow, cassin at thair feitt, to be usit and abusit at the plesour of strange suldiouris, as ye see your brethrenis at this day befoir your eyeis; gif ye will not have experience sum day heirof in your awin personeis, (as we suppone the least of yow wald not glaidlie have, bot rather wald chuse with honour to die in defence of his awin natyve rowme, than leif and serve sa schamefull ane servitud;) than, Brethren, let us joyne our forceis, and baith with witt and manheid resist thir begynningis, or ellis our libertieis heirefter sall be deirar bocht. ANE PROVERB Lett us surelie934934In MS. G, "further." be perswaidit, 'Quhan our nychtbouris house be on fyre, that we duell nott without daingear.'935935"Quhen thy neighbours house is on fire, take tent to thy awn."—("Scottish Proverbs: Gathered together by David Fergusson, sometime Minister at Dunfermline," &c. Edinburgh, 1641, 4to.) Lett na man withdraw himself heirfra: and gif any will be sa unhappy and myschevous, (as we suppone nane to be,) let us altogidder reput, hald, and use him, (as he is indeid,) for ane ennemy to us, and to him self, and to his commun-weill. The eternall and omnipotent God, the trew and onlie revengear of the oppressit, be oure confort and oure protectour against the fury and raige of the tyrantis of this warld; and especiallie frome the insaciabill covetousnes of the Guisianeis936936In MS. G, "Guysianis;" in Vautr. edit. "Guisians." generatioun. Amen."

Besydis this, our publict letter, sum men answerit certane heidis of hir proclamatioun on this maner:—


"Gyff it be seditious to speik the treuth in all sobrietie, and to complayne quhan thay ar woundit, or to call for help against unjust tyrannie befoir that thair throttis be cutt, than can we not deny, bot we ar criminall and giltie of tumult and seditioun. For we have said that our commun-wealth is oppressit, that we and our brethren ar hurt be the tyrrannie of strangearis, and that we feir bondage and slaverie, seing that multitudeis of cruell murtheraris ar daylie brocht in our cuntrey, without our counsall, or knawlege and consent. We dispuit not sa mekill quhidder the bringing in of ma Frensche men be violating of the Appointment, (quhilk the Quene nor hir factioun can not deny to be manifestlie brokin be thame, in ma caisses than ane,) as that we wald knaw, gif the heipping of strangearis upoun strangearis above us, without our counsall or consent, be ane thing that may stand with the libertie of our realme, and with the proffitt of our commun wealth. It is not unknawin to all men of jugement, that the fruitis of our cuntrey, in the maist commun yeiris, be na mair than sufficient reassonabill to nureis the borne inhabitantis of the same. Bot now, seing that we have bene vexit with weiris, taikin upoun us at the plesour of France, by the quhilk the maist fruttfull portioun of our cuntrey in corneis hes bene waistit; quhatt man is sa blynd bot that he may see, that sic bandis of ungodlie and idill suldiouris can be na thing ellis bot ane occatioun to fameis our pure brethren? and in this poynt we refuise nott, (quhilk is the cheif,) the jugement of all naturall Scottis men."

The Quene Regent allegeit, "That althocht thair war ane hundreith Frensche men for ane in Scotland, yitt sche is not myndit to trubill any in his just possessioun." Quhairto we answer, "That we disput not quhat sche intendis, (quhilk nochttheless, be probabill conjectouris, is to be suspectit;) bot410 alwayis we affirme, that sick ane multitude of Frensche men is ane burding, not onlie unproffitabill, bot alssua intollerabill to this pure realme, especiallie being intreatit as thay ar be hir and Monsieur Dosell; for gif thair waigeis be payit out of France, than ar thay baith (the Quene, we say, and Monsieur Dosell,) traytouris to the Kyng and Counsall; for the pure communis of this realme have sustenit thame with the sweit of thair browis, sence the contracting of the peace, and sumquhat befoir.

"Quhat motherlie effectioun sche hes declairit to this realme, and to the inhabitantis of the same, hir warkis have evidentlie declairit, evin sence the first houre that sche hes borne authoritie; and albeit men will not this day see quhat daingear hyngis over thair heidis, yitt feir we, that or it be long, experience sall teich sum that we feir not without cause. The crewell murthar and oppressioun usit be thame quham now sche fosteris, is till us ane sufficient argument, quhatt is to be luikit for, quhan hir nomber is sa multipleit, that oure force sall not be abill to gainestand thair tyranie.

"Quhair sche complenis of our Prechearis, affirmyng that irreverentlie thay speik of Princeis in generall, and of hir in particular, induceingTHE DOCTRINE OF OUR PRECHARIS CONCERNING OBEDIENCE TO BE GEVIN TO MAGISTRATTIS.937937In MS. G, "gevin to Princes." the pepill thairby to defectioun frome thair dewatie, &c., and thairfor that sick thing can nott be sufferit: Becaus this occatioun is had aganis938938In MS. G, "Becaus this accusatioun is layd against;" Vautr. edit. has, "Because this occasion is layd against." Godis trew Ministeris, we can not bot witnes quhat tred and ordour of doctrine thay have keipitt and yitt keip in that poynt. In publict prayeris thay commend to God all Princeis in generall, and the Magistrattis of this our natyve realme in particular. In oppin audience thay declair the auctoratie of Princeis and Magistratis to be of God; and thairfoir thay affirme, that thay aucht to be honourit, feirit, obeyit, evin for conscience saik; providit that thay command nor requyre nathing expreslie411 repugning to Godis commandiment and plane will, reveillit in his holy worde. Mairover, thay affirme, that gif wickit personeis, abusing the auctoratie estableischet be God, command thingis manifestlie wickit, that sick as may and do brydill thair inordinatt appetyteis of Princeis, can not be accusit as resistaris of the aucthoratie, quhilk is Godis gud ordinance. To brydill the fury and raige of Princeis in free kingdomes and realmeis, thay affirme it appertenis to the Nobilitie, sworne and borne Counsallouris of the same, and allsua to the Barronis and Pepill, quhais voteis and consent ar to be requyreit in all greit and wechty materis of the commun-welth. Quhilk gif thay do not, thay declair thame selffis criminall with thair Princeis, and sa subject to the same vengeance of God, quhilk thay deserve, for that thay pollute the sait of justice, and do, as it war, mak God author of iniquytie. Thay proclame and thay cry, that the same God quha plaigit Pharoo, repulsit Senacherib, struik Herod with wormes, and maid the bellies of dogis the grave and sepulchrie of despytefull Jesabell, will nott spair the crewell Princeis, murtheraris of Chrystis memberis in this our tyme. On this maner thay speik of Princeis in generall, and of youre Grace in particular. LETT SICK AS THIS DAY LEIF WITNES QUHAT GOD HES WROCHT SINCE THE WRYTTING AND PUBLICATIOUN HEIROF.939939This marginal note occurs both in MS. G, and in Vautr. edit.; but MS. G, makes it, "Let sick as this day live, witness if God hes wrocht since the writting of this."—The precise time when this note was written is doubtful, as several leaves of the original MS., (folios 137 to 158,) corresponding with pages 381 to 432 of the present edition, seem to have been rewritten, after 1566, but before Knox's death, in 1572, and in all probability in the hand of his Secretary, Richard Bannatyne. In this portion of the MS. the colour of the ink, &c., resembles the latter part of Book Fourth; but it exhibits a peculiar orthography, and is transcribed with much less accuracy than usual. This onlie we have hard ane of oure Prechearis say, rebuiking the vane excuise of sick as flatter thame selffis, be reassone of the auctoratie; 'Many now a dayis, (said he,) will have na uther religioun nor faith than the Quene and the authoratie hes.'940940In MS. G, "haldis;" in Vautr. edit. "had." Bot is it [not] posseble, that the Quene be sa far blyndit412 that sche will haif na religioun, nor na uther fayth, than may content to the Cardinall of Lorane? and may it nott lykwyise be abill, that the Cardinall be sua corrupt, that he will admitt na religioun quhilk dois nott establische the Paip in his kingdome: Bot plane it is, that the Paip is lievetenent to Sathan, and ennemy to Chryst Jesus, and to his perfyte religioun. Lett men thairfoir considder quhat daingear thay stand in, gif thair salvatioun sall depend upoun the Queneis faith and religioun. Farder we have never hard any of oure Prechearis speik of the Quene Regent, nether publictlie nor privatlie. Quhair hir Grace declairis, 'It will nocht be sufferit that oure prechearis mell with policie, nor speik of hir nor of uther Princeis bot with reverence,' we answer, 'That as we will justifie and defend nathing in oure prechearis, quhilk we fynd not God to have justifeit and allowit in his messingeris befoir thame; sua dar we not forbid thame oppinlie to reprehend that quhilk the Spreit of God, speiking in the Propheitis and THE PROPHETTIS HAIF MIDDILLIT WITH POLICEY, AND HIS REPROVIT THE CORRUPTIOUN THAIROF Apostillis, hes reprehendit befoir thame. Helias did personallie reprove Achab and Jesabell of idolatrie, of avarice, of murther; and sicklik Esaias the Propheit callitt the magistrattis of Jerusalem in his tymeis companzeounis to thevis, princeis of Sodome, brybe-takeris, and murtheraris: He complenit that thair silver was turnit in to dross, that thair wyne was myngleit with watter, and that justice was bocht and sauld. Jeremias said, 'That the baneis of King Jehoiakim sould widder with the sone.' Christ Jesus callit Herod a fox; and Paul callit the Hie Preist ane payntit wall, and prayit unto God that he sould strike him, because that against justice he commandit him to be smyttin. Now gif the lyk or greittar corruptiounis be in the warld this day, quha dar interprise to put silence to the Spreit of God, quhilk [will] not be subject941941In the MS. "subjit." to the appetyteis of wickit Princeis?"

THE CUMING OF THE ERLE OF ARRANE TO SCOTLAND, AND HIS JOYNING413 WITH THE CONGREGATIOUN.942942In MS. G, this marginal note reads, "The hame cuming of the Erie of Arran out of France."

We have befoir said, that the tent day of September was appointit for ane Conventioun to be haldin at Striveling, to the quhilk repairit the maist pairt of the Lordis of the Congregatioun. At that same tyme arryvitt the Erle of Arrane, quha, efter that he had salutit his Father, came with the Erie of Ergyle and Lord James to Striviling to the said Conventioun. In quhilk diverse godlie men complenit upoun the tyrranie usit against thair brethren, and especiallie that ma Frensche men wer brocht in to oppress thair cuntrey. Efter the consultatioun of certane dayis, the principall Lordis, with my Lord of Arrane and Erie of Ergyle, past to Hammyltoun, for consultatioun to be taikin with my Lord Duikis Grace. And in this menetyme came assureit word that the Frensche men war begun to fortifie Leith; quhilk thing, as it did mair evidentlie discover943943In the MS. "discryve;" Vautr. edit. and MS. G, have "discover." the Queneis craft, sua did deiplie greiff the hartis of the haill Nobilitie thair, quha, with ane consentt, aggreit to write unto the Quene, in forme as followis:—


"At Hammyltoun, the xix944944In Vautr. edit. "the xxix day." day of September 1559.

"Pleise Your Grace,

"We ar credibillie informeit, that your army of Frensche men sould instantlie begin to plant in Leith, to fortifie the same, of mynd to expell the ancient inhabitants thairof, our brethren of the Congregatioun; quhairof we marvell not a littill, that your Grace sould sua manifestlie brek the Appointment maid at Leith, but ony provocatioun maid be us and our brethren. And seing the samyn is done without ony maner consent of the Nobilitie and Counsale of this realme, we esteme the same nocht onlie oppressioun of our pure brethren, indwellaris of the said town, bot allsua verray prejudiciall to the commun-wealth, and playne contrair to oure414 ancient lawis and libertieis: Heirfoir desyreis your Grace to caus the samyn warke interprysit, be stayit; and nott to attempt sua raschlie and manifestlie against your Graceis promeis, against the commun-wealth, the ancient lawis and libertieis thairof, (quhilk thingis, besyde the glorie of God, ar maist deir and tender unto us, and onlie our pretence;) utherwayis, assuring your Grace, we will complayne to the haill Nobilitie and Communitie of this realme, and maist eirnistlie seik for redress thairof. And thus, recommending oure humyll service unto youre Hienes, your Graceis answer maist eirnistlie we desire, quham we committ to the eternall protectioun of God.

"At Hammyltoun, day and yeir forsaid. Be youre Graceis humyll and obedient Servitouris."

(This letter was subscrivit with the handis of my Lord Duik, the Erie of Arrane, Argyle, Glencairne, and Menteith; be the Lordis Ruthwen, Uchiltre, Boyd, and by utheris diverse, Barronis and Gentilmen.)—To this requeist sche wald nott answer be writt, bot with ane letter of creddeit sche send Sir Robert Carnegy945945Robert Carnegy of Kynnaird, in Fife, was the son of John Carnegy, who was killed at Floddon. On the 4th July 1547, he was nominated a Lord of Session.—(Senators of the College of Justice, p. 90.) He was sent to England in 1548, to treat for the ransom of the Earl of Huntley, Lord Chancellor, who had been taken prisoner at the Battle of Pinkie. In 1549 and 1550, Carnegy filled the office of "Clerk of our Soueraine Ladyis Thesaurar," for which he had a yearly pension of £26, 13s. 4d.—(Treasurer's Accounts.) In February 1551-2, the Treasurer paid "to Robert Carnegy, for his expensis passand to France and England, in our Soueraine Ladyis and my Lord Governouris service, quhen he remanit the space of xv weekis, in iiijc crounis of the sone, vc lib." (£500.)—He was frequently employed in public negotiations; and had the honour of knighthood conferred on him for his services. and Maister David Boirthick,946946Mr. David Borthwick of Lochill, Advocate, will be afterwards noticed. In 1578, he became Lord Advocate, and one of the Judges in the Court of Session. tua, quham amangis many utheris, sche abusit, and by quham sche corruptit the hartis of the sempill. They travellit with the Duik, to bring415 him agane to the Queneis factioun. La Broche and the Bischop of Amiance were schort befoir arryvit; and, as it was brutit, war directit as ambassadouris; bot thay keipitt cloise thair haill commissioun: Thay onlie maid large promeisses to thame that wald be thairis, and leif the Congregatioun. The Quene did grevouslie complayne, that we haid intelligence with Ingland. THE PETITIOUN OF LABROCHE The conclusioun of thair commissioun was to solist my Lord Duike to put all in the Queneis will, and than wald sche be gratious aneuch. THE ANSWER It was answerit, "That na honest men durst committ thame selfis to the mercie of sick thrott-cuttaris947947In MS. G, "cut-throattis." as sche had about hir; quham, gif sche wald remove, and joyne to hir ane Counsall of naturall Scottismen, permitting the religioun to have fre passage, than sould nane in Scotland be mair willing to serve hir Grace than sould the Lordis and Brethren of the Congregatioun be."

At the same tyme, the Duik his Grace and the Lordis wrait to my Lord Erskin, Capitane of Castell of Edinburgh, in forme as followis:

"My Lord and Cousing,

"Efter oure hartlie commendatioun, this present is to adverteise yow,LETTER TO THE LORD ERSKIN. that we ar credibillie informeit, the army of Frensche men instantlie in this realme, but ony avise of the Counsale of Nobilitie, ar fortifieand, of ellis schortlie intendis to fortifie the town of Leith, and expell the ancient inhabitantis thairof; quhairby thay proclame to all that will oppin thair eiris to heir, or ene to se, quhat is thair pretence. And seing the faithfulnes of youre antecessouris, and especiallie of your Father, of honorabill memorie, was sa recommendit and experimentit to the Estaitis and Counsallouris of this realme, throwch affectioun thay persawit in him towartis the commun-wealth thairof, that thay doubtit not to gif in his keiping the key, as it war, of the Counsall, the Justice, and Policey of this416 realme, the Castellis of Edinburgh and Striveling;948948The charge of the royal family became a kind of hereditary employment for the Erskines of Mar. John, fourth Lord Erskine, had the keeping of James the Fifth in his youth; and was appointed Governor of Stirling Castle. In May 1525, he had a charter constituting him and his heirs Captain and Constable of the Castle of Stirling. He was likewise one of two noblemen to whom the charge of Queen Mary, in her infancy, was entrusted. He was afterwards made Keeper of Edinburgh Castle, and died in 1552. He was succeeded by his third son, John fifth Lord Erskine, (as already noticed at page 213,) both in his title and heritable offices. When the Duke of Chatelherault resigned the Regency to the Queen Dowager, the Castle of Edinburgh was put in the hands of Lord Erskine. In 1559, as Governor of this important fortress, he maintained a strict neutrality between the two contending parties, as Knox mentions at the beginning of Book Third of his History. And James the Sixth, while yet an infant, was entrusted to his care. we can not bot beleif ye will rather augment the honorabill favoure of your housse, be steidfast favour and lawtie to your commun-wealth, than throuch the subtell persuatioun of sum, (quhilk cair not quhat efter sail cum of yow and your house,) at the present wald abuse yow, to the performance of thair wickit interprysis and pretensis against oure commun-wealth, utterlie to destroy the same. And heirfoir, seing that we haif writtin to the Queneis Grace, to desist fra that interpryse, utherwise that we will complane to the Nobilitie and Communitie of the realme, and seik redress thairof. We lykwise beseik yow, as our tender freynd, brother, and member of the same commun-wealth with us, that ye on na wayis mell or assent to that ungodlie interpryise aganeis the commun-wealth; and lykwyise, that ye wald saif your body, and the jewell of this countrey commitit to yow and your predicessouris lawtie and fidelitie toward youre natyve countrey and commun-wealth, gif ye think to be repute heirefter ane of the samyn, and wald rather be brother to us, nor to strangers; for we do gather by the effectis, the secreitis of menis hartis, utherwayis inserceabill unto us. This we write, nott that we ar in dout of yow, bot rather to wairne yow of the daingear, in caise ye thoill your self to be enchantit with fair promeissis and craftie coun417salouris. For lett na man flatter him selff: We desyre all man [to] knaw, that thocht he war our father, (sen God hes oppinnit oure eyes to se his will,) be he ennemy to the commun-wealth, quhilk now is assailzeit, and we with it, and all trew memberis thairof, he sall be knawin (and as he is in deid) ennemy to us, to oure lyvis, housses, babis, heretageis, and quhat sumevir is contenit within the same. For as the schip perischeing, quhat can be saif that is within?949949In MS. G, "within it." Sua the commun-wealth being betrayit, quhat particular member can leif in quyetnes? And thairfoir in sa far as the saidis Castellis ar commitit to your credeitt, we desyre yow to schaw youre faithfulnes and stoutnes, as ye tender us, and quhatsumevir appertenis to us. And seing we ar assureit ye will be assailzeit bayth with craft and force, as now be wairnyng we help yow against the first, sua against the last ye sall not myss in all possibill haist to have oure assistance. Onlie schaw your selff the man. Saiff your persone by wisdome, strenth your selff against force, and the Almychtie God assist yow in baith the ane and the uther, and oppin youre eyis950950In Vautr. edit. "your eyis of." understanding, to see and persaif the craft of Sathan and his suppoistis.

"At Hammyltoun, the xix day951951In Vautr. edit. "the 29 day." of September 1559. Be your Brethren, &c."


The Duike and Lordis understanding that the fortificatioun of Leith proceidit, appointit thair haill forceis to convene at Striviling the xv day of October, that frome thence thai mycht marche fordwart to Edinburgh, for the redress of the greit enormyteis quhilk the Frensche did to the haill cuntrey, quhilk be thame was sua oppressitt that the lyfe of all honest man952952In the other MSS. "men." was bitter unto him.

In this meintyme, the Lordis directit thair letteris to418 diverse pairtis of the cuntrey, makand mentioun quhat dangear did hing ower all men, giff the Frensche sould be sufferit to plant in this cuntrey at thair plesoure. Thay maid mentioun farder, how humblie thay had socht the Queue Regent, that sche wald send away to France hir Frensche men, quha war ane burding unproffitable and grevous to thair commun-wealth; and how that sche nochtwithstanding did daylie augment hir nomber, brynging wyffis and bairneis; a declaratioun of ane plane conqueist, &c.

