2 Timothy 1:13-18

13. Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.

13. Formam habe sanorum sermonum, quos a me audisti in fide et caritate, in Christo Iesu.

14. That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us.

14. Eregium depositum custodi per Spiritum Sanctum, qui inhabitat in nobis.

15. This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes.

15. Nosti hoc, quod aversati me fuerint omnes, qui sunt in Asia, quorum sunt Phygelus et Hermogenes.

16. The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain:

16. Det misericordiam Dominus Onesiphori familiae; quoniam saepe me refocillait, et de catena mea non erubuit:

17. But when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me.

17. Sed quum esset Romae, studiosus quaesivit me, et invenit.

18. The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou knowest very well.

18. Det ei Dominus invenire misericordiam a Domino in illa die et quanta Ephesi ministravit melius tu nosti.


13. Hold the form of sound words. Some explain it thus: "Let thy doctrine be, as it were, a pattern which others may imitate." I do not approve of that view. Equally removed from Paul's meaning is Chrysostom's exposition, that Timothy should have at hand the image of virtues engraven on his heart by Paul's doctrine. I rather think that Paul commands Timothy to hold fast the doctrine which he had learned, not only as to substance, but as to the very form of expression; for uJpotu>pwsiv -- the word which Paul employs on this occasion -- denotes a lively picture of objects, as if they were actually placed before the eyes. Paul knew how ready men are to depart or fall off from pure doctrine. For this reason he earnestly cautions Timothy not to turn aside from that form of teaching which he had received, and to regulate his manner of teaching by the rule which had been laid down; not that we ought to be very scrupulous about words, but because to misrepresent doctrine, even in the smallest degree, is exceedingly injurious. 1

Hence we see what kind of theology there is in Popery, which has degenerated so far from the pattern which Paul recommends, that it resembles the riddles of diviners or soothsayers rather than a doctrine taken from the word of God. What taste of Paul's writings, I ask, is there in all the books of the schoolmen? This licentiousness in corrupting doctrine shews that there are great reasons why Paul invites Timothy to hold fast the original and natural form. And he contrasts sound words not only with doctrines manifestly wicked, but within useless questions, which, instead of health, bring nothing but disease.

In faith and love, which is in Christ Jesus. I am aware that the preposition ejn, agreeably to the idiom of the Hebrew language, b is often taken for with; but here, I think, the meaning is different Paul has added this as a mark of sound doctrine, in order that we may know what it contains, and what is the summary of it, the whole of which, according to his custom, he includes under "faith and love." He places both of them in Christ; as, indeed, the knowledge of Christ consists chiefly of these two parts; for, although the words, which is, are in the singular number, agreeing with the word love, yet it must also be understood as applying to faith.

Those who translate it, "with faith and love," make the meaning to be, that Timothy should add to sound doctrine the affections of piety and love. I do acknowledge that no man can persevere faithfully in sound doctrine unless he is endued with true faith and unfeigned love. But the former exposition, in my opinion, is more appropriate, namely, that Paul employs these terms for describing more fully what is the nature of "sound words" and what is the subject of them. Now he says that the summary consists in "faith and love" of which the knowledge of Christ is the source and beginning.

14. Keep the excellent thing committed to thee. This exhortation is more extensive than the preceding. He exhorts Timothy to consider what God has given to him, and to bestow care and application in proportion to the high value of that which has been committed; for, when the thing is of little value, we are not wont to call any one to so strict an account.

By "that which hath been committed," I understand him to mean both the honor of the ministry and all the gifts with which Timothy was endued. Some limit it to the ministry alone; but I think that it denotes chiefly the qualifications for the ministry, that is, all the gifts of the Spirit, in which he excelled. The word "committed" is employed also for another reason, to remind Timothy that he must, one day, render an account; for we ought to administer faithfully what God has committed to us.

