RAMPOLLA, ram-pel'la, DEL TINDARO, MARIANOO: Cardinal; b., of noble family, at Polizzi (40 m. s.e. of Palermo), Sicily, Aug. 17, 1843. He was educated at the Pontificia Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici, Rome; was attached in 1889 to the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and shortly afterward was appointed domestic prelate to the pope. Six years later he was sent to Madrid, where he was acting papal nuncio, and in 1877 he was recalled to Rome as secretary of the Propaganda for the Oriental Rite, becoming secretary of the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs in 1880. In 1882 he was consecrated titular archbishop of Heraclea and returned to Madrid as nuncio, where he was able to render important services to both the papal and the Spanish governments. He was created cardinal-priest of Santa Cecilia in 1887, and is also archpriest of the Basilica and prefect of the Congregation of the Fabric, and a member of the Congregations of the Inquisition, Consistory, Propaganda, Propaganda for the Oriental Rite, Rites, Studies, and Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. From 1887 to 1903 he was papal secretary of state, and in this office sought to further the restoration of the temporal power of the pope. He has written De cathedra Romana Beati Petri, Apostolorum principis (Rome, 1888); De authentico Romani Pontificis magisterio (1870); and Del Luogo dei martirio e del sepolcro dei Maccabei (1897).
RAMSAY, ram'zę, SIR WILLIAM MITCHELL: Church of Scotland layman; b. at Glasgow Mar. 15, 1851. He was educated at the universities of Aberdeen (M.A., 1871), Oxford (B.A., 1876), and Göttingen. He was Oxford University traveling scholar (1880-82), research fellow of Exeter College, Oxford (1882-$7), and fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, and professor of classical art and archeology in the University of Oxford (1885-86). Since 1886 he has been professor of humanity in the University of Aberdeen, where he was also Wilson fellow in 1901-05. He was elected honorary fellow of Exeter College in 1896 and of Lincoln College in the following year, and was lecturer in Mansfield College, Oxford, in 1891 and 1895, Levering lecturer at Johns Hopkins in 1894, Morgan lecturer at Auburn Theological Seminary in 1894, Rede lecturer in the University of Cambridge in 1906, and Gay lecturer at the Southwestern Theological Seminary in 1910.. In 1880-91, 1898, and 1901-05 he traveled extensively in Asiatic Turkey, and received the gold medal of Pope Leo XIII. in 1893, the Victoria gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and the L. W. Drexel gold medal for archeological exploration, University of Pennsylvania. He has written Historical Geography of Asia Minor (London, 1890); The Church in the Roman Empire before 180 A.D. (1893); The Cities and Bishops of Phrygia (2 vols., 1895-97); St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen (1895); Impression's of Turkey (1897); Was Christ born at Bethlehem: (1898); Historical Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians (1899); The Education of Christ (1902); The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia (1904); Pauline and Other Studies in Early Christian History (1906); The Cities of St. Paul, their Influence on his Life and Thought. The Cities of Eastern Asia Minor (1907); Luke the Physician, and Other Studies in the Hist. of Religion (1908); The Revolution in Constantinople and Turkey; a Diary (1909); The Thousand and One Churches (1909; in collaboration with Gertrude L. Bell); and Pictures of the Apostolic Church, its Life and Preaching (1910); and has edited Studies in the Hist. and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire (1906).
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