The Quene, than Regent, perseving that hir crafte began to be espiit, be all meaneis possebill travellit to blynd the pepill. And first, sche send furth hir pestilent postis foirnameit in all pairtis of the cuntrey, to perswaid all man that sche offerit all thingis reassonabill to the Congregatioun; and that thay refusing all reassoun, pretendit na religioun, bot ane plane revolt frome the Authoratie. Sche temptit every man in particular, alse weill thay that war of the Congregatioun, as thame that war neutrallis. Sche assaultit everie man, as sche thocht maist easelie he mycht have bene ovircum. To the Lord Ruthven sche send the Justice Clerk and his wiff, quhn, is dochter to the wife953953Sir John Bellenden of Auchinoul, who, for thirty years, from 1547, was Justice-Clerk, appears to have been twice married. The above reference is to his first wife; and from a charter dated 12th May 1559, we learn that her name was Barbara Kennedy. She was thus the daughter of Sir Hugh Kennedy of Girvan-mains, by Lady Janet Stewart, eldest daughter of John second Earl of Atholl, who was killed at Floddon in 1513. This lady was four times married: first, to Alexander Master of Sutherland, who died in 1529; then, in 1532, to Sir Hugh Kennedy; next, in 1545, to Henry Lord Methven, who was killed at Pinkie in 1547. Her fourth husband was Patrick Lord Ruthven; and in a charter, granted in the prospect of this marriage in 1557, she is styled Lady Methven. She was Lord Ruthven's second wife, and probably survived him. Sir John Bellenden's second wife, according to a charter, 20th July 1574, was Janet Seyton. She survived him, as we learn from his Confirmed Testament: he having died on the 6th October 1576.—(Register of Conf. Test., &c., vol. vi. 19th August 1578.) of the said Lord. Quhat was thair commissioun and creddeit, is na farther knawin than the said Lord hes confessit, quhilk is, that large promeisses of419 proffitt was offerrit, gif he wald leiff the Congregatioun and be the Queneis. To Lord James, Priour of Sanctandrois, was send Maister Johnne Spense of Condy, with ane letter and creddeit, as followis:—

"The Memoriall of Maister Johnne Spense of Condy,954954He was the son of John Spens of Condie, in the county of Perth, and was born about the year 1520. He was educated at St. Andrews, and became a Determinant, in St. Salvator's College, in 1543. In 1549, he was one of nine Advocates selected by the Court of Session, to procure before them in all actions. He was joined with Henry Lauder as Advocate to our Soueraine Lady, in 1558, and had the salary of £40; and on Lauder's death in 1560, he became his successor, and at the same time was raised to the Bench. He joined the Reformers, and is frequently noticed in the proceedings of the General Assembly. the thretty day of September.

"1. Ye sall say, that hir955955In MS. G, "that the Quenis Grace favour." greit favour towartis yow movis hir to this.

"2. That sche now knawis, that the occatioun of your depairting frome hir was the favoure of the word and of religioun; with the quhilk albeit sche was offendit, yitt knawing your hart and the hartis of the uther Lordis firmelie fixit thairupoun, sche will beir with yow in that behalf, and at youre awin sychtis sche will sett fordwart that caus at hir power, as may stand with Goddis word, the commun policey of this realme, and the Princeis honour. (Note, Gud reiddar, quhat vennoum lurkis heir; for plane it is, that the policey quhilk sche pretendit, and the Princeis honour, will never suffer Christ Jesus to ring in this realme.)

"3. To say, that the occasioun of the assembling of thir men of weir, and fortifeing of Leith, is, that it was gevin hir to understand be sum about hir, that it is not the advancement of the word and religioun quhilk is socht at this tyme, bot rather ane pretense to owerthraw, or alter the authoratie of your Sister, of the quhilk sche belevis still that ye ar nott420 participant; and considdering the tendernes betuix yow and your Sister, sche trestis mair in yow in that behalf than in any leving. LETT THIS BE NOTIT, O CRAFTIE FLATTERIE!956956In Vautr edit. "craftie flatterer:" in MS. G, this marginal note is omitted. (Bot befoir the Erle of Arrane arryvit, and that the Duke depairtit frome hir factioun, sche ceassit not contynewallie to cry, that the Priour socht to mak him self King; and sua not onlie to depryve his sister to mak him selff King, bot alssua to defraude the Lordis Duikeis Grace and his housse: bot foirseing ane storme, sche began to seik ane new wynd.)

"Sche farther willit, to offer the way-sending of the men of weir, gif the former suspitioun could be removit. Sche lamentit the trubill that appeirit to follow gif the mater sould lang stand in debait. Sche promeist hir faithfull laubouris for reconciliatioun, and requyreit the samyn of him; requiring farther, faith, favour, and kyndnes, towartis his Sister; and to adverteise for his pairt quhat he desyreit, with promeise that he mycht obtene quhat he plesit to desyre, &c."

To this letter and creddeit, the said Lord James answerit as followis:—

"Pleise youre Grace,

"I resavit your Hienes writting, and have hard the creddeit of the beirar; and fynding the busynes of sick importance, that daingerouse it war to gif haistie answer, and alssua your petitionis ar sua, that with my honour I can nott answer thame privatlie be my selff: I have thocht guid to delay the same till that I may have the jugement of the haill Counsall. For this poynt I will not conceill frome youre Grace, that amangis us thair is ane solempnit aith, that nane of us sall trafique with youre Grace secreitlie; nether yitt that any of us sall mak ane [ad]dress for him selff particularlie; quhilk aith, for421 my pairt, I purpoise to keip inviolatit to the end. Bot quhan the rest of the Nobillmen sall convene, I sall leif nathing that lyis in my power undone that may mak for the quyetnes of this pure realme, providing that the glorie of Christ Jesus be nott hinderit by oure concord. And gif youre Grace sall be found sua tractabill as now ye offer, I doutt nott to obteyne of the rest of my brethren sick favouris towartis youre service, as youre Grace sall have just occatioun to stand content. For God I tak to record, that in this actioun I have nether socht, nether yitt seikis, any uther thing than Godis glorie to encrease, and the libertie of this pure957957In MS. G, and Vautr. edit. "poore." realm to be mentenit. Farther, I have schawin to youre messinger quhat thingis have myslykeit me in youre proceidingis, evin frome sick ane hart as I wald wysche to God ye and all men did knaw. And this with hartlie commendatioun of service to youre Grace, I hartlie commit your Hienes to the eternall protectioun of the Omnipotent.

"At Sanctandrois, the first of October.

(Sic subscribitur,)

"Your Graceis humyll and obedient servitour,
J. St."958958In MS. G, the name is written in full, "James Stewart;" in Vautr. edit. it is contracted as above, "J. St."

This answer resaivet, sche raigeit as hypocrasie usis, quhan it is prickit; and persaving that sche could nott wirk quhat sche wald at the handis of men particularie, sche sett furth ane Proclamatioun, universallie to be proclameit, in the tennour as followis:—

"Forsamekle as it is understand to the Queneis Grace, that the Duke of Chastellerault hes laitlie directit his missyveis in all pairtis of this realme, makand mentioun that the Frensche men lait arryvit, with thair wyffis and bairneis, ar422 [begunne]959959This word, omitted in the MS., is supplied from Vautr. edit. to plant in Leith, to the rewyne of the commun-welth, quhilk he and his pairttakeris will not pas ower with patient behalding, desyring to knaw quhat will be everie manis pairt; and that the fortificatioun of Leith is960960In the orig. MS. "as." ane purpoise devysit in France, and that thairfoir Monsieur de La Broche and the Bischop of Amiance ar cumit in this cuntrey; ane thing sa vaine and untrew, that the contrarie thairof is notour to all men of free jugement: Thairfoir hir Grace, willing that the occatiouns quhairby hir Grace was movit sa to do be maid patent, and quhat hes bene hir proceidingis sen the Appointment last maid on the Linkis besyde Leith, to the effect that the treuth of all thingis being maid manifest, everie man may understand how injustlie that will to suppres the libertie of this realme is laid to hir charge, hes thocht expedient to mak this discours following:—

"Fyrst, Althocht efter the said Appointment, dyverse of the said Congregatioun, and that not of the meaneast sort, had contravenit violentlie the pointis thairof, and maid sundrie occatiouns of new cummer, the samyn was in ane pairt wynkit att and ower-luikit, in hoip that thay with tyme wald remember thair dewatie, and abstene fra sick evill behaviouris, quhilk conversioun hir Grace ever sochtt, rather than any puneisment, with sick cair and solicitud be all meaneis, quhill, in the menetyme, na thing was providit for hir awin securitie. Bot at last, be thair frequent messageis to and fra Ingland, thair intelligence than was persavit: yit hir Grace trestis the Quene of Ingland (lett thame seik as thay pleise) will do the office of ane Christiane Princes in tyme of ane sworne peax; throw quhilk force was to hir Grace (seand sua greit defectioun of greit personageis,) to have recourse to the law of nature; and lyk as ane small bird, being persewit, will provide sum nest, sua hir Grace could do na less, in caise of persute, nor423 provide sum sure retrait for hir selff and hir cumpany; and to that effect, chusit the toun of Leith, as place convenient thairfoir; becaus, first, it was hir derrest dochteris propertie, and na uther persone could acclame tytle or enteress thairto, and als becaus in tyme afoir it had bene fortifeit. About the same tyme that the seiking support of Ingland was maid manifest, arryvit the Erle of Arrane, and adjoinit him selff to the Congregatioun, upoun farder promisses nor the961961In Vautr. edit. and MS. G, "than the pretended." pretendit quarrell of religioun that was to be sett up be thame in authoratie, and sua to pervert the haill obedience. FALSE LEYING TOUNG, GOD HAS CONFOUNDIT THEE! And as sum of the said Congregatioun at the samyn tyme had putt to thair handis, and takin the Castell of Brochty, put furth the keiparis thairof: immediatlie came fra the said Duike to hir Grace unluikit for, ane writing, beside many uther,962962In MS. G, "mony uther thingis." compleneand of the fortificatioun of the said toun of Leith, in hurt of the ancient inhabitantis thairof, brether of the said Congregatioun, quhairof he than professit him self ane member; and albeit that the beirar of the said writting was ane unmeitt messinger in ane mater of sick consequence, yitt hir Grace direc[ted] to him twa personeis of guid creddeit and reputatioun with answer, offerrand, gif he wald caus ane mendis be maid for that quhilk was commitit aganeis the lawis of the realme, to do further nor could be cravit of reassone, and to that effect to draw sum conference, quhilk for inlaik of him and his collegis, tuik no end. GOD HES PURGEIT HIS PEPILL OF THAT FALSE ACCUSATIOUN Nochttheles thay continewallie sensyne contynewis in thair doingis, usurping the Authoratie, commanding and chargeing free Borrowis to cheise Provestis and officiaris of thair nameing, and to assyst to thame in the purpoise thay wald be att; and thatt thay will nocht suffer provisioun to be brocht for sustentatioun of hir Graceis housseis; and greit pairt hes sa planelie sett asyde all reverence and humanitie, quhairby everie man may knaw that it is424 na mater of religioun, bot ane plane usurpatioun of authoratie, and na dout bot sempill men, of gude zeall in tymeis bigane, thairwith falslie hes bene desavit. Bot as to the Queneis Grace pairt, God, quha knawis the secreitis of all hartis, weill kennis, and the warld sall see be experience, that the fortificatioun of Leith was devisit for na uther purpoise bot for recourse to hir Hienes and hir cumpany, in caise thay war persewit. Quhairfoir, all gud subjectis that hes the feir of God in thair hartis, will not suffer thame selffis be sick vaine perswatiouns to be led away from thair dew obedience, bot will assist in defence of thair Soveraneis quarrel aganeis all sick as will persew the same wrangouslie. Thairfoir, hir Grace ordaneis the officiaris of armeis to pas to the Mercat-Croceis of all heid Borrowis of this realme, and thair be oppin proclamatioun command and charge all and sundrie the liegeis thairof, that nane of thame tak upoun hand to put thame selfis in armeis, nor tak pairt with the said Duke or his assistaris, under the pane of treassone."

Thir letteris being devulgatt, the hartis of many war steirit; for thay jugeit the narratioun of the Queue Regent to have bene trew: uthiris understanding the samin to be utterlie false. Bot becaus the Lordis desyreit all man [to] juge in thair cause, thay sett out this Declaratioun subsequent:—

"We ar compellit unwillinglie to answer the grevouse accusatiouns maist injustlie laid to our chargeis be the Quene Regent and hir perverstTHE DECLARATIOUN OF THE LORDIS AGAINST THE FORMER PROCLAMATIOUN. Counsall, quha cease not, by all craft and malice, to mak us odiouse to our darrest brethren, naturall Scotismen; as that we pretendit na uther thing bot the subversioun and owerthraw of all just authoritie, quhan, God knawis, that we thocht na thing bot that sick authoratie as God approvis by his word, be establischeit, honourit, and obeyit amangis us. Trew it is that we have complenit, (and425 continewallie must complene,) till God send redress, that our commun cuntrey is oppressit with strangearis; that this inbringing of suldiouris, with thair wiffis and children, and planting of men of weir in oure free tounis, appeiris to us ane reddy way to conqueist: And we maist eirnistlie requyre all indifferent personeis to juge betwix us and [the] Quene Regent in this cause,963963In MS. G, "and the Quein Regent in this cais." Vautr. edit. has, "in this cause." to wit, quhidder that our complaynt be just or nott; for, for quhat uther purpoise sould sche this multiplie strangearis upoun us, bot onlie in respect of conqueist; quhilk is ane thing not of lait devisit be hir and hir avaritiouse House. THE AVARICE OF THAME OF LORANE AND GWEISE We ar not ignorant, that sax yeris past, the questioun was demandit, of ane man of honest reputatioun, quhat nomber of men was abill to dantoun Scotland, and to bring it to the full obedience of France. She allegeis, that to say the fortificatioun of Leith was ane purpoise devisit in France, and that for that purpoise war Monsieur de La Broche, and the Bischop Amiance send to this cuntrey, is ane thing sa vaine and untrew, that the contrarie thairof is notour to all men of fre jugement. Bot evident it is, quhatsoever sche allegeis, that sence thair arryvall, Leith was begun to be fortifeit. Sche allegeis, that sche, seing the defectioun of greit personageis, was compellitt to have recourse to the law of nature, and lyk ane small bird persewit,964964Vautr. edit. has here in the margin, "Nota." to provide for sum sure retreitt to hir selff and hir cumpany. Bot quhy dois sche not answer, for quhatt purpoise did sche bring in hir new bandis of men of weir? Was thair any defectioun espyit befoir thair arryvall? Was not the Congregatioun under appointment with hir? quhilk, quhatsoever sche allegeis, sche is not abill to prove that we haid contravenit in any chief poynt, befoir that her new throt-cuttaris arryvit, yea, befoir that thay began to fortifie Leith; ane place, says sche, maist convenient426 for hir purpoise, as in verray deid it is for the resaving of strangearis at hir plesour: for gif sche haid fearit the persute of hir body, sche haid the Insche, Dumbar, Blaknes, fortis and strenthis alreddy maid. Yea, bot they could not sa weill serve hir turne as Leith, becaus it was hir Dochteris propertie, and na uther could haif tytill to it, and becaus it had bene fortifeit of befoir. That all men may knaw the just tytle hir Dochter and sche hes to the toun of Leith, we sall in few wordis declair the trewth.

"It is not unknawin to the maist pairt of this realme, that thair hes bene ane auld haitrent and contentioun betuix Edinburght and Leith;965965This feeling of jealousy between the Towns of Edinburgh and Leith, originating in narrow-minded policy, was of an old standing. The harbour and mills of Lieth, then known as Inverleith, were granted by Robert the First, in the year 1329, to the community of Edinburgh; and in 1398, they acquired other rights and privileges by purchase from Logan of Restalrig, who possessed the banks of the river. During the 15th and following century, the Magistrates of Edinburgh passed some Acts of a very oppressive and illiberal kind, against the inhabitants of Leith. In 1547, during the English invasion, the town and harbour were completely destroyed; but the Queen Regent, in favour of the inhabitants, purchased anew the superiority in 1555, from Robert Logan of Restalrig, for £3000 Scotish money; it was strongly fortified in 1559; and was taken possession of by the French auxiliary troops, on behalf of the Queen Regent, who proposed to have erected the Town into a Royal Burgh. Her death, in June 1560, defeated this project; and the citizens of Edinburgh afterwards obtained the superiority from Mary Queen of Scots, for the sum of 10,000 marks. Edinburgh seiking continewallie to possess that libertie, quhilk be donatioun of kyngis thay have lang injoyit; and Leith, be the contrary, aspyring to ane libertie and fredome in prejudice of Edinburgh. THE TITLE THAT THE QUENE [HAD] OR HES966966In the MS. "had" is omitted; in MS. G, it is "hes or had;" in Vautr. edit. "hath or had." TO LEITH The Quene Regent, ane woman that could mak hir proffitt of all handis, was nott ignorant how to compass hir awin mater; and thairfoir secreitlie sche gaif adverteisment to sum of Leith, that sche wald mak thair Toun fre, gif that sche mycht do it with any cullour of justice. THE LAIRD OF RESTALRIG SUPERIOUR TO LEITH Be quhilk promeise, the principall men427 of them did travell with the Laird of Restalrig,967967The Logans of Restalrig were an ancient family of great influence, from their possessions at Leith and Restalrig. The factious person to whom Knox alludes was Robert Logan, who was arrested by order of the Magistrates of Edinburgh, and committed to prison, 9th September 1560. ane man nether prudent nor fortunat, to quhome the superioratie of Leyth appertenit, that he sould sell his haill tytle and rycht to our Soverane, for certane sowmeis of money, quhilk the inhabitantis of Leith payit, with ane large taxatioun mair, to the Quene Regent, in hoip to have bene maid free in dispite and defraud of Edinburgh. Quhilk rycht and superioratie, quhan sche haid gottin, and quhan the money was payit, the first fruittis of thair libertie thay now eitt with bitternes, to wit, that strangearis sall possess thair town. This is hir just tytle quhilk hir Dochter and sche may clame to that Towne. And quhair sche allegeis that it was fortifeit befoir, we ask, gif that [was] done without consent of the Nobilatie and Estaitis of the realme, as sche now, and hir craftie Counsallouris do in dispyte and contempt of us the lauchfull heidis968968In MS. G, "lawfull heirs and borne counsallers." Vautr. edit. omits "heirs," or "heidis," and reads, "the lawfull and borne counsellers." and borne counsallouris of this realme.