To< Kalo>n 2 denotes that which is of high or singular value; and, therefore, Erasmus has happily translated it (egregium) "excellent," for the sake of denoting its rare worth. I have followed that version. But what is the method of keeping it? It is this. We must beware lest we lose by our indolence what God has bestowed upon us, or lest it be taken away, because we have been ungrateful or have abused it; for there are many who reject the grace of God, and many who, after having received it, deprive themselves of it altogether. Yet because the difficulty of keeping it is beyond our strength, he therefore adds, --

By the Holy Spirit. As if he had said, "I do ask from thee more than thou canst, for what thou hast not from thyself the Spirit of God will supply to thee." Hence it follows, that we must not judge of the strength of men from the commandments of God; because, as he commands by words, so he likewise engraves his words on our hearts, and, by communicating strength, causes that his command shall not be in vain.

Who dwelleth in us. 3 By this he means, that the assistance of the Holy Spirit is present to believers, provided that they do not reject it when it is offered to them.

15. Thou knowest that all that are in Asia have forsaken me. Those apostasies which he mentions might have shaken the hearts of many, and given rise, at the same time, to many suspicions; as we commonly look at everything in the worst light. Paul meets scandals of this kind with courage and heroism, that all good men may learn to abhor the treachery of those who had thus deserted the servant of Christ, when he alone, at the peril of his life, was upholding the common cause; and that they may not on that account give way, when they learn that Paul is not left destitute of divine assistance.

Of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes. He names two of them, who were probably more celebrated than the rest, that he may shut the door against their slanders; for it is customary with revolters and deserters from the Christian warfare, 4 in order to excuse their own baseness, to forge as many accusations as they can against the good and faithful ministers of the gospel. "Phygellus and Hermogenes," knowing that their cowardice was justly reckoned infamous by believers, and that they were even condemned as guilty of base treachery, would not have hesitated to load Paul with false accusations, and impudently to attack his innocence. Paul, therefore, in order to take away all credit from their tries, brands them with the mark which they deserve.

Thus also, in the present day, there are many who, because they are not here admitted into the ministry, or are stripped of the honor on account of their wickedness, 5 or because we do not choose to support them while they do nothing, or because they have committed theft or fornication, are compelled to fly, and forthwith wander through France and other countries, and, by throwing upon us all the accusations 6 that they can, borrow from them an attestation of their innocence. And some brethren are so silly as to accuse us of cruelty, if any of us paints such persons in their true colors. But it were to be wished that all of them had their forehead marked with a hot iron, that they might be recognized at first sight.

16. May the Lord grant mercy. From this prayer we infer, that the good offices done to the saints are not thrown away, even though they cannot recompense them; for, when he prays to God to reward them, this carries in it the force of a promise. At the same time, Paul testifies his gratitude, by desiring that God will grant the remuneration, because he is unable to pay. What if he had possessed abundant means of remuneration? Undoubtedly he would have manifested that he was not ungrateful.

To the family of Onesiphorus, for he often refreshed me. It is worthy of attention, that although he praises the kindness of Onesiphorus alone, yet, on his account, he prays for mercy to the whole family. Hence we infer, that "the blessing of God rests, not only on the head of the righteous man," but on all his house. So great is the love of God toward his people, that it diffuses itself over all who are connected with them.

And was not ashamed of my chain. This is a proof, not only of his liberality, but likewise of his zeal; seeing that he cheerfully exposed himself to danger and to the reproach of men, in order to assist Paul.

18. May the Lord grant to him. Some explain it thus: -- "May God grant to him that he may find mercy with Christ the Judge." And, indeed, this is somewhat more tolerable than to interpret that passage in the writings of Moses:

"The Lord rained fire from the Lord," (Genesis 29:24,)

as meaning, -- "The Father rained from the Son." 7 Yet it is possible that strong feeling may have prompted Paul, as often happens, to make a superfluous repetition.

