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62. á¼¥μισυς. In Attic Greek á¼¥μισυς, like some other adjectives, mostly of quantity, has a peculiar construction. It governs a noun in the genitive, but agrees with it in gender. Thus -

Plat. Phædo 104 A á½Â á¼¥μισυς τοῦ á¼Â€ριθμοῦ á¼Â…πας. Thuc. 5.31.2 á¼Âπὶ τá¿Â‡ ἡμισεá½·á¾³ τá¿Â†ς γá¿Â†ς. Demosth. p. 44, 4.16 τοá¿Â–ς ἡμá½·σεσι τῶν á¼±ππá½³ων.

This idiom is kept up by Hellenistic writers, such as Philo, Strabo, and the translator of Josephus’ Jewish War. It is however very rare in the LXX, occuring only in the following passages -

3 K. [2 Kings} 16:9 á½Â á¼Â„ρχων τá¿Â†ς ἡμá½·σους (§ 11) τá¿Â†ς á¼µππου. Josh. 4:12, 1 Chr. 5:23 οá¼± ἡμá½·σεις φυλá¿Â†ς Μανασσá½µ. Tob. 10:10 τá½° á¼¥μισυ (sic) τῶν á½Â‘παρχá½¹ντων. Ezk. 16:51 τá½°ς ἡμá½·σεις τῶν á¼Âμαρτιῶν. 1 Mac. 3:34, 37 τá½°ς ἡμá½·σεις τῶν δυνá½±μεων.

Elsewhere instead of the Attic idiom we find τὸ á¼¥μισυ or á¼¥μισυ, irrespective of the gender and number of the noun which follows, e.g. -

τὸ á¼¥μισυ τοῦ σá½·κλου Ex. 39:2 á¼¥μισυ á¼Â€ρχá½¹ντων 2 Esd. [Ezra] 4:16.

τὸ á¼¥μισυ αá½Âτá¿Â†ς Lvt. 6:20. á¼Âν ἡμá½·σει ἡμερῶν Ps. 101:25

τὸ á¼¥μισυ τοῦ αá¼µματος Ex. 24:6. τὸ á¼¥μισυ τῶν á½Â‘παρχá½¹ντων Tob. 8:21.

63. πᾶς. a. In classical Greek the rule for πᾶς in the singular is that with the article it is collective, without the article it is distributive -

πᾶσα ἡ πá½¹λις = all the city.

πᾶσα πá½¹λις = every city.

πᾶς differs from ordinary adjectives in taking the predicative position in an attributive sense. Thus while á¼Â€γαθá½´ ἡ πá½¹λις means ‘the city is good,’ πᾶσα ἡ πá½¹λις means ‘all the city.’ πᾶς may however take the attributive position, like any other adjective. When it does so, the collective force is intensified -

πᾶσα ἡ πá½¹λις = all the city.

ἡ πᾶσα πá½¹λις = the whole city.

Thus Plato’s expression (Apol. 40 E) á½Â πᾶς χρá½¹νος is rendered by Cicero (T.D. 1.97) perpetuitas omnis consequentis temporis. For other instances of this use in classical authors we may take -

Hdt. 7.46 á½Â πᾶς á¼Â€νθρá½½πινος βá½·ος. Plat. Rep. 618 B á½Â πᾶς κá½·νδυνος, Phileb. 67 B οá¼± πá½±ντες βá½¹ες = all the oxen in the world.

Xen. Anab. 5.6.5 οá¼± πá½±ντες á¼Â„νθρωποι.

In such cases there is an additional stress gained by the unusual position assigned to πᾶς.

b. In the LXX the same distinction seems to be maintained. It is true a writer will go from one to the other, e.g. -

Jdg. 16:17,18 καὶ á¼Â€νá½µγγειλαν αá½Âτá¿Â‡ τá½´ν πᾶσαν καρδá½·αν αá½Âτοῦ . . . καὶ εἶδεν Δαλειδá½° á½Â…τι á¼Â€πá½µγγειλεν αá½Âτá¿Â‡ πᾶσαν τá½´ν καρδá½·αν αá½Âτοῦ -

but so in English we might first say he told her his whole heart, and then add and she saw that he had told her all his heart.

Other instances of the strongly collective force of πᾶς in the attributive position are -

Gen. 45:20 τá½° γá½°ρ πá½±ντα á¼Â€γαθá½° Αá¼°γá½»πτου á½Â‘μá¿Â–ν á¼Â”σται.

Josh. 4:14 á¼Âναντá½·ον τοῦ παντὸς γá½³νους Ἰσραá½µλ.

Wisd. 7:9 á½Â πᾶς χρυσá½¹ς.

2 Mac. 8:9 τὸ πᾶν τá¿Â†ς Ἰουδαá½·ας . . . γá½³νος.

Still there is a tendency in the LXX to assimilate πᾶς to adjectives generally and to employ it in the attributive position without any special emphasis.

c. Neither is the rule that πᾶς without the article is distributive at all closely adhered to, e.g. -

Ex. 8:16 á¼Âν πᾶσá¿Âƒ γá¿Â‡ Αá¼°γá½»πτου, 16:6 πρὸς πᾶσαν συναγωγá½´ν υἱῶ Ἰσραá½µλ.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 7:2 πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραá½µλ.

d. In the plural οá¼± πá½±ντες is rare, but may be found -

Jdg. 20:46 οá¼± πá½±ντες οá½Â—τοι.