"How far we have socht support of Ingland, or of ony uther Princes, and how just cause we haid, and haif sa to do, we sall schortlie mak manifest unto the warld, to the prayse of Godis haly name, and to the confusioun of all thame that sclander us for sa doing. For this we feir nott to confess, that as in this oure interpryse against the Devill, idolatrie, and the mentenance of the same, we cheiflie and onlie seik Godis glorie to be notifeit unto man, synne to be puncisit, and vertew to be mentenit; sua quhair power faillis of oure self, we will seik quhair soever God sall offer the same; and yitt in sa doing, we ar assureit, nether till offend God, nether yitt to do any thing repugnant to our dewiteis. We hartlie prayse God, quha movit the hart of the Erle of Arrane to joyne him selff with us,428 his persecuteit brethren; bot how maliciouse ane ley it is, that we have promesit to sett him up in authoratie, the ischew sall declair. God we tak to record, that na sick thing hes to this day enterit in oure hartis. Nether yitt hes he, the said Erie, nather any to him appertenyng, movit unto us ony sick mater; quhilk, gif thay sould do, yitt ar we not sa sklender in jugement, that inconsidderatlie we wald promeis that quhilk efter we mycht repent. We speik and write to Goddis glorie:969969In Vautr. edit. on the margin, "Nota." The leist of us knawis better quhat obedience is dew to ane lauchfull authoritie, than sche or hir Counsall dois practise the office of sick as worthelie may sitt upoun the sait of justice; for we offer, and we performe, all obedience quhilk God hes commandit; for we nether deny toll, tribute, honour, nor feir till hir, nor till hir officiaris: We onlie brydill hir blynd raige, in the quhilk sche wald erect and mentene idolatrie, and wald murther oure brethren quha refusses the same. Bott sche dois utterlie abuse the authoratie establischeitt by God: sche prophaneis the throne of his Majestie in erth, making the Saitt of justice, quhilk aucht to be the sanctuary and refuge of all godlie and vertuouse personeis, injustlie afflictit, to be ane den and receaptakle to thevis, murtheraris, idolateris, huremongaris, adulteraris, and blasphemaris of God and all godlynes. THE WICKITNESS OF THE BISCHOPIS.970970Not inserted in MS. G. It is mair than evident, quhat men thay ar, and lang have bene, quham sche by hir power mentenis and defendis; and alssua quhat hes bene our conversatioun sence it hes plesit God to call us to his knawlege, quham now in hir fury sche crewellie persecuteis. We deny nocht the taking of the House of Brouchty;971971See note 538. and the cause being considderit, we think that na naturall Scottisman will be offendit at oure fact. Quhan the assureit knawlege came unto us that the fortificatioun of Leith was begun, everie man began to inquyre quhat daingear mycht ensew to the rest of the realme, giff the429 Frensche sould plant in dyverse placeis, and quhat war the placeis that mycht maist [annoy] us.972972In the orig. MS. it is, apparently, "neir us:" MS. G. has "micht most noy us;" Vautr. edit. reads, "might most annoy us." THE CAUS THAT BROWCHTY CRAIG WAS TAKIN.973973In MS. G, "The caus of the taking of Brochtie Craig." In conclusioun it was found, that the taking of the said housse be Frensche men sould be destructioun to Dundie, and hurtfull to Sanct Johnnstoun, and to the haill cuntrey; and thairfoir it was thocht expedient to prevent the daingear, as that we did for preservatioun of oure brethren and commun cuntrey. It is nocht unknawin quhat ennemyis thir twa Tounis have, and quhow glaidlie wald sum haif all guid ordour and pollecey owerthrawin in thame. The conjectureis that the Frensche war of mynd schortlie to have takin the same, war not obscure. Bot quhatsoever thay pretendit, we can nott repent that we (as said is) have preventit the daingear; and wald God that our power haid bene in the same maner to have foircloissit thair entres to Leith; for quhat trubill the pure realme sall endure befoir thatt thay murtheraris and injust possessouris be removit from the same, the ischew will declair. LETT ALL MAN JUGE Giff hir accusatioun against my Lord Duikis Grace, and that we refusit conference, be trewlie and sempillie spokin, we will nott refuise the jugement of thay verray men, quham sche allegeis to be of sa honest a reputatioun. THE DUIKEIS ANSWER Thay knaw that the Dukeis Grace did answer, that gif the realme mycht be sett at libertie frome the bondage of thay men of weir quhilk presentlie did oppress it, and was sa feirfull to him and his brethren, that thay war compellit to absent thame selfis from the placeis quhair sche and thay maid residence; thatt he and the haill Congregatioun sould cum and gif all debtfull974974In MS. G. and Vautr. edit. "dutifull." obedience to oure Soverane hir dochter, and unto hir Grace, as Regent for the tyme. Bot to enter in conference, sa lang as sche keipis above him and his brethren that feirfull scourge of crewell strangearis, he thocht430 na wyise man wald counsall him. And this his answer we approve, adding farther, That sche can mak us no promeis quhilk sche can keip nor we can creddeit, sa lang as sche is forceit with the strenth, and reuillit be the counsall of Frensche.975975In MS. G, "forced with the Frenchmen, and reullit with be the counsaill of France;" Vautr. edit. has, "forced with the strength, and ruled by the counsell of France." We ar not ignorant that princeis think it guid policey to betray thair subjectis be breking of promeissis, be thay never so solempnitlie maid. We have nott forgett quhat counsall sche and Monsieur Dosell gaif to the Duike against thame that slew the Cardinall, and keip the Castell of Sanctandrois: And it was this, "That quhat promeis thay list to requyre sould be maid unto thame: bot how sone that the Castell was randerit, and thyngis brocht to sick pass as was expedient, that he sould chope the heidis frome everie ane of thame." To the quhilk quhan the Duike answerit, "That he wald never consent to sa treassonabill ane act, bot gif he promesit fidelitie, he wald faithfullie keip it." Monsieur Dosell said, in mockage to the Quene, in Frensche, "That is ane guid sempill nature, bot I knaw na uther prince that wald swa do." Gif this was his jugement in sa small ane mater, quhat have we to suspect in this oure caus: NOTA. For now the question is not of the slauchter of ane Cardinall, bot of the just abolisching of all that tyrannie quhilk that Romane Antechryst hes usurpit above us, of the suppressing of idolatrie, and of the reformatioun of the haill religioun, by that verming of schavelingis utterlie corruptit. THE QUARRELL BETUIX FRANCE AND THE CONGREGATIOUN OF SCOTLAND Now, gif the slauchter of ane Cardinall be ane syn irremissebill,976976This alludes to the emphatic phrase in the absolution sent from Rome, to Cardinal Beaton's murderers, remittimus irremissibile; but which was rejected by the parties who were concerned as not being the "sufficient assured absolution," which had been promised should be obtained for them: see page 203. as thay thair selffis affirme, and gif faith aucht not to be keipit to heretykes, as thair awin law speikis, quhat promeise can sche that is reullit be the coun431sall and commandyment of ane Cardinall, mak to us, that can be sure?

"Quhair sche accusis us, that we usurp authoritie, to command and charge free Browchis to cheise Provestis and officiaris of our nameing, &c., we will that the haill Browchis of Scotland testifie in that caise, quhydder that we have usit ony kynd of violence, bot lovinglie exhortit sick as askit support, to cheise sick in office as had the feir of God befoir thair eyis, luffitt equitie and justice, and war nott notit with avarice and brybing. Bot wonder it is, with quhatt face sche can accuse us of thatt quhairof we ar innocent, and sche sua oppinlie criminall, that the haill realme knawis hir iniquities. In that caise, hes sche nott compellit the toun of Edinburgh to reteane ane man to be thair Provest,977977George fifth Lord Seaton, was elected Provost of Edinburgh at Michaelmas 1558, by command of the Queen Regent; and he conducted the affairs of the City in such an arbitrary manner, that in April 1559 he committed one of the Bailies and the Town-Clerk to prison. On another occasion he threatened all the Bailies with a similar imprisonment, if, during his absence, they failed in securing certain persons whom he named.—(Maitland's Hist. of Edinburgh, p. 15.) THE LORD SEYTOUN UNWORTHY OF REGIMENT.978978In MS. G, "The Lord Seytounis unworthie regiment:" and it omits the three following marginal notes. maist unworthy of ony regiment in ane weill rewlit commun-wealth? Hes sche nott enforceitt thame to tak Baillies of hir appoyntment, and sum of thame sua meitt for thair office, in this trubilsum tyme, as ane sowtar is to saill979979In MS. G, "to steir;" Vautr. edit., as above, has, "to saile a schippe." ane schip in ane stormy day? OPTIMA COLLATIO. Sche compleneis thatt we will nott suffer provisioun to be maid for hir House. In verray deid we unfeinzeitlie repent, that befoir this we tuik nott better ordour that thir murtheraris and oppressouris, quham sche pretendis to nureise, for oure destructioun, had not bene disapointit of that greit provisioun of victuallis quhilk sche and thay have gadderit, to the greit hurt of the haill cuntrey. Bot as God sall assist us in tymeis cuming, we sall do diligence sum-quhatt to frustrat thair devillysche purpoise. LETT THE PAPISTIS JUGE GIF GOD HES NOT GEVIN JUGEMENT TO THE DISPLESOUR OF THAIR HARTIS Quhatt baith sche and we980980In the orig. MS. "baith we and sche." pretend, we dout432 not bot God, quha can not suffer the abuse of his awin name lang to be unpunischeit, sall one day declair; and unto him we feir nott to committ oure cause. Nether yitt feir we in this presentt to say, that against us sche makis ane maist maliciouse ley. THE LEY TO THE QUENE REGENT Quhair that sche sayis, that it is na religioun that we ga about, bot ane plane usurpatioun of the Authoritie, God forbid that sick impietie sould enter into oure hartis, that we sould mak his holie religioun ane cloik and covertour of oure iniquitie. Frome the begynning of this contraversie, it is evidentlie knawin quhat have bene oure requeistis, quhilk gif the rest of the Nobilitie and communitie of Scotland will caus be peformeit unto us, giff than ony sygne of rebellioun appeir in us, lett us be reputit and punisit as traytouris. Bot quhill strangearis ar brocht in to suppres us, our commun-welth, and posteritie, quhill idolatrie is mentenit, and Christ Jesus his trew religioun dispysit, quhill idill bellies and bludy tyrantis, the Bischopis, ar mentenit, and Christis trew messingeris persecutit; quhill, fynallie, vertew is contemnit, and vice extollit, quhill that we, ane greit pairt of the Nobilitie and communaltie of this realme, ar maist injustlie persecuteit, quhat godlie man can be offendit that we sall seik reformatioun of thir enormiteis, (yea, evin be force of armes, seing that uthirwayis it is denyit unto us;) we ar assureit that nether God, neather nature, neather ony just law, forbiddis us. THE CAUS THAT MOVIT THE NOBILITIE OF THIS REALME TO OPPONE THAME TO THE QUENE REGENT God hes maid us counsallouris be birth of this realme; nature byndis us to luiff our awin cuntrey; and just lawis commandis us to support oure brethren injustlie persecutit. Yea, the aith that we have maid, to be trew to this commune-wealth, compellis us to hasard quhatsoever God hes gevin us, befoir that we see the miserabill rewyne of the same. Gif ony think this is not religioun quhilk now we seik, we answer, That it is nathing ellis, bot the zeall of the trew religioun quhilk movis us to this interpryse: THE SAME MYND REMANIS TO THIS DAY For as the ennemy dois craftelie foirsee that idolatrie can not be universalie mentenit, onless433 that we be utterlie suppressit, sua do we considder that the trew religioun (the puritie quhairof we onlie requyre) can not be universalie erectit, unless strangearis be removit, and this pure realme purgeit of thir pestilencis quhilk befoir have infectit it. And thairfoir, in the name of the eternall God, and of his Sone Chryst Jesus, quhais caus we sustene, we requyre all oure brethren, naturall Scottis men, prudentlie to considder oure requeistis, and with judgmentTHIS PROMEISS WAS FORYETT,982982In Vautr. edit. "forged." AND THAIRFOIR HES GOD PLAGUED. WHAT SPREIT COULD HAUE HOPED FOR VICTORIE IN SO DISPERATE DANGEARIS. to decerne betuix us and the Quene Regent and hir factioun, and not to suffer thame selfis to be abused by her craft and deceat, that eather thei shall lift thair weaponis against us thair brethren, who seik nothing butt Godis glorie, eyther yitt that thei extract frome us thare just and detfull981981In MS. G, "debtfull;" in Vautr. edit. "dutifull." supporte, seing that we hasard our lyves for preservatioun of thame and us, and of our posteritie to come: Assuring suche as shall declair thame selves favoraris of her factioun, and ennemeis unto us, that we shall repute thame, whensoever God shall putt the sword of justice in our handis, worthie of such punishment, as is dew for such as studie to betray thair countree in the handis of strangearis."

This our Answer was formed, and divulgat in some places, but not universallie, be reassone of our day appointit to meitt at Striveling, as befoir is declaired. In this meantyme, the Quene her postes ran with all possible expeditioun to draw men to her devotioun; and in verray deid, sche fand mo favoraris of her iniquitie then we suspected. For a man that of long tyme had bene of our nomber in professioun, offered (as himself did confesse) his service to the Quene Regent, to travaill betuix hir Grace and the Congregatioun for concord. Sche refused nott his offer; bott knowing his simplicitie, sche was glad to employ him for her advantage. The434 man is Maister Robert Lockart,983983Mr. Robert Lockhart has already been mentioned by Knox, (page 300,) among the laymen who undertook the office of exhorters. He appears to have been gained over to her views by the Queen Regent; and the Treasurer's Accounts exhibit the following payments made to him by her special command. On the 16th January 1559-60, "be the Quenis Grace precept to Master Robert Lockhart, xxx lib." "Item, the xxiij day of Februar, be the Quenis Grace precept to Maister Robert Lockhart, xl lib." a man of whome many have had and still have good opinioun, as tweiching his religioun; bott to enter in the dresse of suche affaris, nott so convenient, as godlie and wyise men wold requyre. He travailled nocht the less earnestlie in the Quene Regentis affares, and could nott be perswaded bot that sche ment sincerlie, and that sche wold promote the religioun to the uttermost of her power. He promissed in hir name, that sche wald putt away hir Frensche men, and wald be reulled by the counsall of naturall Scottismen. When it was reassoned in his contrary, "That yf sche war so mynded to do, sche could have found mediatouris a great deall more convenient for that purpose." He feared nott to affirme, "That he knew more of her mynd then all the Frenche or Scottis that war in Scotland, yea more then her awin brethren that war in France." He travailled with the Erle of Glencarne, the Lordis Uchiltrie and Boid, with the Larde of Dun, and with the Preacheouris, to whome he had certane secreat letteris, which he wald not deliver, onless that thei wald maik a faithfull promeise, that thei should never reveill the thing conteaned in the same. To the whiche it was answered, "That in no wyise thei could maik suche a promeise, be reassone that thei war sworne one to another, and altogetther in one body, that thei should have no secreat intelligence nor dress with the Quene Regent, bot that thei should communicat with the Great Counsall whatsoever sche proponed unto thame, or thei did answer unto her." As by this Answer, written by Johne Knox to the Quene Regent, may be understand,984984In MS. G, "unto Hir Grace the Quein Regent, may be understude." the tennour whairof followis:—


"[Madame,]985985Supplied from MS. G.

"My dewitie moist humilie premissed: Your Grace's servand, Maister Robert Lockard, maist instantlie hes requyred me and otheris, to whome your Graceis letteris, as he alledged, war directed, to receave the same in secreat maner, and to geve to him answer accordinglie. Bot becaus some of the nomber that he required war and ar upoun the Great Counsall of this realme, and thairfoir ar solempnedlie sworne to have nothing to do in secreate maner, neather with your Grace, neather yitt with any that cumis fra yow, or fra your Counsall; and swa thei could not receave your Grace letteris with sick conditionis as the said Maister Robert required; and thairfoir thocht he good to bring to your Grace agane the said letteris close. And yitt becaus, as he reportis, he hes maid to your Grace some promeise in my name; att his requeist, I am content to testifie by my letter and subscriptioun, the sume of that quhilk I did communicat with him. In Dondie, after many wourdis betuix him and me, I said, that albeit diverse sinister reportis had bene maid of me, yitt did I never declair any evident tockin of haiterent nor inmitie against your Grace. For yf it be the office of a verray freind to geve trew and faythfull counsall to thame whome he seis ryn to destructioun for lack of the same, I could nott be provin ennemye to your Grace, bot rather a freind unfeaned.986986In MS. G, these words are thus transposed,—"I culd not be proven enemie, bot rather an unfayned freind to your Grace." Vautr. edit. follows the text, except "proved" for "proven." For what counsall I had gevin to your Grace, my writtingis, alsweall my Letteris and Additioun to the same, now prented,987987In the year 1558, at Geneva: see note 654. as diverse otheris quhilkis I wrait fra Sanct Johnestoun, may testifie. I farther added, that sick ane ennemye was I unto yow, that my tung did bayth perswaid and obteane, that your authoritie and regiment should be obeyed of us in all thingis lawchfull, till ye declaired your self open ennemye to this436 commoun-wealth, as now, allace! ye have done. This I willed him moreover to say to your Grace, that yf ye, following the counsall of flatterand men, having no God bot this world and thair bellies, did proceid in your malice against Christ Jesus his religioun, and trew ministeris, that ye should do nothing ellis but accclerat and haste Godis plague and vengeance upoun your self and upoun your posteritie: and that ye, (yf ye did not change your purpose hastelie,) should bring your self in sick extreame danger, that when ye wold seak remeady, it should nott be sa easy to be found, as it had bene befoir. This is the effect and sume of all that I said at that tyme, and willed him, yf he pleased, to communicat the same to your Grace. And the same yitt agane I notifie unto your Grace, by this my letter, writtin and subscryved at Edinburgh, the 26 of October 1559.

(Sic subscribitur,)

"Your Grace's to command in all godlynes.
"John Knox.

"Postscriptum.—God move your harte988988In MS. G, "your Graces hairt." Vautr. edit. has, "your hearte." yitt in tyme to considder, that ye feght nott against man, bot against the eternall God, and against his Sone Jesus Christ, the onlie Prince of the kingis of the earth."

At whiche answer, the said Maister Robert was so offended, that he wald nott deliver his letteris, saying, "That we wer ungodlie and injuriouse to the Quene Regent yf we suspected any craft in hir." To the whiche it was answered, by one of the preacheouris, "That tyme should declair, whitther he or thei war deceaved. Yff sche should nott declair hir self ennemye to the trew religioun whiche thei professed, yf ever sche had the upper hand, then thei wald be content to confesse that thei had suspected her sinceritie without just cause. Bot and yf sche should declair her malice no less in tymes437 cuming than sche had done befoir, thei required that he should be more moderat then to dampne thame whose conscience he knew nott." And this was the end of the travaill for that tyme, after that he had trubled the conscience of many godlie and qwiet personis. For he and other who war her hyred postes, ceassed nott to blaw in the earis of all man, that the Quene wes hevelie done to; that sche required nothing bot obedience to her Doghtter; that sche was content that the trew religioun should go fordwarde, and that all abuses should be abolished; and be this meane thei broght a gruge and divisioun amang our selfis. For many (and our brethrene of Lowthiane especiallie) began to murmur, that we soght another thing than religioun, and so ceassed to assist us certane dayis, after that we wer cumed to Edinburgh, whiche we did according to the former diet, the 16 day of October. This grudge and truble amangis our selfis was not reased by the foirsaid Maister Robert989989Robert Lockhart, see page 434. onlye, bot by those pestilentis whome befoir we have expressed, and Maister James Balfour especiallie, whose vennemouse tounges against God and his trew religioun, as thei deserve punishement of men, so shall thei not escheap Godis vengeance, onless that spedelie thei reapent.

After our cuming to Edinburgh the day foirnamed, we assembled in counsall, and determined to geve new advertisement to the Quenis Grace Regent, of our Conventioun, and in suche sorte; and so with commoun consent we send unto her our requeast, as followis:—

"[Madame,]990990Supplied from MS. G.

"It will pleise your Grace reduce to your remembrance, how at our lastTHE SECOUND ADMONITIOUN TO THE QUENE REGENT. Conventioun at Hammyltoun, we required your Hienes, in our maist humbill maner, to desist from the fortifeing of this town of Leyth, then interprysed and begone, quhilk appeared to us (and yitt does) ane entree to ane con438queist, and overthrow to our liberties, and altogidder against the lawis and custumes of this realme,991991In MS. G, "of this cuntrey." Vautr. edit. has, "realme." seing it was begune, and yit continewis, without any advise and consent of the Nobilitie and Counsall of this realme. Quhaifoir now, as of befoir, according to our dewitie to our commoun-wealth, we most humelie requyre your Grace to caus your strangearis and soldiouris whatsumever to departe of the said town of Leyth, and maik the same patent, not onlye to the inhabitantis, bot also to all Scottishmen, our Soverane Ladyes liegis. Assureand your Hienes, that yf, refusand the samyn, ye declair thairby your evill mynd toward the commoun-weill and libertie of this realme, we will (as of befoir) mene and declair the caus unto the haill Nobilitie and communaltie of this realme; and according to the oath quhilk we have sworne for the mantenance of the commoun-weall, in all maner of thingis to us possible, we will provid reamedy: thairfoir requyring most humblie your Grace answer in haist with the berar, becaus in our eyis the act continewallie proceadis, declaring ane determinatioun of conquest, quhilk is presumed of all men, and not without caus. And thus, after our humill commendatioun of service, we pray Almychttie God to have your Grace in his eternall tuitioun."

These our letteris receaved, our messinger was threatned, and withholdin a whole day. Thairefter he was dismissed, without ony other answer bot that sche wald send ane answer when sche thocht expedient.

In this meantyme, becaus the rumour ceassed nott, that the Duke his Grace usurped the Authoritie, he was compelled, with the sound of trumpete, at the Mercat Croce of Edinburgh, to maik his purgatioun, in forme as followis, the xix day of October:439

The Purgatioun of the Duik.

"Forsamekle as my Lord Duik of Chastellerault, understanding the falsTHE DUIK LONG BEFOIR FALSLIE ACCUSED OF USURPATIOUN.992992Vautr. edit. omits this marginal note; but it occurs in MS. G. reporte maid be the Quene Regent against him, that he and his sone, my Lord of Arrane, should pretend usurpatioun of the Croune and Authoritie of this realme, when in verray deid he nor his said sone never anis mynded sic thingis, bott allanerlie in simplicitie of heart, movit partlie be the violent persute of the religioun and trew professouris thairof, partlie by compassioun of the commoun-wealth and poore communitie of this realme, oppressed with strangearis, he joyned him self with the rest of the Nobilitie, with all hasard, to supporte the commoun caus of that ane and of that uther; hes thoght expedient to purge him self and his said Sone, in presence of yow all, as he had done in presence of the Counsall, of that same cryme, of auld, evin be summondis, laid to his charge the secound year of the regne of our Soverane Lady. Quhilk malice hes continewed ever against him, maist innocent of that cryme, as your experience bearis witness; and planelie protestis, that neather he nor his said Sone suittis and seikis any pre-eminence,993993In MS. G, "seikes or sutes ony pre-eminence, eyther to." Vautr. edit. makes it, "sues nor seekes anie pre-heminence." eather to the Croune or Authoritie, bot als far as his puissance may extend, is readdy, and ever shalbe, to concur with the rest of the Nobilitie his brethren, and all otheris whais hartis ar tweichet to manteane the commoun caus of religioun and liberty of thair native cuntrey, planelie invaded be the said Regent and hir said soldiouris, wha onlye does forge sick vane reportis to withdraw the heartis of trew Scottisemen from the succour thai aught of bound dewitie to thair commoun-weall opprest. Quharefoir [he] exhortis all men that will manteane the trew religioun of God, or withstand this oppressioun or plane conquest, inter440prysed be strangearis upoun our native Scottisemen, nott to credyte sick fals and untrew reportis, bot rather concurr with us and the rest of the Nobilitie, to sett your countree at libertie, expelling strangearis thairfra; whiche doing, ye shall schaw your self obedient to the ordinance of God, whiche was establisshed for mantenance of the commoun-weall, and trew members of the same."