That he may find mercy with the Lord on that day. 8 This prayer shews us how much richer a recompense awaits those who, without the expectation of an earthly reward, perform kind offices to the saints, than if they received it immediately from the hand of men. And what does he pray for? "That he may find mercy;" for he who hath been merciful to his neighbors will receive such mercy from God to himself. And if this promise does not powerfully animate and encourage us to the exercise of kindness, we are worse than stupid. Hence it follows, also, that when God rewards us, it is not on account of our merits or of any excellence that is in us; but that the best and most valuable reward which he bestows upon us is, when he pardons us, and shews himself to be, not a stern judge, but a kind and indulgent Father.

1 "He was not barely to assert the words of Scripture, but he was to hold fast the summary, or system of the truths he had heard from his spiritual father, and, in a way of dependence on Christ, to show his fidelity and love to his Redeemer. This system of doctrine he was to keep, as a pledge committed to his trust, by the help of the Holy Spirit. Ministers are to hold fast every truth, but, above all, those particular truths which are the peculiar butt of the devil's opposition, and meet with rough treatment in the times in which they live; so doing, they comply with the command which their exalted Master laid upon the pastor of the Church at Philadelphia, and then they may hope for the blessing he promised. (Revelation 3:8,10,11.)'-Abraham Taylor.

2 "Le mot Grec duquel il use, que nous traduisons bon." "The Greek word, which he employs, which we translate good."

3 "Seeing that God hath taken up his abode in us, and wishes that we may be his temples, and dwells in those temples by his Holy Spirit, are we afraid that he will not give us power to persevere till the end, that he will not keep us in certain possession of the benefits which we have received from his hand? True, the devil will labor to deprive us of it, but, as our souls will not be a prey to him, because our Lord Jesus Christ has taken them under his protection, having been committed to him by God the Father; so nothing that God has appointed for our salvation will be a prey to Satan. And why? Because we have the Spirit to defend us against all his efforts. And where is that Spirit? We must not go to seek him above the clouds. It is true that he fills the whole earth, and that his majesty dwells above the heavens; but if we feel that he dwells in us, since he has been pleased to exercise his power on such poor creatures as we are, let us know that that power will be sufficient for defending us against the assaults of Satan; that is, provided that we, on our part, are not negligent. For we must not flatter ourselves in our sins, so as to be careless, but must pray to God, committing everything to him, and hoping that he will always strengthen us more and more. And because he has begun to make us ministers of his grace, let us know that he will continue, and in such a way that our salvation and that of our neighbor's shall always be carried forward more and more to his glory."-Fr. Ser.

4 "Car c'est la coustume des apostats, et de ceux qui Laissent la vocation de Christ." "For it is customary with apostates, and with those who forsake the calling of Christ."

5 "Pource qu'on les en depose a cause de leur mesehancete et vie scandaleuse." "Because they are deposed on account of their wickedness and scandalous life."

6 "Tous les blasphemes et accusations qu'ils peuvent." "All the blasphemies and accusations that they can."

7 See Calvin on Genesis, vol. 1. p. 512, where that remarkable expression is copiously explained. -- Ed.

8 "No Christian can read this passage without being powerfully affected by it; for we see that Paul was, as it were, transported, when be spoke of that coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of the final resurrection. He does not say, "May the Lord grant that he may find favor at his coming, on the day of our redemption, when he shall appear again to judge the world!" But he says, "On that day;" as if he presented the Lord Jesus visibly, with his angels. Paul did not speak those things coldly, or like a man, but he rose above all men, that he might be able to exclaim, "That day, that day!" And where is it? True, none of those who wish to be wise in themselves will take any pains to find it; for that saying must be fulfilled,-" Eye hath not seen, ears have not heard, neither hath entered into the heart of man, what God hath prepared for them that love him." (Isaiah 64:4.) Let men task their powers to the utmost to know it, it will be to them a dark and mysterious thing, and they will not be able to approach to it. But when we shall embrace the promise which he hath given to us, and after having known that Christ, being risen from the dead, displayed his power, not for his own sake, but to gather together all his members, and to unite them to himself, then shall we be able truly to say, That day."-Fr. Ser.