RAPP, rap, JOHANN GEORG: Founder of the Harmony Society; b. at Iptingen, near Vaihingen (15 m. n.w. of Stuttgart), Nov. 1, 1757; d. at Economy, Pa., Aug. 7, 1847. He was a linen-weaver by trade and early came under influences of mysticism. By 1785 he had become a separatist and held aloof from the public worship and communion of the Church. By his declaration of his views and by his eloquence he attracted thousands who flocked to Iptingen. Their open opposition to the rites of the Church, refusal to send their children to the parochial schools, and independent worship called upon himself and his adherents restrictive measures from the government, incited by the ecclesiastics; but, meanwhile (1803), Rapp had gone to America to select a site for a settlement, whither he was followed the next year by 700 of his adherents. In Butler County, Pa., he established a colony called Harmony, presumably on a primitive apostolic model, organized on the basis of a community of industry and goods, celibacy, and chiliasm. Rapp was a man of superior ability, tireless industry, sincere piety, commanding eloquence, and practical skill, which is illustrated by the phenomenal success of the enterprise for a season. For the history of the enterprise see COMMUNISM, II., 6.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: See, in addition to the literature under COMMUNISM, 11., 6, C. Palmer, Die Gemeinschaften and Sekten Wütembergs, Tübingen, 1877; K. Knortz, Die christlich-kommunistische Kolonie der Rappisten, Leipsic, 1892.
RASHDALL, HASTINGS: Church of England; b. in London June 24, 1858. He was educated at New College, Oxford (B. A.,1881; M. A.,1884), and was ordered deacon in 1884 and ordained priest two years later. He was lecturer in St. David's College, Lampeter (1883-84), tutor in the University of Durham (1884,88), and fellow and lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford (1888-95). Since 1895 he has been fellow and tutor of New College, Oxford, and dean of divinity since 1903. He was chaplain and theological tutor at Balliol College, Oxford (1894-95), select preacher at Cambridge (1880-1901), and Oxford (1895-97), and preacher at Lincoln's Inn (1898-1903). In addition to contributing to Contentio Veritatis (London, 1902), he has written The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages (2 vols., London, 1895); Doctrine and Development (university sermons; 1898); New College (in collaboration with R. S. Rait; 1901); Christus in Ecclesia (Edinburgh, 1904); The Theory of Good and Evil (1907); and Philosophy and Religion (Oxford, 1909).
Calvin College. Last modified on 06/03/04. Contact the CCEL.