The xxi day of October, cam fra the Quene then Regent Maister Robert Forman,994994"Maister Robert Foirman," in 1551, was Ross Herald; and in that capacity, on the 7th May 1552, he was "direct fra the Counsale, with certain Articulis to be schawand to the King of France; and frathin to the Empriour," the Treasurer on that day having paid "to hym, to be his expenses in his jornay, £400."—On the death of the celebrated poet, Sir David Lyndesay of the Mount, Forman, in 1558, became his successor as Lyon King-at-Arms. Lyoun King of Armes, who broght unto us ane writting in this tennour and credit:—

"Eftir commendatioun: We have receavit your letter of Edinburgh the xix of this instant, whiche appeared to us rather to have cumit fra ane Prince to his subjectis, nor fra subjectis to thame that bearis authoritie: For answer whairof, we have presentlie directed unto yow this berar, Lyon Herald King of Armes, sufficientlie instructed with our mynd, to whome ye shall geve credence.

"At Leyth, the 21 of October 1559.

(Sic subscribitur,)

"Marie R."

His Credit is this:—

"That LETT THIS BE NOTED, AND LETT ALL MEN JUDGE OF THE PURPOSE OF THE FRENCHE.sche woundered how any durst presume to command her in that realme, whiche neaded not to be conquest by any force, considering that it was allready conqueissed by marriage; that Frenche men could nott be justlie called strangearis, seing that thei war naturalized; and thairfoir that sche wald441 neather maik that Toun patent, neather yitt send any man away, bot as sche thocht expedient. Sche accused the Duik of violating his promeise: Sche maid long protestatioun of her love towardis the commoun-wealth of Scotland; and in the end commanded, that under pane of treassone, all assistaris to the Duke and unto us, should departe from the toune of Edinburgh."995995Keith has copied from Knox the "Credeit" or Commission from the Queen Regent; but in the Appendix to his History he says, "I make little doubt he (Knox) has curtailed the same, and formed it so as to serve his own purpose: And had this Credit been contained in as few words as this author relates it, the Regent might have easily inserted the whole of it in her letter, without any unbecoming prolixity. I do, therefore, recommend to my readers not to satisfy themselves with this account of the Credit, but to look into that which Archbishop Spottiswood narrates; which, as it is much more distinct in answering to each part of complaint from the Congregationers, so it has all the air of ingenuity, and seems fully to answer the character of that wise and worthy Princess." He then proceeds to quote from Spottiswood's MS. some remarks, differing from the corresponding passage in the printed History; but these are too long to be here quoted: see Keith, Hist. vol. i. pp. 232, 400-492.

This answer receaved, credite heard, preconceaved malice sufficientlie espyed, consultatioun was tacken what was expedient to be done. And for the first it was concluded, that the Herauld should be stayed till farder determinatioun should be tacken.


The haill Nobilitie, Baronis, and Broughes, then present, wer commanded to convene in the Tolbuyth of Edinburgh, the same xxj day of October, for deliberatioun of these materis. Whare the hole caus being exponed by the Lord Ruthven, the questioun was proponed, "Whetther sche that so contempteouslie refuissed the most humill requeist of the borne Counsallouris of the realm, being also bott a Regent, whose pretenses threatned the boundage of the hole commoun-wealth, awght to be sufferred so tyrannouslie to impyre above tham?" And because that this questioun had nott442 bene befoir disputed in open assemblie, it was thoght expedient that the judgement of the Preachearis should be required; who being called and instructed in the caise, Johne Willok, who befoir had susteaned the burthen of the Churche in Edinburgh, commanded996996In MS. G, "of the Kirk of Edinburgh, being commanded." Vautr. edit. is the same as the text. to speik, maid discourse, as followeth, affirmyng:—


"First, That albeit Magistratis be Goddes ordinance, having of him power and authoritie, yitt is not thair power so largelie extended, but that is bounded and limited by God in his word.

"And Secundarlie, That as subjectis ar commanded to obey thair magistratis, so ar magistratis commanded to geve some dewitie to the subjectis; so that God by his word, hes prescribed the office of the one and of the other.

"Thridlie, That albeit God hath appointed magistratis his lievtennentis on earth, and hes honored thame with his awin title, calling thame goddis, that yitt he did never so establess any, but that for just causses thei mycht have bene depryved.

"Fourtlie, That in deposing of Princes, and those that had bene in authoritie, God did nott alwyise use his immediate poware; but sometymes he used other meanis whiche his wisedome thocht good and justice approved, as by Asa he removed Maacha his awin mother from honour and authoritie, whiche befoir sche had brooked; by Jehu he destroyed Joram, and the haill posteritie of Achab; and by diverse otheris he had deposed from authoritie those whome befoir he had establesshed by his awin worde." THE CAUSES And heirupoun concluded he, "That since the Quene Regent denyed her cheaf dewitie to the subjectis of this realme, whiche was to minister justice unto thame indifferentlie, to preserve thair liberties from invasioun of strangearis, and to suffer thame have Godis word443 freelie and openlie preached amanges thame; seing, moreover, that the Quene Regent wes ane open and obstinat idolatress, a vehement manteanare of all superstitioun and idolatrie; and, finallie, that sche utterlie dispysed the counsall and requeistis of the Nobilitie, he could see no reassone why they, the borne Counsallouris, Nobilitie, and Baronis of the realme, mycht nott justlie deprive her from all regiment and authoritie amanges thame."

Heirefter was the judgement of Johne Knox required, who, approving the sentence of his Brother, added,—

"First, That the iniquitie of the Quene Regent, THE JUDGEMENT OF JOHNE KNOX, IN THE DISPOSITIOUN OF THE QUEIN REGENT.and mysordour owght in nowyis to withdraw neather our heartis, neather yitt the heartis of other subjectis, from the obedience dew unto our Soveranis.

"Secundarly, That and yf we deposed the said Quene Regent rather of malice and privat invy, than for the preservatioun of the commoun-wealth, and for that her synnes appeared incurable, that we should nott escheap Godis just punishment, howsoever that sche had deserved rejectioun from honouris.

"And Thridlie, He required that no suche sentence should be pronunced against her, bott that upoun her knawin and oppen reapentance, and upoun her conversioun to the commoun-wealth, and submissioun to the Nobilitie, place should be granted unto her of regresse to the same honouris from the whiche, for just causses, sche justlie might be deprived."

The votes of everie man particularlie by him self required, and everie man commanded to speik, as he wald ansure to God, what his conscience judged in that mater, thair was none found, amonges the hole number, who did nott, by his awin toung consent to her deprivatioun. Thairefter was her process997997In MS. G, "was thair protest." Vautr. edit. has, "process." committed to writt, and registrat, as followeth:—

"At Edinburgh, the twenty one day of October 1559. The Nobilitie, Baronis, and Broughes convenit to advise upoun the affairis of theTHE ENORMITIES COMMITTED BY THE QUEIN REGENT.444 commoun-weall, and to ayde, supporte, and succour the samyn, perceaving and lamenting the interprysed destructioun of thair said commoun-weall, and overthrow of the libertie of thair native cuntree, be the meanes of the Quene Regent, and certane strangearis her Prevey Counsallouris, plane contrarie oure Soveranes Lord and Ladyis mynd, and direct against the counsall of the Nobilitie, to proceid by litill and litill evin unto the uttermost, sa that the urgent necessitie of the commoun-weall may suffer na langare delay, and earnestlie craves our supporte: Seing heirfoir that the said Quene Regent, (abusing and owir passing our Soveranes Lord and Ladyis commissioun, gevin and granted to her,) hes in all her proceidingis, persewit the Baronis and Broughes within this realme, with weapones and armour of strangearis, butt ony process or ordour of law, thei being oure Soverane Lord and Ladyis trew liegis, and never called nor convict in any cryme be ony judgement lauchfull; as first at Sanct Johnestoun, in the moneyth of Maij, sche assembled her army against the towne and inhabitantis thairof, never called nor convict in any cryme, for that thei professed trew wirschip of God, conforme to his moist sacrat worde; and lyikwyis in the moneyth of Junij last, without any lauchfull ordour or calling going befoir, invaded the persones of syndre Noble men and Baronis with force of armes convenit at Sanctandrois, onlie for caus of religioun, as is notoriouslie knawin, thei never being callit nor convict in ony cryme: Attour layed garnisonis the same moneth upoun the inhabitantis of the said toun of Sanct Johnestoun, oppressing the liberties of the Quenis trew lieges; for feir of whiche her garnisones, ane great parte of the inhabitantis thairof, fled of the towne, and durst nott resorte agane unto thair housses and heretages, whill thei war restored be armes, thei notwithstanding never being445 called nor convict in any cryme. And farder, that samyn tyme did thrust in upoun the headis of the inhabitantis of the said towne Provest and Baillies, against all ordour of electioun; as laitlie, in this last moneth of September, sche had done in the townes of Edinburgh and Jedburgh, and diverse utheris plaices, in manifest998998In MS. G, "in sygne of manifest oppresioun." Vautr. edit., as in the text, omits the words "sygne of." oppressioun of our liberties. Last of all, declairing her evill mynd toward the Nobilitie, commountie,999999In MS. G, "commonaltie." and haill natioun, hes brocht in strangearis, and dalie pretendis to bring in grettar force of the samyn; pretending ane manifest conqueast of our native rowmes and countree, as the deid it self declaires: in sa far as sche heaving brocht in the saidis strangearis, but ony advise of the said Counsall and Nobilitie, and contrair thair expresse mynd send to her Grace in writt, hes plaicet and planted her saidis strangearis in ane of the principall townis and portis of the realme, sending continewallie for grettar forces, willing thairby to suppress the commoun-weall, and libertie of our native countree, to mak us and our posteritie slaves to strangearis for ever: Whiche, as it is intollerable in commoun-wealthis and free cuntreis, sa is it verray prejudiciall to our Soverane Ladye, and her airis quhatsumever, in caise our Soverane Lord deceise butt airis of hir Grace's persone; and to perfurneise hir wicked interpises,10001000In MS. G, "and to performance of thir hir wicked nterprises." Vautr. edit. reads, "to performe these her wicked interprises." consavit (as appeiris) of inveterat malice against our cuntree and natioun, causes (but any consent or advise of the Counsall and Nobilitie) cunzie layit-money, sa base, and of sick quantitie, that the hole realme shalbe depauperat, and all traffique with forane nationis evertit thairby; And attour, her Grace places and manteanes, contrair the pleasour of the Counsall of this realme, are strangear in ane of the greattest offices of credite within this realme, that is,446 in keaping of the Great Seall10011001The stranger referred to, was Monsieur de Ruby, who has already been noticed: see pages 262, 292. Secretary Cecil, in a letter to Sir Ralph Sadler, from London, 25th November 1559, says, "At this present Monsieur Ruby is here, and hath spoken with the Quenes Majestye this daye. His errand, I thynke, be to goe into Fraunce, and, by the waye here, to expostulate upon certain greeffs in that Quenes name. He telleth many tales, and wold very fayne have the Queenes Majestye beleve that he sayth truth." Some of these "tales" are specified—such as, that the Scotts report they have had £6000 in ayde from England, &c. It is afterwards added, "Ruby departeth to-morrow."—(Sadler's State Papers, vol. i. p. 630.) thairof, quhairintill great parrellis may be ingenerat to the commoun-weall and libertie thairof: HIR DOUGHTER FOLLOWED THE SAME; FOR TO DAVY WAS DELIVERED THE GREATT SEALL.10021002This marginal note, in MS. G, reads, "Hir dauchter followis the same, for to Davie was the Greitt Seill gevin."—In the List of Officers of State, appended to Scott's Staggering State, (see note, 731,) Riccio is said to have succeeded Mons. de Ruby; but the public records furnish no evidence to show that David Riccio ever was intrusted with the Great Seal. His highest promotion was Private Secretary to the Queen and Darnley; as will more particularly be noticed in the next volume, towards the conclusion of the History. And farder, laitlie send the said Great Seall furth of this realme be the said strangeare, contrair the advise of the said Counsall, to what effect God knawis; and hes ellis be his meanes alterat the auld law and consuetude of our realme, ever observit in the graces and pardonis granted be our Soveranes to all thair liegis being repentand of thair offenses committed against thair Hienes or the liegis of the realme; and hes introducit a new captiouse styill and forme of the saidis pardonis and remissionis, attending to the practise of France, tending thairby to draw the saidis liegis of this realme, be process of tyme, in a deceavable snair; and farder, sall creipe in the haill subversioun and alteratioun of the remanent lawis of this realme, in contrair the contentis of the Appointment of Marriage; and als peace being accordit amanges the Princes, reteanes the great armye of strangearis after command send be the King of France to reteyre the same, maiking excuise that thei war reteaned for suppressing of the attemptatis of the liegis of this realme, albeit the haill447 subjectis thairof, of all estaitis, is and ever hes bene reddy to give all debtfull obedience to thair Soveranis, and thair lawchfull ministeris, proceiding, be Godis ordinance: And the said armye of strangearis not being payed of waiges, was layed be her Grace upoun the neckis of the poore communitie of our native countree, who was compelled be force to defraude tham selfis, thair wyffis, and barnes, of that poore substance quhilk thei mycht conqueiss with the sweit of thair browis, to satisfie thair hungar and necessiteis, and quyte the samyn to susteane the idill bellies of thir strangearis. Throw the whiche in all partis raise sick havye lamentatioun, and complaint of the communitie, accusing the Nobilitie and Counsall of thair slewth, that as the same oppressioun we dowbt nott hes entered in befoir the justice-seat of God, sa hes it movit our heartis to rewth and compassioun. And for redressing of the samyn, with other great offenses committed against the publict weall of this realme, we have convened hear, as said is; and as oft tymes of befoir, hes maist humblie, and with all reverence, desyred and required the said Quene Regent, to redress the saidis enormities, and especiallie to remove her strangearis from the neckis of the poore communitie, and to desist fra interprysing or fortificatioun of strenthis within this realme, against the express will of the Nobilitie and Counsall of the same: Yitt we being convened the mair stark for feir of her strangearis, whome we saw presume na other thing bot with armes to persew our lyves and possessiounis, besoght hir Grace to remove the feare of the samyn, and mak the Towne patent to all our Soverane Lord and Ladyis liegis; the same on nawyise wald her Grace grant unto; but when some of our cumpany in peciable maner went to view the said towne, thair wes boyth great and small munitioun schot furth at thame. And seing thairfoir that neather access was granted to be used, nor yitt her Grace wald joyne her self to us, to consult upoun the effairis of our commoun-weall, as we448 that be borne Counsallouris to the same, be the ancient lawis of the realme; but fearing the judgement of the Counsall wald reforme, as necessitie requyred, the foirsaid enormities, sche refuisses all maner of assistance with us, and be force and violence intendis to suppresse the liberties of our commoun-weall, and of us the favoraris of the samyn: We, thairfoir, sa mony of the Nobilitie, Barones, and Provest of Burrowes, as ar tweichet with the cair of the commoun-weall, (unto the whiche we acknowledge our self nott onlie borne, bot alswa sworne protectouris and defendaris, against all and whatsomever invaidaris of the same,) and moved be the foirsaidis proceidingis notorious, and with the lamentable complaynt of oppressioun of our communitie, our fallow memberis of the samyn: perceaving farder, that the present necessitie of our commoun-weill may suffer na delay, being convenit (as said is) presentlie in Edinburgh, for supporte of our commoun-weall, and ryplie consulted and advisit, taking the fear of God befoir our eyis, for the causses foirsaidis, whiche ar notorious, with one consent and commoun vote, ilk man in ordour his judgement being required, In name and authoritie of our Soverane Lord and Lady, Suspendis the said Commissioun granted be our saidis Soveranis to the said Quene Dowager; dischargeing her of all administratioun or authoritie sche hes or may have thairby, unto the nixt Parliament to be sett be our advise and consent; and that becaus the said Quene, be the foirsaidis faltis notorious, declairis hir self ennemye to our commoun-weall, abusing the power of the said authoritie, to the destructioun of the samyn. And lyikwyise, we discharge all members of her said authoritie fra thinfurth; and that na cunze be cunzeit fra thinfurth without expresse consent of the said Counsall and Nobilitie, conforme to the lawis of this realme, whiche we manteane: And ordanis this to be notifeid and proclamed be Officiaris of Armes, in all head Burghis within the realme of Scotland. In witnes of the449 whiche, our commoun consent and free vote, we have subscrivit this present Act of Suspensioun with our handis, day, yeare, and place foirsaidis."

[(Sic subscribitur,)

By us, the Nobility and Commouns of the Protestants
of the Churche of Scotland.]10031003The words enclosed within brackets, occur both in MS. G. and Vautr. edit.; but neither copy has any signatures. Keith, in his remarks on this Act of Deposition of the Queen Regent, says, "And for this reason, (the few persons present at framing it,) perhaps, they thought fit not to sign the Act man by man, but to wrap it up after this general manner, viz., By us the Nobility," &c.—(Hist. vol. i. p. 237.) This evidently is a mistake, as the Act itself concludes with the express statement, "subscrivit with our handis," &c.—In the MS. of 1566, a blank space of half a page at the end of the above Act, has been left for the purpose of inserting the signatures, we may suppose, in a kind of fac-simile.

Keith previously mentions, that the Councillors who signed the Letter to the Queen, on the 23d October, were twenty-nine in number, viz., The Duke of Chatelherault; Earls, Arran, Eglinton, Argyll, Rothes, Morton, Glencairn, Marischal, Sutherland; Lords, Erskine, Ruthven, Home, Athens (Alexander Gordon, afterwards Bishop of Galloway,) the Prior of St. Andrews (Lord James Stewart,) Livingston, Master of Maxwell, Boyd, Ochiltree; Barons, Tullibardine, Glenorchy, Lindsay, Dun, Lauriston, Cunningham, Calder, Pittarrow; Provosts of Edinburgh, St. Andrews, Dundee. But see the note to the Letter itself, in the following page 451.

After that this our Act of Suspensioun was by sound of trumpett divulgat at the Mercat Croce of Edinburgh, we dismissed the Herauld with this answer:—

"Pleis your Grace,

"We resavit your answer, and heard the Credit of Lyoun King of Armes, whairby we gathered sufficientlie your perseverance in evill mynd toward us, the glorie of God, our commoun-weall, and libertie of our native countrey. For savetie of the whiche, according to our dewitie, We have in our Soverane Lord and Ladyeis name suspended your Commissioun, and all administratioun of the policey your Grace may pretend thairby, being maist assuiredlie persuaded, your450 proceidingis10041004In MS. G, "your doingis." Vautr. edit. has, "proceedings." ar direct contrair our Soveranes Lord and Ladyis will, whiche we ever esteame to be for the weall, and nott for the hurte of this our commoun-wealth. And as your Grace will nott acknawledge us, our Soverane Lord and Ladyis liegis, trew barones and liegis, for your subjectis and Counsall, na mair will we acknawledge yow for any Regent10051005In MS. G, "for our Regent." Vautr. edit. has, "anie." or lauchfull Magistrat unto us; seing, gif any auctoritie ye have be reassone of our Soveranis commissioun granted unto your Grace, the same, for maist wechtie reassones, is worthelie suspended be us, in the name and authoritie of our Soveranis, whais counsall we ar of in the effares of this our commoun-weall. And for als mekle as we ar determinat, with hasard of our lyves, to sett that towne10061006The town of Leith. at libertie, whairin ye have most wrangouslie planted10071007In MS. G, "placed." Vautr. edit. has, "planted." your soldiouris and strangearis, for the reverence we aucht to your persone, as Mother to our Soverane Lady, we require your Grace to transporte your persone thairfra, seing we ar constrayned,10081008In MS. G, "accustomed." for the necessitie of the commoun-weall, to sute the samyn be armes, being denyed of the libertie thairof, be sindree requisitionis maid of befoir. Attour, your Grace wald caus departe with yow out of the said towne, ony persone havand commissioun in ambassadore, yf any sick be, or in lieutennentschip of our Soveranis, together with all Frenchemen, soldiouris, being within the same, (whais bloode we thrust nott, becaus of the auld amitie and freindschip betuix the realme of France, and us, whiche amitie, be occasioun of the mariage of our Soverane Lady to the King of that realme, should rather increase nor decrease;) and this we pray your Grace and thame bayth to do within the space of twenty four houris, for the reverence we awcht unto your persones. And thus recommending our humill service to your451 Grace, we committ your Hienes to the eternall protectioun of God.

