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TYNG, STEPHEN HIGGINSON:

Protestant Episcopal; b. at Newburyport, Mass., Mar. 1, 1800; d. at Irvington on the Hudson Sept. 4, 1885. He graduated at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., 1817; was in business, 1817-19; studied theology, 1819-21; was rector at Georgetown, D. C., 1821-23; in Queen Anne Parish, Prince George's County, Md., 1823-29; of St. Paul's, Philadelphia, 1829-33; of the Church of the Epiphany, in the same city, 1833-45; of St. George's, New York City, 1845-78, when he retired as pastor emeritus. He was for years one of the leaders of the Low-church party in his denomination, and was famous for eloquence and Christian zeal. He was prominent in the organization of the American Church Missionary Society and the Evangelical Education Society, and was a ready and polished platform-speaker, much in demand. He edited for several years The Episcopal Recorder and The Protestant Churchman, and was the author of Lectures on the Law and the Gospel (Philadelphia, 1832); Memoir of Rev. G. T. Bedell (1835); Recollections of England (New York, 1847); A Lamb from the Flock (1852); Christian Titles, a Series of Practical Meditations (1853); Fellowship with Christ (1854); The Rich Kinsman, or the History of Ruth (1855); Memoir of Rev. E. P. J. Messenger (1857); The Captive Orphan, Esther, Queen of Persia (1859); Forty Years' Experience in Sunday Schools (1860); The Prayer-Book illustrated by Scripture (8 vols., 1865-67); The Child of Prayer: a Father's Memorial of D. A. Tyng (1866); The Reward of Meekness (1867); The Feast Enjoyed (1868); The Spencers (1870); The Office and Duty of a Christian Pastor (1874); and several volumes of sermons.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. R. Tyng, Record of the Life and Work of Stephen H. Tyng, and History of St. George's Church, N. Y., to the Close of his Rectorship, New York, 1890.

TYRE.

See PHENICIA, PHENICIANS, I., 2-3.

TYRRELL, tir'el, GEORGE HENRY:

English Roman Catholic; b. at Dublin Feb. 6, 1861; d. in London July 15, 1909. He matriculated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1878, but in the following year left the Anglican Church for the Roman Catholic, and in 1880 entered the Society of Jesus. He then studied philosophy at Stonyhurst (1882-85) and theology at St. Beuno's, Wales (1888-92), and speedily became known as one of the ablest Roman Catholic writers in England. From an ultramontane and scholastic position he gradually advanced to an attitude of distinct Modernism; but though admonished for his views on hell in 1900, he did not

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come into serious conflict with his communion until 1906, when in his Much-Abused Letter (generally supposed to be to the late St. George Mivart) he denied that Roman Catholic theology is perfect and inerrant, and held that the visible Church is but a mutable organism subject to development and modification, he incurred the extreme displeasure of the ecclesiastical authorities. He had sought release from his obligations as a religious on the condemnation of the works of Loisy in 1904, and now, on his refusal to retract the above teachings, he was expelled from the Jesuit order in Feb., 1906. He was also forbidden to officiate in the archdiocese of Westminster, and declined the proffered right to exercise priestly functions in the archdiocese of Mecheln on condition that he submit any future writings to the censor. When, finally, he sharply criticized the encyclical Pascendi in 1907, he incurred the minor excommunication. Theologically he described himself as a "liberal Roman Catholic." His works, some of which have gone through repeated editions and been translated into German and French, are as follows: Nova et Vetera (London, 1897); Hard Sayings (1898); External Religion (1899); Faith of the Millions (2 vols., 1901); Lex Arandi (1903); Lex Credendi (1906); Oil and Wine (1907); Through Scylla and Charybdis (1907); A Much-Abused Letter (1907); Medievalism (1908); and Christianity at the Cross Roads (1909).

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