1 Mac. 2:37 á¼Âˆποθá½±νωμεν οá¼± πá½±ντες á¼Âν τá¿Â‡ á¼Âπλá½¹τητι ἡμῶν.

2 Mac. 12:40 τοá¿Â–ς δá½² πᾶσι σαφá½²ς á¼Âγá½³νετο. Cp. Aristeas § 36 τοá¿Â–ς πᾶσι . . . πολá½·ταις.

Αá¼± πᾶσαι is still rarer, but see -

3 Mac. 1:1 παραγγεá½·λας ταá¿Â–ς πá½±σαις δυνá½±μεσιν.

Τá½° πá½±ντα is comparatively common, occuring, e.g., in Gen. 1:31, 9:3: Ex. 29:24: Lvt. 19:13: 2 Mac. 10:23, 12:22: 3 Mac. 2:3.

e. In the N.T. the collective use of πᾶς followed by the article is clearly marked in many passages, e.g. -

Gal. 5:14 á½Â . . . πᾶς νá½¹μος. Μτ. 8·34 πᾶσα ἡ πá½¹λις á¼Âξá¿Â†λθεν.

Also the distributive use of πᾶς without the article, as in 1 Cor. 11:4,5 πᾶς á¼Â€νá½µρ . . . πᾶσα δá½² γυνá½µ. In Rom. 3:19 we have the two usages brought into contrast -

á¼µνα πᾶν στá½¹μα φραγá¿Â‡, καὶ á½Â‘πá½¹δικος γá½³νηται πᾶς á½Â κá½¹σμος τá¿· Θεá¿·.

On the other hand there are also instances of πᾶς in the singular and without the article being used collectively, e.g. -

Eph. 2·21 πᾶσα οá¼°κοδομá½µ.

Mt. 2:3 πᾶσα á¼¹εροσá½¹λυμα.

Acts 2:36 πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραá½µλ.

f. In the plural οá¼± πá½±ντες is more common in St. Paul than in the LXX. Take for instance -

Phil. 2:21 οá¼± πá½±ντες γá½°ρ τá½° á¼Â‘αυτῶν ζητοῦσι. Cp. 2 Cor. 5:14. 1 Cor. 10:17 οá¼± γá½°ρ πá½±ντες á¼Âκ τοῦ á¼Â‘νὸς á¼Â„ρτου μετá½³χομεν. Cp. Eph. 4:13. Rom. 11:32 συνá½³κλεισε γá½°ρ á½Â Θεὸς τοὺς πá½±ντας εá¼°ς á¼Â€πεá½·θειαν. 2 Cor. 5:10 τοὺς γá½°ρ πá½±ντας ἡμᾶς κτλ. 1 Cor. 9:22 τοá¿Â–ς πᾶσι γá½³γονα πá½±ντα.

οá¼± πá½±ντες á¼Â„νδρες.

Τá½° πá½±ντα occurs in Rom. 8:32, 11:36: 1 Cor. 15:27, 12:6, 19: Eph. 5:13: Acts 17:25: Mk. 4:11 and perhaps in other passages.

64. Comparison of Adjectives. Owing to the peculiarity of Hebrew syntax the treatment of this subject mostly falls under the head of Prepositions. We need only notice here that the positive may be put for the comparative.

Gen. 49:12 λευκοὶ οá¼± á½Â€δá½¹ντες αá½Âτοῦ á¼¢ γá½±λα.

Dt. 7:17 πολὺ τὸ á¼Â”θνος τοῦτο á¼¢ á¼Âγá½½, 9·1 á¼Â”θνη μεγá½±λα καὶ á¼°σχυρá½¹τερα μᾶλλον á¼¢ á½Â‘μεá¿Â–ς.

So in N.T. --

Mt. 18:8,9 καλá½¹ν σοι á¼Âστὶν εá¼°σελθεá¿Â–ν . . . á¼¢ . . . βληθá¿Â†ναι. Cp. Mk. 9:43, 45.

65. Omission of μᾶλλον. The comparison of attributes may be effected by the use of verbs as well as of adjectives. In such cases the omission of μᾶλλον is common in the LXX.

Nb. 22:6 á¼°σχá½»ει οá½Â—τος á¼¢ ἡμεá¿Â–ς, 24:7 á½Â‘ψωθá½µσεται á¼¢ Γá½¼γ βασιλεá½·α.

Hos. 7:6 á¼Â”λεος θá½³λω á¼¢ θυσá½·αν.

2 Mac. 7:2 á¼Â•τοιμοι γá½°ρ á¼Â€ποθνá½µσκειν á¼Âσμá½²ν á¼¢ πατρá¿´ους νá½¹μους παραβαá½·νειν.

Cp. Aristeas § 322 τá½³ρπειν γá½°ρ οá¼´ομαá½· σε ταῦτα á¼¢ τá½° τῶν μυθολá½¹γων βιβλá½·α.

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