"At Edinburgh, the xxiij day10091009In Vautr. edit. "the 24 day;" and this date is followed in all the copies, excepting MS. G. of October 1559. "Your Graces humile Servitouris."10101010   In the British Museum (MSS. Cotton. Calig., B. x., f. 42.) there is a contemporary transcript of this Letter, which contains the signatures, or rather the names of the persons who signed it, as follows:
   "Your Grace's humble Serviteurs,

   The Council, having the authority unto the next Parliament, erected by common election of the Earls, Lords, and Barons, convened at Edinburgh, of the Protestant faction.

    (Earls.) My Lord Duke's Grace and Earl of Arran. The E. of Argile. The E. of Glencairn.
(Lords.) James of St. Andrews. The Lord Ruthven. The Master of Maxwell.
(Barons.) Tullibardine. The Laird of Dun. The Laird of Pittarrow. The Provost of Aberdeen, for the Burrows."

The day following, we summoned the towne of Leyth by the sound of trumpet, in forme as followeth:—

"I require and charge, in name of oure Soverane Lord and Lady, and of the Counsall presentlie in Edinburgh, that all Scottis and Frenche men, of whatsumever estait and degree thai be, that thei departe of this towne of Leyth within the space of twelf houris, and maik the samyn patent to all and sindrie our Soverane Ladyis liegis; for seing we have na sick haitrent at eyther that ane or that other,10111011In MS. G, "the ane and the other." Vautr. edit. has, "either the one or the other." Some other trivial differences in this Summonds occur in MS. G. that we thrust the bloode of any of the twa, for that ane is our naturall brother, borne, nurished, and broght up within the bowellis of ane commoun countree; and with that other, our natioun hes continewed lang amitie and allya, and hopis that sa shall do sa lang as swa thei list to use us, and nott suite to maik slavis of freindis, whiche this strenthnyng of oure townis pretendis. And thairfoir maist hartlie desyres that ane and that uther,452 to desist frome fortifeing and manteanyng of this towne, in our Soveranis and thair said Counsallis name, desyres thame to maik the same free within the space of xij houris."


Defiance gevin, thair was skarmissing, without great slawchtter. Preparatioun of scailles10121012In the MS. of 1566, "scalles." and ledderis was maid for the assault, whiche was concluded by commoun consent of the Nobilitie and Barones. The scailles war appointed to be maid in Sanct Gelis Churche, so that preaching was neglected, whiche did nott a little greve the Preachearis, and many godlie with thame. The Preacharis spared not openlie to say, "That thei feared the successe of that interpryse should nott be prosperous, becaus the begynnyng appeired to bring with it some contempt of God and of his word. Other places, (said thei,) had bene more apt for suche preparationis, then whare the people convenit to commoun prayeris and unto preacheing." In verray deid the audience was wounderfullie trubled all that10131013In MS. G, "at that." tyme, whiche (and other mysordour espyed amanges us) gave occasioun to the Preachearis to efferme, "That God could nott suffer suche contempt of his worde, and abuses of his grace, long to be unpunished." The Quene had amangis us her assured espiallis, who did not onlie signifie unto her what wes our estait, bot also what was our counsall, purposes, and devises. Borne of our awin company war vehementlie suspected to be the verray betrayouris of all our secreattis; for a boy of the Officiallis of Lowthiane, Maister James Balfour,10141014In May 1555, we find him styled, "Maister James Balfoure, Officiall of Sanctandrois, within the Archedenerie of Lowthiane."—(Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 378.) was tackin carying a writting, whiche did open the maist secreat thing was devised in the Counsall; yea, these verray thingis whiche war thocht10151015In MS. G, "quhilk we thocht." to have bene knawin but to a verray few.


By suche domesticall ennemyis war nott onlie our purposes frustrat, bot also our determinationis wer oftyme owerthrowin and changed. The Dukis freindis geve unto him suche terrouris, that he was greatlie trubled; and by his fear war trubled many otheris. THE UNGODLIE SOLDIOURIS The men of warr (for the maist parte wer men without God or honestie) made a mutiney, becaus thai lacked a parte of thair waiges: Thei had done the same in Lynlythqw befoir, quhair thei maid a proclamatioun, "That thei wald serve any man to suppress the Congregatioun, and sett up the Messe agane." Thai maid a fray upoun the Erle of Ergylis Hieland men, and slew one of the principall children of his chalmer; who notwithstanding behaved him self so moderatlie, and so studiouse to pacifie that tumult, that many woundered alsweill of his prudent counsall and stowtness, as of the great obedience of his cumpany. The ungodlie soldiouris notwithstanding maligned, and continewing in thair mysordour, thei boasted the Lard of Tullybarne10161016Sir William Murray of Tullibardine. and uther Noble men, who cohorted thame to quyetness. THE QUEIN REGENTIS PRACTISES All these trubles war practised by the Quene, and putt in executioun by the tratouris amangis our selff; who, albeit they then lurked, and yitt ar not manifestlie noted, yitt we dowbt not but God shall utter thame to thair confusioun, and to the example of utheris. To pacifie the men of warr, a collectioun was devised. But becaus some wer poore, and some wer nigardis and avaritiouse, thair could no sufficient sowme be obteined. THE FACT OF THE COUNSALL It was thocht expedient that a cunze should be erected, that everie Noble man should cunzie his silver work to supplie the present necessitie; and thairthrow David Forress, Johne Harte,10171017John Hart was connected with the Mint in some subordinate capacity. His name does not occur among the Officers of the Mint, in the Treasurer's Accounts, at this time; but it occurs in a proclamation, dated 5th March 1574, respecting the false and adulterated coins (placks and hard-heads) which were ordered to be brought to the Mint.—(Lindsay's Coinage of Scotland, pp. 184, 239.) and454 utheris who befoir had charge of the Cunzie-house,10181018The Cunyie House, or Scotish Mint, was near the foot of Gray's Close, entering from the Cowgate, and formed a kind of small court or square. But these buildings bear the date of having been erected in 1574. The Mint had previously been moved from one place to another, such as Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood House, Dalkeith, &c. Thus we find in the Treasurer's Accounts, February 1562-3, is the following payment:—"Item, allowit to the Comptar, be payment maid be Johne Achesoun, Maister Cwnzeour, to Maister William MʻDowgale, Maister of Werk, for expensis maid be him vpon the bigging of the Cwnze-house, within the Castell of Edinburgh, and beting of the Cwnze-house within the Palace of Halierudhouse, fra the xi day of Februar 1559 zeris, to the 21 of April 1560, &c., £460, 4s. 1d." did promeise thair faythfull lawbouris. THE TREASOUN OF JOHNE HEART Bot when the mater come to the verray point, the said Johne Heart, and utheris of his factioun, stall away, and tuk with thame the instrumentis apt for thair purpose. Whetther this was done by the falsheid and feablenes of the said Johnne, or the practising of otheris, is yitt uncertane. Rested then no hoip amangis our selfis that any money could be furnessed; and thairfoir it was concluded, by a few of those whom we judged most secreat, that Schir Raiff Saidlair, and Schir James Croftis,10191019In the view of affording aid to the Lords of the Congregation, a commission was granted to the Earl of Northumberland, Sir Ralph Sadler, and Sir James Crofts. The ostensible object was the settlement of some Border disputes, which were arranged on the 22d September; but by remaining at Berwick, they were able, with greater facility and secrecy, to hold communication with the Protestant party in Scotland, without apparently infringing the Treaty of Peace which had previously been concluded. Sadler's private instructions to this effect are dated 8th August 1559, and he was empowered to treat with any persons he thought advisable, and to distribute, with all due discretion and secrecy, money to the extent of £3000.—(Sadler's State Papers, vol. i. pp. xxix. 391.) The arrival of the French troops in aid of the Queen Regent, led to a more direct and ostensible assistance on the part of England, in sending auxiliary forces to support the Scotish Reformers. then having charge at Berwik, should be tempted, yf thei wald supporte us with any reassonable soume in that urgent necessitie. And for that purpose, was the Lard of Ormestoun directed unto thame in so secreat maner as we could devise. Bot yit our counsall was disclosed to the Quene, who appointed the Lord Bothwell, (as him selff confessed,) to wait455 upoun the returnyng of the said Lard, as that he did with all diligence; and so being assuredlie informed by what way he came, the said Erle Bothwell foirsett10201020In MS. G, "beset;" in Vautr. edit. "foreset." his way, and cuming upoun him at unwares, did tack him, after that he was evill wounded in the heid;10211021   John Cockburn of Ormistoun has already been noticed, in the notes to pages 142, 215, 237, &c. In October 1559, he received at Berwick, from Sir Ralph Sadler and Sir James Crofts, £1000 sterling, in French crowns, for the present relief of the Lords of the Congregation; and also 200 crowns (or £63, 6s. 8d.) which was given to him for his own use. But the Earl of Bothwell, and some of the French troops, being informed of this booty, waylaid him near Dunpendar-law, in East Lothian, on the last of October, and robbed him of this treasure, wounding him severely.—(Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. p. 70.) On the 5th November, Sadler and Crofts wrote to Secretary Cecil, with the information of the "mishap" which "hath chaunced to the saide Ormestoun, to our no little grief and displeasure."—(State Papers, vol. i. pp. 528, 538, 542, 600.) Cockburn is introduced among the "Scotish Worthies," in a work written in verse, by Alexander Garden of Aberdeen, before the year 1620, but which seems never to have been printed, and the MS. unfortunately cannot now be traced. Garden calls him "ane honourable and religious gentleman, very dilligent and zealous in the work of Reformation:" "For perrels, promises, expense nor pains, From thy firm faith no not a grain weight gains."
   And, in reference to Bothwell's attack, he says,—
"Thy blood-shed sooth'd and taught this time, I know, When curtfoot Bothwell like a limmer lay, (A traytor try'd, yea, and a tirrant too,) And unawarrs did wound thee on the way."
   (MS. Hist. of the Family of Cockburn of Ormistoun, circa 1722.)
for nether could he gett his led horse, nor yitt his steall bonet. With him was tacken the sowme of four thowsand crownis of the sone, whiche the forenammed Schir Raiff and Schir James moist lovinglie had send for our supporte. The bruit heirof cuming to our earis, oure dolour was dowbled; not so muche for the loss of the money, as for the tynsall of the gentilman, whome we suspected to have bene slane, or at the least that he should be delivered to the Quenis handis. And so upoun the suddane, the Erle of Errane, the Lord James, the Maister of Maxwell, with the most parte of the horsemen, took purpose to persew the said Erle Bothwell, yf thei mycht apprehend him in Creychttoun or Morhame, whittherto (as thei war informed) he had re456teared him self after his treassonable fact: We call his fact treassonable, becaus that thrie dayis befoir he had send his especiall servand, Maister Michaell Balfour, to us to Edinburgh, to purchese of the Lordis of the Counsall licence to come and speak us; whiche we granted, efter that he had promesed, that in the meantyme he should neather hurte us, neather yitt any till us appertenyng, till that he should writt his answer agane, whitther that he wald joyne with us or not. THE ERLE BOTHWELL FALS IN PROMEISE, AND HIS TREASONABLE FACT He gave us farder to understand, that he wald discharge him self of the Quene, and thairefter wald assist us. And yitt in this meantyme, he crewelly and tratorouslie hurte and spuilzeid the noble man foirsaid. Albeit that the departure and counsall of the Erle of Arrane and Lord James, with thair cumpany foirsaid, wes verray suddane and secreat; yitt was the Erle Bothwell,10221022James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, succeeded his father, Patrick third Earl, in September 1556: see page 140. At this time he was in secret correspondence with the Reformers, and had professed attachment to their cause; but being gained over by the Queen Dowager, this spoliation of Cockburn of Ormistoun displayed the insincerity of his character. The Earl of Arran and Lord James Stewart proceeded with 2000 men "to revenge the said injury, thinking to find the Earl Bothwell in Creichtoun; but a little before their coming to the said place, he was depairted," &c.—(Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. p. 70.) then being in Crychttoun, advertissed, and so eschaiped with the money, whiche he took with him self, as the Capitane of his house, John Somervaill, (whiche was tackin without lang persuyte,) confessed and affermed. Becaus the Noble men that soght redress, soght rather his saiftie and reconsiliatioun; then destructioun and haitrent thei committed his house to the custody of a capitane, to witt, Capitane Forbess, to whome, and to all soldiouris thair left, was gevin a schairpe commandiment, that all thingis found within the said hous of Crychttoun,10231023Crichton Castle, now in ruins, was formerly a place of considerable strength, with an interior quadrangle. At this time it belonged to the Earl of Bothwell. It is situated in the parish of that name, in the east part of Mid-Lothian, about eleven miles from Edinburgh. (which war putt in inventorie in presence of the Lordis,) should be keipt till that457 the Erle Bothwell should geve answer, whitther he wald maik restitutioun or nott. Tyme of advertisment was granted unto him the hole day subsequent, till going doune of the sone.

In absence of the saidis Lordis and horsemen, (we meane the same day that thei departed, whiche wes the last of October,) the Provest and towne of Dundye, togetther with some soldiouris, passed furth of the toune of Edinburgh, and caryed with thame some great ordinance to schuitt at Leyth. The Duck his Grace, the Erle of Glencarne, and the rest of the Noble men, wer gone to the preacheing, whair thei continewed to nye twelf houris. The Frenche being advertissed by ane named10241024The name is left blank in all the MSS. Clerk, (who after was apprehended,) that our horsemen wer absent, and that the hole companye wer at dennar, issched, and with great expeditioun came to the place whair our ordinance wes laid. THE FIRST DEFAIR10251025In Vautr. edit. "The first departing of." OF THE CONGREGATIOUN The towne of Dundye, with a few otheris, resisted a whill, alsweall with thair ordinance as haquebuttis; but being left of our ungodlye and feable soldiouris, who fled without strok offered or gevin, thei war compelled to give back, and so to leave the ordinance to the ennemyis, who did farder persew the fugitives, to witt, to the myddis of the Cannogaite, and to the fute of Leyth Wynd. THE CRUELTIE OF THE FRENCHE Thair crewelty then began to discover the self; for the decrepit, the aiged, the women and childrein, fand no greater favouris in thair furye, then did the strang man, who maid resistance.

It was verray appeiring, that amanges our selfis thair wes some treassoun. For when, upoun the first alarm, all man maid haist for releve of thair brethren, whome in verray deid we mycht have saved, and at least we mycht have saved the ordinance, and have keapt the Cannogait from danger; for we wer anis merched fordwarte with bold curage, but then, (we say,) wes a schowt reased amonges our selfis, (God will dis458cloise the traytouris one day,) affermyng "That the hole Frenche cumpanye war entered in at Leyth Wynd upoun our backis." What clamor and misordour did then suddanelie arryise, we list nott to expresse with multiplicatioun of wordis. The horsemen, and some of those that aught to have putt ordour to otheris, over-rod thair poore brethren at the enteress of the Netthir Bow. The crye of discomforte arose in the toun; the wicked and malignant blasphemed; the feable, (amanges whome the Justice Clerk, Schir Johne Bannatyne10261026In Vautr. edit. "Bannantine;" in MS. G, "Bellenden." Sir John Bellenden has frequently been mentioned: see pages 358, 400. was,) fledd without mercye: With great difficultie could thei be keapt in at the Weast Porte. Maister Gavin Hammyltoun10271027Mr. Gawyn Hamilton: in MS. G. is added, "Abbote of Kilwynning:" See note 778. cryed with a lowd voce, "Drynk now as ye have browen." The Frenche perceaving, be the clamour of our fray, followed, as said is, to the myddis of the Cannogait, to no great nomber, bott a twenty or thretty of thair infantes perdues.10281028Vautr. edit. makes this, "of their infants losse." It is the French phrase, "Les enfans perdus d'une armée," the forlorn hope of an army. For in that meantyme the rest reteired thame selves with our ordinance. THE ERLE OF ERGYLE The Erle of Ergyle and his men wer the first that stopped the fleying of our men, and compelled the Porte to be opened efter that it was schoot. LORD ROBERT STEWART Bott in verray deid, Lord Robert Stewarte,10291029Lord Robert Stewart was the natural son of James the Fifth, by Euphemia Elphinstone. He had a grant of the Abbacy of Holyrood in 1539, while yet an infant; Alexander Myln, Commendator of Cambuskenneth, being administrator. He joined the Reformers, and approved of the Confession of Faith in 1560. In 1569, he exchanged his Abbacy with Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, for the temporalities of that Bishoprick. His lands in Orkney and Zetland were erected into an Earldom in his favour, 28th October 1581. Abbot of Halyrudehouse, was the first that isched out. After him followed many upoun the backis of the Frenche. At last cam my Lord Duck, and then was no man mair frack nor was Maister Gavin Hammyltoun foirsaid. The Frenche brunt a baikhouse, and tooke some spuilzie from the459 poores of the Cannogait. Thei slew a Papist and dronken preast, named Schir Thomas Sklatter, ane aiged man, a woman gevin sowk and her child, and of oure soldiouris to the nomber of ten. Certane wer tane, amongis whome Capitane Mowat was one, [and] Maister Charles Geddes, servitour to the Maister of Maxwell.


The Castell10301030In MS. G, "The Capitain of the Castell." Vautr. edit. is the same as the text, in omitting these words. that day schot ane schott at the Frenche, declairing thame thairby freindis to us, and ennemy to thame; bott he suddanelie repented of weall-doing. THE QUEIN REGENTIS REJOSING, AND UNWOMANLIE BEHAVIOUR The Queyn glad of victorye, sat upoun the ramparte to salute and welcome hir victorious suddartis.10311031In MS. G. and Vautr. edit. "victorious souldiours," or "soldiers." One brought a kirtill, one uther ane pettycote, the thrid, a pote or pane; and of invy more then womanlie lawchtter, sche asked, "Whair bocht ye your ware? Je pense10321032In the MS. of 1566, "pause." que vous l'aves achete sans argent."10331033Or, "I think you have bought it without money." This was the great and motherlie cayre whiche schee tooke for the truble of the poore subjectis of this realme.


The Erle Bothwell, lifted up in his awin conceat, be reassoun of this our repulse and disconfitour, utterlie refused any restitutioun; and so within two dayis after was his house spulzeid, in whiche war no thingis of ony great importance, his evidentis and certane clothing excepted. Frome that day back, the curage of many was dejected. With great difficultie could men be reteaned in the towne; yea, some of the greatast estimatioun determined with thame selfis to leave the interpryise. Many fled away secreatlie, and those that did abyd, (a verray few excepted,) appeared destitut of counsall and manheid. The Maister of Maxwell,10341034Sir John Maxwell, who afterwards, in his wife's right, as co-heiress, assumed the title of Lord Herries. See note 769. a man stowt and wittie, foirseing the danger, desyrit moist gravelie eyther to tak suche ordour that thei mycht remane to the terrour of460 the ennemy, or ellis that thei should reteyre thame selfis with thair ordinance and baneris displeyed in ordour. But the wittis of men being dasched, no counsall could prevaill. Thus we continewed from the Wednisday, the last of October, till Mononday the fyft of November,10351035Knox has here mistaken the particular days: Wednesday was the first, and Monday the sixth of November. never two or thrie abyding ferme in one opinioun the space of twenty-four houris. The pestilent wittis of the Quenis practisaris did then exercise thame selfis, (God sall recompanse thair maliciouse craft in thair awin bosome, we dowbt not;) for thei caused two godlie and fordward young men, the Lardis of Pharnyherst and Cesfurd,10361036The persons here named were Ker of Cessfurd, and Ker of Pharnihurst. who ones had glaidlie joyned thame selfis with us, to withdraw thame selfis and thair freindis: The same thei did to the Erle Mortoun, who promissed to be oures, but did never planelie joyne. Thei intysed the Capitane of the Castell to deny us supporte, in caise we war persewed; and, finallie, the counsall of some was no less pestiferous against us, then was the counsall of Achitophell against David and his discomforted soldiouris. "Rander, O Lord, to the wicked according to thair malice."


