Lutheran; b. Somerfield, Pa., Apr. 10, 1866. He was educated at Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa. (B.A., 1886), McCormick Theological Seminary (1891), and the University of Leipsic (Ph.D., 1900). He was ordained to the Lutheran ministry in 1892, and was pastor of Grace Lutheran Church, San José, Cal., from 1891 to 1898, besides being lecturer in history in San José Academy in 1896-98 and president of the Lutheran Synod of California in 1896-97. He was dean and professor of philosophy in Ansgar College, Hutchinson, Minn., in 1901-02, and professor of Greek in Wittenberg College, Springfield, O., in 1903-05, and since 1905 has been professor of New-Testament philology and criticism in Hamma Divinity School, Springfield. He is the author of The Political Revolution under Elizabeth (1901).
Probably the oldest German diocese. Christianity seems to have been established in the ancient Gallic city of the same name as early as the second century, though it was not until the reign of Constantine that the faith made rapid progress. [Tradition reports, however, that Eucharius, Valerius, and Maternus were sent by Peter the Apostle to preach in the valley of the Rhine, and that Eucharius was the first bishop of Treves, occupying the episcopal chair for twenty-five years.] In the fifth century the Roman hall of justice at Treves was transformed into the church now preserved in the cathedral, though it was not until the end of the Roman period, late in the fifth century, that the city became predominantly Christian. The origin of the diocese is lost in obscurity, for the reputed disciples of Peter, namely, Eucharius, Valerius, and Maternus, are creations of legend. The first certain bishop was Agroetius, who attended the Synod of Arles in 314. His successors, Maximinus and Paulinus, aided Athanasius against the Arians, though it is uncertain whether they were metropolitans. The capture of Treves by the Franks, who soon became Christianized, made no interruption in the episcopal line, for at the very time of the struggle Bishop Jamblichus (c. 457) is mentioned, and his suecessors, Nieetius (after 527), Magnericus (570-596), and others were of metropolitan rank. This dignity, however, was lost during the confusion toward the close of the Merovingian period, but was restored by Charlemagne before 811, and retained until the early part of the nineteenth century. The diocese comprised the territory on both sides of the Mosel, from the present boundary with Prussia and Lorraine to the entrance of the river into the Rhine, and, across the Rhine, a small strip of land on both banks of the Lahn to a point above Wetzlar. Metz, Toul, and Verdun were suffragan bishoprics.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: J. N. von Hontheim, Historia Trevirensium diplomatum, 3 vols., Augsburg, 1750; idem, Prodromus historiae Trevirensis. 2 vols., ib. 1757; Codex diplomaticus Rheno-Moselkanus, ed. W. Günther, 5 vols., Coblenz, 1822-26; Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der . . . mittelrheinischen Territorien, ed. H. Beyer and others, 3 vols., ib. 1860-74; MGH, Dip., i <1872); Diplomata regum el imperatorum Germanicae, 3 vols., Hanover, 1879-1903; F. X. Kraus, Die christlichen Inschriften der Rheinlande, 2 parts, nos. 75-255, Freiburg, 1890; Gesta Trevirorum, in MGH, Script., viii (1848), 111 sqq., xxiv (1879), 368 sqq., and Series archiepiscoporum Treverensium, in the same, xiii (1881), 296 sqq.; A. Görz, Regesten der Erzbischöfen von Trier, 2 vols., Treves, 1859-61. Consult further: J. Marx, Geschichte des Erzstifts Trier, 5 vols., Treves, 1858-64; J. Wegler, Richard von Greiffenclau, Erzbischof und Kurfürst von Trier, 1511-31, ib. 1881; F. Ferdinand, Cuno von Falkenstein als Erzbischof von Trier, 1377, Paderborn, 1886; S. Beissel, Geschichte der Trierer Kirchen, Treves, 1887; P. de Lorenzi, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Pfarreien der Diözese Trier, 2 vols., ib. 1887; K. Schorn, Eiflia sacra, 2 vols., Bonn, 1887-88; H. V. Sauerland, Trierer Geschichtsquellen des XI. Jahrhunderts, Treves, 1889; J. Mohr, Die Heiligen der Diözese Trier, ib. 1892; E. Vogt, Die Reichspolitik des Erzbischofs Balduin von Trier in den Jahren 1328-34, Goths, 1901; and the KD of Rettberg, Friedrich, and Hauck.
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