Upoun Mononday, the fyft10371037Monday was the sixth of November: see above, note 1035. of November, did the Frenche ische out of Leyth betymes, for kepping10381038In MS. G, "for keiping;" in Vautr. edit. "keeping." of the victuallis whiche should have cumed to us. We being trubled amanges our selfis, and, as said is, devided in opinionis, wer neather circumspect when thei did ische, neather yitt did we follow with suche expeditioun as had bene meitt for men that wald have sought our advantage. Our soldiouris could skarslie be dong furth of the towne. The Erle of Arrane, Lord James, and a certane with thame, maid haist. Many honest man then followed, and maid suche diligence, that thei caused the Frenche ones to retear somewhat effrayedlie. The rest461 that ware in Leyth, perceaving the danger of thair fallowis, isshed out for thair succurse. The Erle of Arrane and Lord James foirsaid, being more fordward nor prudent and circumspect, did compell the Capitanes, as is allegeit, to bring thare men so ney, that eyther thei must neidis have hasarded battell with the hole Frenche men, (and that under the mercy of thair cannonis also,) or ellis thei must neidis reteyre in a verray narrow cure.10391039In MS. G. and Vautr. edit. "corner." For our men warr approched ney10401040In MS. G, "neir." to Restalrig. The one parte of the Frenche wer upoun the north towardis the sea, the other parte marched frome Leyth to Edinburgh; and yitt thei marched so, that we could have foughten neather cumpany, befoir that thei should have joyned. We took purpoise thairfoir to reteire towardis the towne, and that with expeditioun, least that the formare cumpany of the Frenche should eyther have invaided the towne, befoir that we could have cumed to the reskew thairof, or ellis have cutted us of from the entress, at the Abbay of Halyrudhouse, as appeirandlie thei had done, yf that the Lard of Grange and Alexander Quhytlaw, with a few horsemen, had nott stayed boith thair horsemen and thair footmen. The cumpany whiche was nixt us, perceaving that we reteired with speid, send furth thair skyrmissaris, to the nomber of thre or foure hundreth, who took us att ane disadvantage; befoir us having the myre of Restalrig10411041   The village of Restalrig is situated about half a mile to the north-east of Holyrood House. It was formerly a place of some importance, and contained a collegiate Church, founded by King James the Second, with a Dean, nine prebendaries, and two singing-boys. A portion of this Church has been restored, and fitted up as a place of worship in connexion with the Parish Church of South Leith. The myre was no doubt that low marshy ground, formerly covered with water, which extended to the precincts, or "the park-dyke," of the Palace and Abbey of Holyrood. In a lease of the Park of Holyroodhouse, to "John Huntar, burgess of the Cannogait," a special charge is included "for uphalding and repairing of our said Park dyke, and casteing and redding of the fowseis about the medowis," &c.; and also for "the keping of the said Park, the Abbotis medow, and groundless myre within the same." 20th March 1564-5.—(Register of Signatures, vol. i.)
    Sadler and Crofts, in a letter written about the 7th of November 1559, (vol. i. p. 554,) have given an account of this skirmish, fought at Restalrig on the previous day, on which occasion the Protestant party, commanded by the Earl of Arran and Lord James Stewart, were surrounded in the marshy ground, and their retreat to Edinburgh only accomplished with a loss of thirty men slain, and forty taken prisoners.
betuix us and thame, so that in462 no wise we could charge thame; and we war inclosed by the park dyke,10421042In Vautr. edit. "parke dich." so that in nowyse we could avoid thair schott. Thair horsmen followed upoun our taillis, and slew diverse; our awin10431043MS. G. omits "awin;" in Vautr. edit. it is, "owne." horsemen over-rode our futemen; and so be reassoun of the narrowness of the place, thair was no resistance maid. The Erle of Arrane, and Lord James, in great danger, lyghted amanges the footmen, exhorting thame to have some respect to ordour, and to the saiftie of thair brethren, whome, by thair fleying, thei exponed to murther, and so war cryminall of thair deth. Capitane Alexander Halyburtoun, a man that feared God, taryed with certane of his soldiouris behynd, and maid resistance, till that he was first schote and tackin. Bot being knawin, those cruell murtheraris wounded him in diverse partis to the death.10441044Captain Alexander Halyburton, at page 360, is mentioned by Knox as the brother of James Halyburton, Provost of Dundee, with whom he is by some modern writers confounded. He had previously been in the Queen's service, as in August 1555, he received £75, for his pension of the Whitsunday term.—(Treasurer's Accounts.) Bishop Lesley, in his account of this skirmish, which he places about the end of September, says, that the French troops were "not content to be sieged within the toun" of Leith; "at last, thay come fordwarte with their hoill forces, purposing to invayde the toune of Edinburgh; bot the Scottis men come furth of the toun, albeit out of ordour, and encontered the Frenche men apoun the croftis besyde the Abbay of Holieruidhous, betuix Leithe and Edinburgh; quhair the Scottis men war put to flyte, and Capitane Alexander Halieburton with mony utheris was slayne, and the Frenche men persewit the chase evin to the poirtis of Edinburgh, and had maid gret slauchter, war not thair was twa gret cannonis schot furth of the Castell at the Frenche army, quhilk stayed thame frome forder persuit; so they retered agane to Leithe."—(History, p. 279.) And yit, as it war by the power of God, he was brocht in to the toun, whair in few, but yit most plane wordis, he gave confessioun of his fayth, testifeing,463 "That he dowbted nothing of Godis mercy, purchassed to him by the bloode of Christ Jesus; neather yit that he repented, that it pleased God to maik him worthie to sched his bloode, and spend his lyif in the defence of so just a cause." THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER HALYBURTOUN, CAPITANE And thus, with the dolour of many, he ended his dolour, and did enter, (we dowt nott,) in that blessed immortalitie within two houris efter that we war defait.10451045This sentence in MS. G. reads, "And thus with dolour of many, he ended his dolour within two hours efter the defate, and enter, we doubt not, in that blissit immortality, quhilk abydes all that beleve in Christ Jesus trewly." All the later MSS. correspond verbatim with Vautrollier's edit., which is the same with the text above, except the latter words, "within two hours after our departure." Thare war slane to the nomber of twenty-four or thretty men, the maist parte poore. Thair war tackin the Lard of Pitmyllie, the Lard of Pharny youngar, the Maister of Bowchane, George Luvell of Dundie,10461046The persons here mentioned as having been taken prisoners, were probably David Monypenny of Pitmilly, or his son David; Andrew Fernie of Fernie, in the parish of Monimail, the property having afterwards come by marriage into the family of Arnot; James Stewart, Master of Buchan, second son of John third Earl of Buchan, (his elder brother John having been killed at Pinkie in 1547); and George Lovell, a burgess of Dundee. On the 4th November 1555, George Lovell, burgess of Dundee, and Margaret Rollok, his wife, had a charter under the Great Seal, of certain acres of land in the lordship of Dudhope, Forfarshire. On the previous month, he obtained a letter of legitimation for his bastard son Alexander. In May 1559, Lovell was fined £40, by the Justice Depute, as security for Paul Methven, in consequence of his non-appearance at trial. and some otheris of lowar estait; Johnne Dunbar, Lieutennent to Capitane Mowet.10471047In the MS. of 1566, a blank space is left here, and at the end of the next sentence, as if for the purpose of adding some farther details, which may explain the apparent want of connexion. Capitane David Murray had his horse slane, and him self hurte10481048In MS. G, "schote." Vautr. edit. has "hurte." in the leg.


Few dayis befoir oure first defait, whiche was upon Alhallow Evin,10491049All-hallow even, the last day of October, being the eve of Hallowmas, of All-Saints. Williame Maitland of Lethingtoun younger,10501050William Maitland, the eldest son of Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, became Secretary to Queen Mary, in 1561. Secreattar to the Quene, perceaving him self not onlye to be suspected464 as one that favored our parte, bot also to stand in danger of his lyiff, yf he should remane amangis sa ungodlie a cumpany; for quhensoevir materis came in questioun, he spaired not to speik his conscience; whiche libertie of toung, and gravitie of judgement, the Frenche did heyghlie disdane. Whiche perceaved by him, he convoyed him self away in a mornyng, and randered him self to Maister Kirkcaldye, Lard of Grange, who cuming to us, did exhorte us to constancie, assuring us, that in the Quene thair was nothing but craft and deceat. He travailled exceidinglie to have reteaned the Lordis togidder, and maist prudentlie laid befoir thair eyis the dangearis that myeht ensew thair departing of the town. Bot fear and dolour had so seazed10511051In the orig. MS. "ceased." the hartis of all, that thei could admitt no consolatioun. The Erle of Arrane, and Lord James, offered to abyd, yff any reassonable cumpany wald abyd with thame. Bott men did so steall away, that the witt of man could not stay thame. Yea, some of the greatast determined planelie that thei wald not abyd. THE LORD ERSKYN DECLAIRED HIM SELF ENNEMYE TO THE CONGREGATIOUN The Capitane of the Castell, than Lord Ersken, wald promeise unto us no favouris. But said, "He most neidis declair himself freind to those that war able to supporte and defend him." Whiche answer gevin to the Lord James,10521052MS. G. adds, "his Sister-son." Vautr. edit. omits these additional words. discoraged those that befoir had determined to have biddin the uttermost, rather then to have abandoned the towne, so that the Castell wald have stand10531053In MS. G, "have stude;" in Vautr. edit. "wold have stood." thair friend. But the contrarie declaired, everie man took purpose for him self. The complaintis of the brethren within the towne of Edinburgh was lamentable and sore. The wicked then began to spew furth the vennoum whiche befoir lurked in thare cankered hearte. The godly, alsweall those that war departed, as the inhabitants of the towne, wer so trubled, that some of thame wald have preferred death to lyve, at Godis pleasur.465 For avoiding of danger, it was concludit that thei should departe at mydnycht. The Duik maid provisioun for his ordinance, and caused it to be send befoir; but the rest was left to the cayr of the Capitane of the Castell, who receaved it, alsweall that whiche appertenith to Lord James, as that of Dundy. THE DISPYTE OF THE PAPISTIS OF EDINBURGH The dispytfull toungis of the wicked raylled upoun us, calling us traytouris and heretiques: everie ane provoked other to cast stanes at us. One cryed, "Allace, yf I mycht see;" ane other, "Fye, give advertisment to the Frenche men that thei may come, and we shall help thame now to cutt the throttis of these heretiques." And thus, as the sword of dolour passed throught our heartis, so war the cogitationis and formar determinationis of many heartis then reveilled. THE WORST IS NOT YIT COME TO OUR ENNEMYES For we wald never have belevit that our naturall countrey men and wemen could have wisshed our destructioun so unmercifullie, and have so rejosed in our adversitie: God move thair heartis to repentance! for ellis we fear that He whose caus we susteane sall lett thame feill the weght of the yock of crewell strangearis, in whose handis thei wisshed us to have bene betrayed. We stayed nott till that we came to Striveling, whiche we did the day efter that we departed from Edinburgh; for it was concluded, that thair consultatioun should be tacken, what was the nixt remeady in so desperat a mater.


The nixt Wedinsday, whiche was the 7. of November,10541054Wednesday was the 8th of November. Johnne Knox preached, (Johne Willock was departed to England, as befoir he had appointed,) and entreated the 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 versicules of the Fourscoir Psalme, whair David, in the persoune of the afflicted people of God, speaketh thus:10551055In the MS. of 1566, "this." The fourt verse: "O thow the Eternall, the God of hostis, how long shall thow be angree against the prayer of thy people. 5. Thow hest fed us with the bread of tearis, and hath gevin to us tearis to drynk in great measure. 6. Thow466 hest maid us a stryf unto our nychtbouris, and our ennemyis laugh us to scorne amangis thame selfis. 7. O God of hostis, turne us agane: maik thy face to schyne, and we shalbe saved." [8. Thow hes brocht a vine out of Egypte: thow hes cast out the heathen, and planted it.]10561056Verse 8, supplied from MS. G, is omitted in the MS. of 1566, and in Vautr. edit. &c.


This Psalme had the said Johne begun in Edinburgh, as it war foirseing our calamitie, of whiche in verray deid he did not obscurelie speik, butt planelie did admonishe us, that he was assured of trubles suddanelie to come; and thairfoir exhorted all men to prayeris. He entreated the three first versicles in Edinburgh, to the conforte of many. He declaired the argument of the Psalme, affermeing for his judgment, that it was maid by David him self, who, in the spreitt of prophesye, foirsaw the miserable estait of Godis people, especiallie after that the Ten Tribes wer devided, and departed frome the obedience of Juda; for it was nott, (said he,) without caus that Josephe, Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasse, war especiallie named, and nott Juda; to witt, becaus that thei came first to calamitie, and war translaited from thair awin inheritance, whill that Juda yitt possessed the kingdome. He confessed that justlie thei war punished for idolatrie committed. But he affirmed, that amanges thame continewalie thair remaned some trew wirschipparis of God, for whose conforte war the Propheittis send, alsweill to call thame to reapentance, as to assure thame of deliverance, and of the promisse of God to be performed unto thame.


He divided the Psalme in three partis, to wit, in a prayer: 2. In the ground whairupoun thair prayer was founded: 3. And in the lamentable complaintis, and the vow whiche thei maik to God. Thare prayer was, "That God should convert and turne thame; that he should maik his face to schyn upoun thame; and that he should restoir thame to thair formar dignitie." The groundis and fundationis of467 thair prayeris ware, 1. That God him self had becum pastour and governour unto thame: 2. That he had tacken the protectioun of thame in his awin hand: 3. That he had chosin his habitatioun amangis thame: 4. That he had delivered thame frome bondage and thraldome: 5. That he had multiplyed and blessed thame with many notable benedictionis. Upoun those Two partis he gave these notis:—

First, That the felicitie of Godis people may not be measured by any externall appeirance; for oftyn it is, that the same people, to whome God becumis not onlye creator, bot also pastour and protectour, is more seveirlie intreated, then those nationis whair verray ignorance and contempt of God reigneth.

Secondlie, That God never maid his acquentance and leigue with any people by his worde, bott that thare he had some of his elect; who, albeit thei suffered for a tyme in the myddis of the wicked, yitt in the end thei fand conforte, and felt in verray experience, that Godis promisses ar nott in vane.

Thridlie, That these prayeris wer dyted unto the people by the Holy Ghost, befoir thei came to the uttermost of truble, till assure thame that God, by whose Spreit the prayare was dited, wald nott contempt the same in the myddis of thair calamities.

The Thrid parte, conteynyng the lamentable complaynt, he entreated in Stryveling, in presence of my Lord Duik, and of the hole Counsall. In the expositioun whairof, he declaired, Whairfoir God somtymes suffered his chosin flock to be exponed to mockage, to dangearis, and to appeiring destructioun; to witt, that thei may feill the vehemencye of Godis indignatioun; that thei may knaw how litill strenth is in thair selfis; that thei may leave a testimony to the generationis following, alsweill of the malice of the Devill against Goddis people, as of the mervaillouse werk of God, in preserving his litill flock by far other meanes then man can468 espye. In explanyng these wordis, "How long shall thow be angree, O Lord, against the prayer of thy people?" he declaired, How dolorouse and fearfull it was to feght against that tentatioun, that God turned away his face from our prayaris; for that was nothing ellis then to comprehend and conceave God to be armed to our destructioun: whiche temptatioun no flesche can abyd nor owercome, onless the mychtie Spreit of God interpone the self suddanelie.

The example he gave, the impatience of Saule, when God wald nott hear his prayaris. The difference betuix the elect and reprobate in that temptatioun, he planelie declaired to be, that the elect, susteaned by the secreat power of Goddis Spreit, did still call upoun God, albeit that he appeared to contempt thair prayaris; whiche, (said he,) is the sacrifice most acceptable to God, and is in a maner evin to feght with God, and to ovircum him, as Jacob did in warsling with his Angell. Butt the reprobat, (said he,) being denyed of thair requeastis at Godis hand, do eather cease to pray, and altogitther contempt God, who straitlie commandeth us to call upoun him in the day of adversitie; or ellis thei seik at the Devill that whiche thei see thei can nott obteane by God.

In the Secound parte he declared, how hard it was to this corrupt nature of ouris not to rejose and putt confidence in the self, when God geveth victorye; and thairfoir how necessare it was that man by afflictioun should be brocht to the knawledge of his awin infirmitie, least that, puffed up with vane confidence, he maik ane idoll of his awin strenth, as did King Nabuchadnezzar. He did gravelie disput upoun the nature of the blynd warld, whiche, in all ages, hath insolentlie rejosed when God did chasten his awin children, whose glory and honour, becaus the reprobat can never see, thairfoir thei dispyise thame, and the wonderouse werk of God in thame. And yit, (said he,) the joy and rejosing of the warld is but meare sorrow, becaus the end of it tendith to suddane destructioun, as the ryatouse469 banquetting of Balthasar declaireth. Applying these headis to the tyme and personis, (he said,) yf none of Goddis children had suffered befoir us the same injureis that presentlie we susteane, these our trubles wald appear intollerable; suche is our tender delicacie, and self luif of our awin flesche, that those thingis whiche we lychtlie pass over in otheris, we can greatlie complane of, yf thei tweiche our selfis. I dowbt not bot that some of us have ofter then ones redd this Psalme, as also that we have redd and heard the travaill and trubles of our ancient fatheris.10571057In MS. G, "forefathers;" in Vautr. edit. "auncient fathers." But whiche of us, eather in reading or hearing thair dolouris and temptationis, did so discend in to oure selfis that we felt the bitterness of thair passionis? I think none. And thairfoir hes God brocht us to some experience in our awin personis.


But, yit, because the mater may appeir obscure, onless it be more propirlie applyed, I can nott bot of conscience use suche plainnes as God shall grant unto me. Oure faces ar this day confounded, oure ennemyes triumphe, oure heartis have quaiked for fear, and yitt thei remane oppressed with sorrow and schame. But what shall we think to be the verray cause that God hath thus dejected us? Yf I shall say, our synnes and formar unthankfulness to God, I speik the treuth. Butt yitt I spack more generalie then necessitie required: for when the synnes of men ar rebucked in generall, seldome it is that man discendeth within him self, accusing and dampnyng in him self that whiche most displeaseth God. Butt rather he dowttis that to be a cause, whiche befoir God is no cause in deid. For example, the Israelitis, feghting against the tribe of Benjamin, wer twise discomfeitted, with the loss of fourtie thowsand men. Thei lamented and bewailled boyth first and last; but we fynd nott that thei cam to the knawledge of thair offence and synne, whiche wes the cause that thei fell in the edge of the sworde; but rather thei dowted that to have470 bene a cause of thair mysfortoun, whiche God had commanded: for thei ask, "Shall we go and feght any more against our brethren, the sonnes of Benjamin?" By whiche questioun, it is evident, that thei supposed that the caus of thair overthrow and discomfeit was, becaus thei had lifted the sword against thair brethren and naturall countreymen. And yitt, the expresse commandiment of God that wes gevin unto thame, did deliver thame from all cryme in that caise. And yitt, no dowte but that thare wes some caus in the Israelitis that God gave thame so over in the handis of those wicked men, against whom he send thame, by his awin expressed commandiment, till execut his judgementis. LETT SCOTLAND YITT TACK HEAD Suche as do weall mark the historye and the estait of that people, may easilie see the caus why God wes offended. All the haill people had declyned from God; idolatrie was manteaned by the commoun consent of the multitude; and as the text sayeth, "Everie man did that whiche appeareth good in his awin eyis." In this meantyme, the Levite compleaned of the vilanye that was done unto him self, and unto his wyf, whiche oppressed by the Benjamites of Gibeah, died under thare fylthy lustis. Whiche horrible fact inflammed the heartis of the hole people to taik vengeance upoun that abhominatioun: and thairin thei offended not; but in this thei failled, that thei go to execut judgement against the wicked, without any reapentance or remorse of conscience of thair formare offenses, and defectioun from God. And, farther, becaus thei war a great multitude, and the other war far inferiour unto thame, thei trusted in thair awin strenth, and thought thame selfis able aneuch to do thair purpose, without any invocatioun of the name of God. Bot after that thei had twise provin the vanitie of thair awin strenth, thei fasted and prayed, and being humbled befoir God, thai receaved a more favorable answer, ane assured promeise of the victorye. The lyik may be amangis us, albeit suddanelie we do nott espye it. And471 to the end that everie man may the bettir examyne him self, I will devide our hole cumpany in two sortes of men: The one ar those that from the begynnyng of this truble have susteaned the commoun danger with thair brethren: The other be those whiche laitlie be joyned to our fallowschip. In the one and in the other, I fear, that just caus shalbe found that God should thus have humiled us. And albeit, that this appear strange at the first hearing, yitt yf everie man shall examyn him self, and speik as that his conscience dites unto him, I dowbt not bot he shall subscrive my sentence. Lett us begyn at our selves, who longast hes continewed in this battell. When we war a few nomber, in comparisoun of our ennemyes, when we had neather Erle nor Lord (a few excepted) to conforte us, we called upoun God; we tooke him for our protectour, defence, and onlie refuge. Amanges us was heard no braggin of multitude, of our strenth, nor pollecey: we did onlye sob to God, to have respect to the equitie of our cause, and to the crewell persute of the tyranefull ennemye. Butt since that our nomber hath bene thus multiplyed, and cheaflie sen my Lord Duik10581058In the MS. of 1566, "Duik" is often written "Duck." his Grace with his freindis have bene joyned with us, thair was nothing heard, bot "This Lord will bring these many hundreth spearis: this man hath the credite to perswaid this cuntrey; yf this Erle be ouris, no man in suche a boundis will truble us." And thus the best of us all, that befoir felt Godis potent hand to be our defence, hath of lait dayis putt flesche to be our arme. Butt whairin yit hathe my Lord Duik his Grace and his freindis offended? It may be that, as we haif trusted in thame, so have thei putt too muche confidence in thair awin strenth. But granting so be not,10591059In MS. G, "it be not so." I see a cause most just, why the Duik and his freindis should thus be confounded amangis the rest of thair brethren. I have nott yit472 forgottin what was the dolour and anguishe of my awin hearte, when at Sanet Johnestoun, Cowper Mure, and Edinburgh Crages, those crewell murtheraris, that now hath putt us to this dishonour, threatned our present destructioun: my Lord Duik his Grace and his freindis at all the three jornayes, wes to thame a great conforte, and unto us a great discorage; for his name and authoritie did more effray and astonise us, then did the force of the other; yea, without his assistance, thei could not have compelled us to appoint with the Quene upoun so unequall conditionis. I am uncertane yf my Lordis Grace hath unfeanedlie repented of that his assistance to those murtheraris unjustlie persewing us. Yea, I am uncertane yff he hath reapented of that innocent bloode of Chrystes blessed Martyres, whiche was sched in his defalt. But lett it be that so he hath done, (as I hear that he hath confessed his offence befoir the Lordis and Brethren of the Congregatioun,) yit I am assured, that neather he, nether yit his freindis, did feall befoir this tyme the anguishe and greaf of heartis whiche we felt, when in thair blynd furye thei persewed us: And thairfoir hath God justlie permitted both thame and us to fall in this confusioun at ones: us, for that we putt our trust and confidence in man; and thame, becaus that thei should feill in thair awin hearttis how bytter was the coupe which thei maid otheris to drynk befoir thame. CONCLUSIO. Restis that boith thei and we turne to the Eternall oure God, (who beattis doun to death, to the intent that he may raise up agane, to leav the remembrance of his wonderouse deliverance, to the praise of his awin name,) whiche yf we do unfeanedlie, I no more dowbt but that this our dolour, confusioun, and feare, shalbe turned into joy, honour, and boldness, then that I dowt that God gave victorye to the Israelitis over the Benjamites, after that twise with ignominye thei war repulsed and doung back. LETT THE PAPISTIS AND GREATEST ENNEMYIS WITNESS Yea, whatsoever shall become of us and of our mortall carcasses, I dowt not but that this473 caus, (in dyspite of Sathan,) shall prevaill in the realme of Scotland. For, as it is the eternall trewth of the eternall God, so shall it ones prevaill, howsoever for a time it be impugned. It may be that God shall plague some, for that thei delyte nott in the trewth, albeit for warldlye respectis thei seame to favour it. Yea, God may tak some of his dearest children away befoir that thair eyis see greattar trubles. Bott neather shall the one nor the other so hynder this actioun, but in the end it shall triumphe.

This Sermoun ended, in the whiche he did vehementlie exhorte all man to amendment of lyffe, to prayaris, and to the warkis of charitie, the myndis of men began wounderouslye to be erected. And immediatlie after dennare, the Lordis passed to Counsall,10601060Vautr. edit. makes it, "passed to Comishall." unto the whiche the said Johnne Knox was called to mack invocatioun of the name of God, (for other preachearis war nane with us at that tyme.) In the end it was concluded, that Williame Maitland10611061See Sadler's Letters and State Papers, vol. i. pp. 601-604, for the instructions and other matters connected with the mission of William Maitland of Lethington to London at this time. foirsaid should pas to Londoun to expone our estait and conditioun to the Quein and Counsall, and that the Noble men should departe to thair quyett, to the sextene day of December, whiche tyme was appointed to the nixt Conventioun in Striveling, as in this our Thrid Booke following shalbe more amplie declaired.

Endis the Secound Booke of the Historye of the progresse of Religioun within Scotland.10621062In MS. G, "The End of the Secund Buik:" Vautr. edit. has "Endeth," &c.


Look upoun us, O Lorde, in the multitude of thy mercyes; for we ar brought evin to the deape of the dongeoun.





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No. I.

Interpolations and Various Readings in the Editions of Knox's History of the Reformation, by David Buchanan, printed at London, 1644, folio, and reprinted at Edinburgh, 1644, 4to.

(the pages and lines at the left-hand side refer to the present edition.)

Page 1, line 5. (This title and Preface are not contained in Buchanan's editions.)

5, l. 20. Instead of the words, "In the Scrollis of Glasgw," &c., it begins, In the Records of Glasgow is found mention of one whose name was James Resby, an Englishman by birth, scholler to Wickliff: He was accused as an Heretike, by one Lawrence Lindors in Scotland, and burnt for having said, That the Pope was not the Vicar of Christ, and that a man of wicked life was not to be acknowledged for Pope. This fell out Anno 1422. Farther our Chronicles make mention, That in the dayis,10631063The words in italics are usually those in the text, quoted for greater facility in shewing the connexion.—In Buchanan's editions there are numerous marginal notes. Many of these are literally copied from Vautrollier's suppressed edition; and of those which the Editor has added, only such as might be mistaken as Knox's, are here taken notice of. &c.

6, l. 23. injust accusatioun and condemnatioun. Both these godly men, Resby and Craw, suffered Martyrdom for Christ his truth, by Henry Wardlaw, Bishop of St. Andrewes, whom the Prelates place amongst their Worthies. But that their wicked practise did not greatly advance, &c.—l. 25.478

7, l. 11. Helene Chalmer, Lady Pokellie, Isabelle Chambers, Lady Stairs.

8, l. 4. ar not to be had in the Kyrk, nor to be worshipped.—9. That it is not lawfull to fight for the faith, nor to defend the faith by the sword, if we be not driven to it by necessity, which is above all law.—12. gave power to Peter, as also to the other Apostles, and not to the Pope his pretended successour, to binde, &c.—14. to consecrate as they do in the Romish Church these many yeers.—19. were then called, to wit, wholly, but a part to the poor, widow, or orphans, and other pious uses.

9, l. 5. is a preast, in that sence that they are called by the Apostle Saint John, Apoc. i. 6, v. 10, xx. 6.—7. coming of Christ; and truely it was but late since Kings were anointed, namely in Scotland, for Edgar was the first anointed King in Scotland, about the year 1100.—12. the souls, who in those dayes were said to be in Purgatory.—25. not to be feared, if there be no true cause for it.—26. to swear, to wit, idly, rashly, and in vain.—27. Priests may have wives, according to the constitution of the law, and of the primitive Christian Church.—30. every day by Faith.—31. be contracted and consummate, the Kyrk may make, &c.—32. bindes not if unjust.

10, l. 1. to miracles, to such namely as the Romish were then, and are to this day.—3. to God onely, since he onely hears us, and can help us.—12. are murtherars of souls.—13. That they which are called Princes and Prelates in the Church, are theives and robbers.

16, l. 14. upon the morrow after brought forth to judgment.

19, l. 10. into vulgar language.—11. (This title and Fryth's Preface are not contained in Buchanan's editions.)

36, l. 18. was ane called Will. Arithe.

37, l. 2. his parasites and jackmen.

38, l. 12. and cryes, Anne has lost hir spindle.—13. flaill stollin behinde the barne.

39, l. 9. he said—she said.—13. that look over our ditch.—17. we hold the Bishops the cheapest servant.

41, l. 12. for the other Friers fearing.

42, l. 6. in hollow cellars, for the smoke of.

43, l. 2, He leapt up merrily upon the scaffold, and, casting a gambade, said.

49, l. 1. thy Majesties sometime servant.—(In this Letter of Seaton's, your Grace is uniformly changed to Majestie.)479

51, l. 11. to put out thy.

52, l. 15. could greatly availl.—17. fostered the unadvised Prince in all dissolutenesse, by which means they made him obsequious unto them.

53, l. 7, 8. ten yearis or thereabout.—11. realme in these times.—intestine and cruell.—15. Levenax—Lenox, who was sisters son to the Earle of Arran.

54, l. 7. of Rome; commanded the Bible to be read in English; suppressed.—8. of Idolatrie, with their idols, which gave great hope.—(In the margin,) 1534. 1538. The civil troubles give some rest to God's flock for a time.—20. craftynes of Gardner, Bishop of.—23. but that God potently had assisted him in all his life, but.

56, l. 12. maid he them.

57, l. 1. Johnne Stewart of Leyth.—3. Johnestoun, Advocate.

59, l. 11. Laird of Dun, Areskin.—20. as one revived, cast himself.

61, l. 8. whome war those of Dundie.—12. Borthwik, Provost of Lithcow.—(In the margin,) Lesly writes this done 1540. John Borthwick fled into England, from whence Henry sent him into Germanie to the Protestant Princes.

62, l. 4. Frearis and Monks, as of Channons.

64, l. 1. Alexander Kennedy.—2. excellent wit in vulgar poesy.

66, l. 17-22. so far had they blinded and corrupted the inconsiderate Prince, that he gave himself to obey the tyrannie of those bloodie beasts, and he made a solemne vow.

67, l. 6. suddane punishment.—7. upon him, if he did not repent, and amend his life.

68, l. 5. and deid, not saying one worde, that same day that, in audience.

70, l. 8. forgevance of the said Thomas.

71, l. 1-4. change or alter the heart of the infortunate and misled Prince, but still he did proceed in his accustomed wayes. For in the midst of these evills.

72, l. 2. eschaping, (the keepers being asleep, he went out at the window.)—5. espy and detest.—10. Earle of Glevearne.

76, l. 1-5. After God had given unto that mis-informed Prince sufficient documents, that his warring against his blessed Gospel should not prosperously succeed, he raised up against him warres, as he did of old against divers Princes that would not hear his voice, in the which he lost himself, as we shall hereafter heare.

77, l. 18. our kingdome of Abbots, Monks, &c., and.

79, l. 9. Forresse war runne upon—Forces were sent up and down to.480

80, l. 12. to skaill and sunder.—26. wounded his high stomacke.—29. had not cut the dayes of his life.

81, l. 9. Preastis—Prelats.

82, l. 2. what tyme—at that time when.—3. Yles, in the yeere 1534.—13. Jefwellis—Juglers.

83, l. 4. I shall reproove you by sharpe punishments.—16. honour nor continuance—honour nor countenance.

84, l. 2. Thare concurred ... prophettis, (omitted.)—4. closenes and fidelity among them.—7. should be theirs.—11. that Raid—that device.—23-25. amonges whome was the Erle of Arran, notwithstanding his siding with the current of the Court, and his neernesse in blood to the King. It was bruited.

85, l. 15. The foreward goeth forth, feare rises.—18. thousand men; their beacons on every side.

86, l. 5, 6. experte. About ten houris—expert, about ten hours.—8, 9. baner; and he upholden by two spears, lift up.—18. and Mearns. In this mountain did.—27. array in order.

87, l. 2. softlye—safely.

88, l. 1. to tack the bandis.—7. Somervaill and Oliphant, and many.—9. Worldly men say that.

89, l. 21. who waited upon news at Lochmaban.—(In the margin,) Others say, at Carlaverock, neere by the place where the defeat was given, called Solway Mosse.

90, l. 25. ane of his mistresses.

91, l. 6. for a scourge.—11. it will end with a woman. From Mary, daughter to Robert Bruse, married to Walter Stuart, he feared that his daughter should be married to ane of another name and family; but yow see by God's providence, the Crown remains in one and the same family and name to this day, notwithstanding the many plots of the pretenders to the Crowne both at home and abroad.—15. ane fit comforter.—21. that so it should be.

92, l. 3. best. The Cardinal having hired one Henry Balfour, a priest, to make a false Testament; which was done accordingly, but in vain.—6. (In the margin,) Marke the Queenes mourning for the King. (And a few lines lower down,) Others stick not to say, That the King was hastned away by a potion. Levit. 12.—Divers characters of the King arise: post funera virtus.

93, l. 4, 5. disprased him for being much given to women. The Prelats and Clergie feared a change in the King's mind, as he had expressed himself some few years before.—10. cloked. Yet to speak truth of him, his vices may justly be attributed to the481 times, and his breedeing, and not any wickednesse in his nature; for he gave many expressions of a good nature, namely, in his sobriety and justice, &c. The question.—23. he pretended to succeid.—26. oppones thame, and are against the governement.

94, l. 16. against God's justice.—17. And so, in despite.

95, l. 1. heirof we will after speak.—8. severed.—9. The Erle of Arran thus being established in the governement.—11. exalted him to be Governour, out of what danger he had delivered him, he being in the bloody scroll, as wee saw before; and what expectation all men of honesty had of him, because they saw him a soft man, they conceited goodnesse of him.

97, l. 2. drouned—devoured.

98, l. 6. Scriptures in the vulgar tongue.—9. als, (omitted.)—13. the Kirk—the Church, he means the Prelats, first.—14. thei three—but the three, viz., Hebrew, Greek, and Latine.

99, l. 3. people used not—people used the Psalmes.—27. old Boses—old Bishops.

100, l. 5. had of the Old and New.—12, 13. thair awin vulgar toung, and so war.—19. in the vulgar toung.—22. (In the margin,) Note the hypocrisie of worldlings.

101, l. 5. to maik courte, and curry favour thairby.—25. (In the margin,) Nothing could be said against the lawfulnes of Edward's birth. Katharine of Spain and Anne Bullen being dead before his mother was married to his father.

102, l. 5. ensew to this realme.—18. Maister Radulph Saidlair.

103, l. 5. contract of marriage made betuix.—19. abaide suyre at—abode fast to.

105, l. 10. Abbot of Paislay, called now of late John Hamilton, bastard brother, &c.—(In the margin there is added,) He was before sometimes called Cunningham, sometimes Colwan, so uncertaine was it who was his father.—18. one or the other would go to the pulpit.

107, l. 6. then to have been so used—8. deprehended—followed.—14. his counterfeit godlynes.—15. heirefter—heirof.—22. any joyt—one jote.—25. his rycht—his pretended right.—26. For by Goddis word could not be good the divorcement of his father from Elizabeth Hume, sister to the Lord Hume, his lawfull wife, and consequently his marriage with Beton, neece to James Beton, Bishop of St. Andrews, (Elizabeth Hume being alive,) must be null, and he declared bastard. Caiaphas spake, 482&c.

109, (To this marginal note is added,) Renouncing his religion in the Gray Friers.

110, l. 23. Governour; First, because he himselfe was borne by Beton, his father's lawfull wife, Elizabeth Humes being yit alive; Next, because his grandfather was borne by Mary Stuart to James Hammilton, when her lawfull husband Thomas Boyd was yet alive. So the Earle of Lennox did not only pretend to be lawfully next to the Crowne, as the late King James the Fifth did often declare, That if he died without heire male, he would settle the Crowne upon him, but also lawfull heire of the Earledome of Arran, as being descended from Margaret Hamilton, borne to Mary Stuart and James Hammilton after the death of Thomas Boyd, her former husband, (now by this time the inconstant Earle of Arran had given himselfe wholly to the Cardinall.) The Cardinall, &c.—(In the margin,) All this was then said by the Cardinal. Penes authorem fides esto.

111, l. 4. Ayre—Ayre, Campbell.—6. to Leyth—to light.—18. the sonare—in time.

112, l. 15. that he wold take.—16. wold not grant.—17. communicat—communed.

113, l. 4, 5. the Magdelane day—Saint Magdalen's day.—6. Gray tacking—Gray took.

114, l. 2. had his fortificatioun—had fortification.—5. so much attend—so attend.—7, 8. play the good servant unto him, was reputed his enemy.—17. thei war no more then 300.—(In the margin,) As they went to Dundee, they said they were going to burn the readers of the New Testament, and that they would stick to the Old, for Luther, said they, had made the New.

115, l. 7. to have kept.—(8. prevented, i.e. anticipated.)—9. thare friend.—13. was sent to the Bischop of Saint Andrews, the Abbot of Paisley.—20. war on the place.

116, l. 1. ane certane number.—7. whether to—whereto.—19. his craft perswaded.

119, l. 6. ower the craig—over the wall.—8. broke his craig—broken his owne neck.

120, l. 7. thei—the ships.

121, l. 9. other then—after the Castle.

123, l. 9. feallis war—Files war charged to be.

124, l. 1, 2. Hary, sometime husband to our Queen and Mistresse.—8. Eme's wyiff—enemies wife.—10. in propertie—in povertie.483

125, l. 1. he hes had since, and that in common.

126, l. 14. hornyng—burning.—27. with him—with them.

127, l. 8, and 128, l. 4. In anno 1566, (inserted in the text thus,) that now liveth in the year of our Lord 1566.

129, l. 24. Porte or gate.

130, l. 6. intreat of.—11. neyther eak—neither maid.—18. thame as he could; being such.—28. wold have used.

131, l. 3. whingar—dagger.—12, 13. may feare, in time to come, we will.—19. another—another place.

133, l. 3, 4. sound of prayers.—6. prevented—came before.—11, 12. grones; yea, we heard your bitter—(omitted.)

136, l. 7. awfull—irefull.—11. hypocrisie within this realme; ye shall.

137, l. 26. verray countenance—weary countenance.

138, l. 27. declared fully. The Spirit of Truth.

139, l. 7, 8, and 9. And so the said John Knox, albeit, &c., (the intermediate words being omitted.)

142, l. 1. premisses—promise.—5. the Larde—Johan Cockburne, Laird.

144, l. 1. transported to Edinburgh, where the Cardinall then had a Convention of Prelats, wherein somewhat was said of redressing the abuses of the Church, and reforming the lives of the Clergie; but it took no effect. M. Wischarde remained but few dayes in Edinburgh: For that bloody wolfe the Cardinall, ever thirsting after the blood of the servand of God.—8. to be crucified. The Cardinall, seeing it was forbidden by the Canon Law to Priests to sit as judges upon life and death, although the crime were heresie, sent to the Governour, desiring him to name some lay-judge to pronounce sentence against M. Wischarde. The Governour had freely condescended to the Cardinall's request, without delay, if David Hamilton of Preston, a godly and wise man, had not remonstrated unto him, That he could expect no better end then Saul, since he persecuted the saints of God, for that truth which he professed once with such a shew of earnestnesse; the profession thereof being the only cause of his advancement to that high degree wherein he was: The Governour, moved at this speech of David Hamilton's, answered the Cardinall, That he would not meddle with the blood of that good man; and told him, That his blood should be on him, for he himselfe would be free of it. At this the Cardinall was angry, and said he would proceed, and that he had sent to the Governour of meere civility, without any need. And so.—28. penult,—the seven and twentieth day.484

148, l. 19, have receaved from certaine records, which we relate truely, as neere as possibly we can. Upon the last.

151, l. 9. as saith Paule to Timothy.—14. be able with wholsome learning, and to impugne.—23. the Gospell he treated of appeareth not to repugne.—30. Lawder, a priest.

152, l. 2. full of outrages, threatnings.

156, l. 24. My Lords, it is not so by your pleasures.

159, l. 15. I vanquest him—I witnessed to him.

160, l. 1. and spitted on the ground.—22. Layman—man.

165, l. 3. our Generall or Provinciall Counsells.

168, l. 13. innocent man speak.—19. two feinds, two Gray Friers.—25-28. came to him with all diligence. And conferred with him a pretty while, at last, burst forth in tears, but so soon as he was able to speak, he asked him, If he would receive the Communion? Master Wischarde answered, He would most willingly, if he could have it according to Christ's institution, under both kinds. The Sub-Prior went to the Cardinall and his Prelats, he told them, That Master Wischarde was an innocent man; which he said, not to intercede for his life, but to make known the innocency of the man unto all men, as it was known to God. At these words the Cardinall was angry, and said to the Sub-Prior, Long agoe we knew what you were. Then the Sub-Prior demanded, Whether they would suffer M. Wischarde to receive the Communion or not? They answered, No. A while after M. Wischarde had ended with the Sub-Prior, the Captaine of the Castle, with some other friends, came to him, and asked him, If he would break fast with them? He answered, Most willingly, for I know you to be most honest and godly men; so all being ready, he desired them to sit downe, and heare him a while with patience. Then he discoursed to them about halfe an houre concerning the Lord's Supper, his sufferings and death for us. He exhorteth them to love one another, laying aside all rancor, envie, and vengeance, as perfect members of Christ, who intercedes continually for us to God the Father. After this, he gave thanks, and blessing the bread and wine, he took the bread and brake it, and gave to every one of it, bidding each of them, Remember that Christ had died for them, and feed on it spiritually; so taking the cup, he bade them, Remember that Christ's blood was shed for them, &c.; and after, he gave thanks and prayed for them. When he had done, he told them, That he would neither eat nor drink more in this life; and so retired to485 his chamber. Immediately after came to him (sent from the Cardinall) two executioners; one brought him a coat of linnen died black, and put it upon him; the other brought some bags full of powder, which they tied to severall parts of his body. Then having dressed him, they brought him to an outer roome, neere to the gate of the Castle. Then the fire was made ready, and the stake at the west port of the Castle, neere to the Priory. Over against the place of execution, the Castle windows were hung with rich hangings, and velvet cushions, laid for the Cardinall and Prelats, who from thence did feed their eyes with the torments of this innocent man. The Cardinal dreading.

169, l. 6. and led—and with sound of trumpet led.—17. tempt me not, I intreat you. After this.—25. words: I beseik you—words, having obtained leave to speak a little, I beseech you.

171, l. 3. Then the executioner, that was his tormentor.—8. And then by and by the trumpet sounding, he was tyed to the stake, and the fire kindled. The Captaine of the Castle, for the love he bore to M. Wischarde, drew so neer to the fire, that the flame thereof did him harme; he wished M. Wischarde to be of good courage, and to beg from God the forgivenesse of his sins; to whom M. Wischarde answered thus: This fire torments my body, bot no wayes abates my spirit. Then M. Wischarde, looking towards the Cardinall, said, He who in such state, from that high place, feedeth his eyes with my torments, within few dayes shall be hanged out at the same window, to be seen with as much ignominy, as he now leaneth there in pride. Then with this, the executioner drawing the cord, stopt his breath; presently after, the fire being great, he was consumed to powder. The Prelats would not suffer any prayers to be made for him, according to their custome. After the death of Master Wischarde, the Cardinall was cryed up by his flatterers, and all the rabble of the corrupt Clergie, as the onely defender of the Catholike Church, and punisher of Hereticks, neglecting the authority of the sluggish Governour: And it was said by them, That if the great Prelates of latter dayes, both at home and abroad, had been so stout and zealous of the credit of the Catholike Church, they had not onely suppressed all Hereticks, but also kept under the lay-men, who were so forward and stubborne. On the other side, when that the people beheld the great tormenting of that innocent, they could not withhold from piteous mourning and complaining of the innocent lamb's slaughter. After the death, 486&c.

172, l. 3. or else it should cost life for life; and that in a short time they should be like hogs kept for slaughter, by this vitious Priest, and wicked monster, which neither minded God, nor cared for men. Amongst those that spake against the Cardinall's cruelty, John Leslie, brother to the Earle of Rothes, was chief, with his cozen Norman Lesley, who had been a great follower of the Cardinall, and very active for him but a little before, fell so foule with him, that they came to high reproaches one with another. The occasion of their falling out was a private businesse, wherein Norman Lesley said he was wronged by the Cardinall. On the other side, the Cardinall said he was not with respect used by Norman Lesley his inferiour. The said John Lesley, in all companies, spared not to say, That that same dagger, (shewing forth his dagger,) and that same hand, should be put in the Cardinall's brest. These brutes came, &c.—14. and promessed amitie with him, and so he gave his bastard eldest daughter in marriage to the Earle of Crawford his eldest son and heir, and caused the wedding to be celebrate with such state, as if she had been a Princes lawfull daughter. He only feared, &c.

173, l. 10. not only say.—12. fead—fooles.—17. Mary that now mischevouslie regnes—Mary that now, 1566, raignes.—25. but by his secreat counsall, (omitted.)

175, l. 6. in no great number—in great number.

177, (In the margin,) The fact and words of James Melvin.

178, l. 3. fowseis syde—house side—13, 14. How miserably lay David Betoun, cairfull Cardinall, (these words are omitted.)

180, l. 15. The death of this aforesaid tyrant, as it was pleasing to some, to wit, to those who had received the Reformation of religion, for they were mightily afraid of him, and also to sundry Romanists whom he kept under as slaves; so on the other side, it was dolorous to the priests.

181, l. 5. besieged. Divers gentlemen of Fife went into the Castle, and abode there with the Leslies during the first siege; and John Rough was preacher to them.—7. and for his riches he would not.

184, l. 24. the hole seige, having left the Castle, because he could do little good upon those that were with him; so addicted were they to their evil wayes, begane to preach in the city of S. Andrews.

186, l. 22. any man, namely, in the time of need, as that was.

190, l. 17. kynd of doctrine—wind of doctrine.

196, l. 32. Whither may we do the same in matters of religion? (omitted.)

197, l. 18. that God hes ordained.487

203, l. 8. for upoun the nine and twentieth day.—10. with a great army.—11. in that haven before.

204, l. 14. The seige by sea and land was laid about the Castle of S. Andrews, the three and twentieth day of July.—18. brunt; and some upon the street that leads to the Castle.—23. ground of the court of the Castle.—27. corrupt lyef, having fallen into all kinde of licentiousnesse, puft up with pride of their successe, and relying upon England for help in case of need, could not escape.

205, l. 7. Upone the nine and twentieth of July.—8. xiiij—thirteen cannons.—14. place. Betwixt ten of the clock and eleven, there fell.

206, l. 17. men without God, (omitted.)—20. gallayis, among others John Knox was in the galleys all the winter.

212, l. 14. schooting longis—shooting amongst.—17. began to reyll—begin to faile.

215, l. 12. forfaulted—sore assaulted.

217, l. 11. Ordour of the Cokill, and a pension of 12,000 lib. Turn. with a full discharge.

218, l. 5. hir finall destruction—her own ruine.—9. Lett men patientlie abyd God's appointed tyme, and turn unto him with hearty repentance, then God will surely stop the fire that now comes from her, by sudden changing her heart to deal favourably with his people; or else by taking her away, or by stopping her to go on in her course by such meanes as he shall think meet in his wisdom, for he having all in his hand disposeth of all, and doth with all according to his own will, unto which we must not onley yeald, but also be heardily pleased with it, since it is absolutely good, and both by sacred and prophane history we ar taught to do so; for in them we finde that Princes have been raised up by his hands to punish his people; but when they turned unto him with hearty repentance, he either turned the heart of the Prince to deal kindly with his people; or else did take him away; or at least did stop his violent course against his people. Of this the examples are so frequent, that we spare to name them heere. But to returne to our Historie.

222, l. 9. a godly man, (omitted.)

223, l. 24. in the saidis Chappell, &c.—in the Sands, Chappell, &c.

227, l. 1. of a justifeid man: but how it is suppressed, we know nott—of a man justified, which is extant to this day.—(In the margin,) with a smudge?] Note: This booke was printed 1584, at Edinburgh, by Tho. Utrover: (in the 4to edit.) Tho. Voutroler.488

229, l. 10. meanes as they looked for.

230, l. 18. discrive—discover.

233, l. 11. the Duck Hamilton: (also, at page 238, l. 4.)

235, l. 20. the temporal Lordis that maintain such abominations as we see, and flattering Counsellors of State, blasphemous.

238, l. 5. others besydis. The Bishops and their rable, they begin.

239, l. 11. thei will do, or can do.

240, l. 26. Tack you yon—Take heed all you.

242, l. 5. but few were made rich.

244, l. 2. thare patentis—their parents.—9. displeasur, that idolatrous and mischievous Marie.—24. cruell persecution, used by Queen Marie of England.

247, l. 24. as in doctrin—as in preaching.

251, l. 1. and bent themselves.

252, l. 6. was published, which we have caused to be printed at the end of this book, and is called.—17 to 20. And tharefor, &c., (the whole of this sentence is omitted.)

254, l. 16. both realmes were disappointed who.

259, l. 15. Instead of, Thare assembled Preastis—Their asses, bloody Priests, Friers, &c.

265, l. 1. thareof to this day—thareof to his death.—2. now Erle—after Earle.—25. Thei lieved as beastis—They left me as beasts.

272, l. 32. to his glorie—to your eternall glorie.

274, l. 13. many others—many other letters.

276, l. 21. and geve attendance to us, your—and to have care to use.

279, l. 5. together ... answer, (omitted.)—27. hes allanerlie—has modestlie absteaned.

280, l. 8. this pastor, or rather impostour.—18. his Eme's wyff—his cousin's wife.

283, l. 18. What that man of the law is.

284, l. 2. nether can err.—5. synceir, (omitted.)—20. cannon—common law.

287, l. 10. cummer—rumour.

289, l. 26. by (i.e. beside) us—neer us.


292, l. 17. (In the margin,) Note. Here is a solecisme in State expression, newly invented by the Court Parasites.

294, l. 20. (In the margin,) Note. To call the Crown-Matrimoniall, is an absurd solecisme, newly then invented at Court.489

297, l. 4. (In the margin,) Note. And now in these latter days it hath pleased God in his goodnesse to grant the pure and primitive Discipline also unto the Church of Scotland.—20. long, (omitted.)

298, l. 21. the libertie of, (omitted.)

299, l. 5. the extreme, (omitted.)

300, l. 2. to give the gift of exhortation by sermon.

302, l. 8. to convein us—to make us.

303, l. 10. our presence, or counsell, or petitions.—26. mercifullie—bountifullie.—28. The first petition—Here beginneth the particular demands.

304, l. 11. of the which, without explanation, hardly can arise any profit to the hearers.

305, l. 23. to live at their lust.

307, l. 12. a large purse, 40,000 l. Turn. or Scots, gathered, (livres Tournois?)—20. in things as we thought unlawfull.

309, l. 16. Lords, Barons, and Burgesses of this.

312, l. 27. in Parliament holden at Edinburgh, Anno 1558.

313, l. 28. any other of the godly that list.

315, l. 22. And it appeared, that after that day that malice took more violent and strong possession in hir then it did before.

318, l. 6. Quenis favour.

319, l. 2. thare rebellioun—high rebellion.

321, l. 2. vehement—very vehement.

324, l. 11. to instruct the people.

325, l. 7. Duke Hamilton.—9, 10. now cheaf, &c., (same reading as in Vautrollier's edit., quoted in note 4.)—21. best for—best serve for.

327, l. 15. your Grace's—your Princely.

328, l. 11. extreme necessiteis—most great extremities.—13. thair and oure lyves—their owne lives.

329, l. 15. espyed. The tenour whereof followeth. And.—22. that ye the Nobilitie.

331, l. 5. Is it nocht, &c.—It is not.—16. judged to be gud treeis.

332, l. 7. doth contrary to this authority.—8, 9. he is cled—it is clothed.

336, l. 28. war thay that first—war there, they that first.—30. platt of ground—place of ground.

337, l. 6. war erected—were set up.—7, 8. hope of victorie.

339, l. 4. that we in whom she.—24. ar servandis—as servants.

340, l. 20. gart cutt the brigis—caused the bridges to be cut.

345, l. 5. Teringland—Tarmganart.490

351, l. 2, 3. Cowper, ... assisted—Cowper, ... was assisted.—28. practised with us—made shew unto us.

354, l. 1. truble, or disquiet.—7. Subscrived, &c.—

Subscribed, James Hamilton, Meneits Dosell.

356, l. 21. plane—plainly see.

357, l. 16. cast up the portis—open the gates.—25, beirand—bearing, namely.

358, l. 20. departed, as hielie—departed, and was highly.

359, l. 14. the 26—the six and twentieth.—16. four, (omitted.)

360, l. 4. wald vote—would consent.—21. Palace and the Kirk—place, and the place and the Church.—22. idollis, hid—hid goods.

361, l. 2. unto him, he would that.—8. irruption—interruption.—15. stogged—thrust.

363, l. 4. in the one—in one of the Colledges.—13. was to be done, and that ordour—was best to be done, and what order.—18. and yit hir Dochteris is—by advice of hir Counsell.—30. hir Grace—our Mother.

364, l. 1. to affix—to appoint.—6. our Realme—our religion.

365, l. 6. to suche—that such.—15. Sche—The Queen Regent.—17. thameselves.—19. advertist, That.

367, l. 25. nothing to the commission, she proposed.

368, l. 5. abused Duke Hamilton, perswading him.—8. his successors of their pretended title.—16. crymes were ever entred into.—25. should leaf—should lose.—33. the Duke's Grace—Duke Hamilton.

369, l. 18. small appointment—finall appointment.—26. earthlie treasure.

370, l. 7. outsetting—upsetting.—11. no mo—no man.

371, l. 1. substantious housholdis—chief domesticks.

373, l. 3. bawbie, or fartheing.—13. those of, (omitted.)

374, l. 15. Restalrig—Lestarrig.

376, l. 17. Januar had decreed.

377, l. 2. thai war—they are.—15. In the first Congregation.

378, l. 1. maner—matter.—23. skaithles—harmless.—34. thoill—suffer.

379, l. 1. other haveand spirituall—other, either spiritual.—3. religioun, or any other.—13. in all such causes.—24. to speak with.

380, l. 12. the Lordis Protestants.—13. unto the chief heads of the Appointment, whiche be these.—30. this our Proclamatioun.491

382, l. 1. adversaries, who trie all maner.—19. and hir, (omitted.)

383, l. 15. quhat tyme—at the time that.

384, l. 7. baith, (omitted.)—Le Roy, (omitted.) (Title inserted,) The King his letter to the Lord James.—15. bein, (omitted.)

385, l. 1. father, from the Queen my wife, and from me.—5. strange to me, and so farre against.—6. gudlie well.—19, 20. ye ar declyneit—ye have declined.—21. attention—intention.—28. thair—your.—thay—ye.

386, l. 7. Vous senteras—Vous en sentires.—15. Schir, (omitted.)—The Lord James his letter to the King.—16. My most humble dewtie.—17. last, importing.—18. Majestie doth.—24. hard—had.—28. grevis me very heavilie.

387, l. 8. sould not have.—18, 19. as we were perswaded in our.—21. cair from.

388, l. 14. na man could.

389, l. 2. benefit which.—9. libertie of.—19. Tolbuith—Town.

391, l. 1. nether yet.—19. For schort—For that after.

392, l. 9. deambulatour—deambulation.—18. falt in.—20. worthelie—justlie.—21. done, (omitted.)

394, l. 7. thair kyn—your kin.—18. contravene—violate.—27. mak first—give first.

395, l. 1. lippin—trust.—2. to have good.—16. taikin without.—18. saidis, (omitted.)—23. our pairt. But in case against all reason they should mean any such thing, We have thocht.—31. furnissing—surmising.

397, l. 3. put fit remedy.—10. could—would.—17. list, so that some asked for.—19. sche was not ashamed to sett.—22. personis have of malice.—24. stope all manner of reconciliations.—28. Estaitis—State.—31. ar cumit—came.—ar myndit—do mind.

398, l. 7. ony part thereof contravenit.—8. communit—commovit.—13. ane, (omitted.)

399, l. 2. ever, (omitted.)—10. obedience of higher.—13. direct quite.—19. with reverence.

401, l. 2. simplicitie, and to work your finall.—11. of our posteritie, and to be short, to our commun-wealth.—15. foirnameit. This is so manifestly.—34. is not to be—is to be.

403, l. 1. brocht it to such basenesse, and such a deale of strife that all men.—14. guid and weighty money.

405, l. 9. that wicked man.—10. quha at that tyme.—27. reassonit with all in the.

406, l. 19. thairin, not only without.—25. the houssis garnissit, (omitted.)492

407, l. 24. yea, even of our brethren.

408, l. 29. covetousnes of the Cardinall of Guyse and the Hamiltons. Amen.

409, l. 32. trubill any unjust possession.

410, l. 14. over our heads.—25. tred—course.

411, l. 3. personis ... be God, move Princes to command.—7. of misled Princes.—13. thair misled Princes.—20. crewell misled Princes, who authorize the murtherar.

412, l. 20. murther, and such like: Esaias.—32. appelyteis of misled Princeis.

413, l. 12. my Lord Dukis Grace—the Duke.

414, l. 10-12. Hienes, quham ... God, expecting earnestly your answer.

415, l. 29. experimentit—dear.

416, l. 3. lawlie to our.—18. of the same: And that ye would rather.

417, l. 16. Onlie to shew.

418, l. 6. to this commun-wealth.—8. a plain declaratioun.

420, l. 20. Pleis your Grace—Madame.—29, 30. sall treat or deal for himself.

421, l. 14. ye knew fully, and all men else.—20, 21. The Queen's Proclamation.

425, l. 10. thing not of lait—thing of lait.

426, l. 1. as in deed it is.—3. haid Inche, Colme, Dumbar.—4. maid; yet all these could.—9. the trewth, (omitted.)—12. seiking constantly to possesse the libertie of Leith, which be donation of ancient Kingis thay have long enjoyed.

427, l. 9. to wit—is.—22. mentenance—mantainers.

428, l. 3, 4. to this day, (omitted.)—8. write to the praise of Goddis.—13. honour, (omitted.)

429, l. 13. our, (omitted.)—20. be of such reputatioun.

430, l. 14. quhan, (omitted.)

431, l. 7. support—our support.

432, l. 4. presentt day, that.—maist, (omitted.)

433, l. 2. onlie—openlie.—10. deceat, that to lift thair weaponis against thair brethren.—12. glorie, or yet.

434, l. 26. thame, so they did answer unto her, as by.

435, l. 2. moist, (omitted.)

436, l. 7. self and those that followeth you. And that.

437, l. 28. It will ... remembrance—Your Majestie may call to minde, how at.

438, l. 12. we will (as befoir) move and declair.—20. humbill, (omitted.)493

439, l. 3. maid by these about the Quene.—6. never anis hath made any shew of any such thing, bott only in.—10. poore commonalty.—17. Lady: Which accusation hath continued ever against him, as guilty of that crime; he therefore now openly and plainlie protesteth.

---- (Opposite to line 8, the first marginal note begins,) Now the Duke seeing the Queen's partie decline, and the Protestant party grow strong, he once more changeth the profession of his religion, and joyneth with the Protestants, as strongest.—(And at line 24,) How true this is, the constant course of the family can tell.

440, l. 3. your—our.—(Marginal note,) Let this bee noted, and let all men judge of the purpose of the Frenche, and how good and wise patriots they were, who sold our Soveraign to France for their private profit, and they by name were the Hamiltons.

441, l. 21. so tyranically to domineer over them.

442, l. 3. called and, (omitted.)—9. that it is.—17. never so firmly establish any, but at his pleasure, he seeing just cause, might deprive them.—22. used—useth second means.

443, l. 3. idolatrie, as also she openly declares the countrie to be conquest, and no more free. And finallie.—9. (Marginal note,) in the disposition—in the deposition.—11, 12. and disorder.—14. our Soveraigne.—31. awin, (omitted.)

444, l. 10. uttermost ruine, so that.—22. for that—only because.—24. lauchfull, (omitted.)—30. of Sanct Johnestoun, (omitted.)

445, l. 4. in this last moneth.—5. in other townes.—21. Soverane Lord deceased without heirs of her persone.—24. our whole cuntree.—causes—caused ... to coine lead-money.

445, l. 28. And attour, her Grace places—Again, she so placeth.

446, l. 5. be his—by this.—11. remissionis, conform to the practise.

448, l. 2. fearing lest the.

449, l. 9. Pleise your Grace—Madame.

450, l. 2. Lord and Lady their true.—7. for worthy reasons.—16. sute—follow.—17, 18. maid oft before. Again we desire you cause.

451, l. 1. xxiii of October—24 of October.—10. that thei, (omitted.)—18. sa lang as they use us as friends, and not strive to make.

453, l. 2. name, requiring thame.—15. The ungodlie soldiouris, in hatred of goodnesse and good men, continuing in their disorder, mocke the Laird.—22. shall make them know me.

458, l. 9. without delay.

459, l. 6. The Captain of the Castle.—27. desyred, (omitted.)—21. back, the carriage of money was dejected.494

460, l. 21. betimes in the morning for keeping.

461, l. 24, 462, l. 1. so that in no wise we could charge thame, (omitted.)

463, l. 7. after our departure.

464, l. 28. before lurked—there lurked.

465, l. 9. Alas if I might see another defie given: Give advertisement.

466, l. 22. continewalie, (omitted.)

468, l. 18. altogitther, (omitted.)

469, l. 23. I speak more generallie then the present necessity requireth: for.

470, l. 25. thair own formar offences.

471, l. 9. himself, I speik.

472, l. 10 and 12. uncertane—certaine.—19. when their blinde fury pursued us.—l. 16. (In the margin,) Let the House of Hamilton remember this.

473, l. 20. thair home and quiet.—23. With this we end the Second Book of the History, &c.


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