RAVIGNAN, ra"vî"nyan', GUSTAVE FRANÇOIS XAVIER DE LA CROIX DE: Roman Catholic; b. at Bayonne Dec. 2, 1795; d. in Paris Feb. 26, 18;.8. He was educated in the Lycée Bonaparte; studied law, and had already began practising as an advocate in Paris, when he entered the order of the Jesuits and the Seminary of St. Sulpice. When the Jesuits were expelled from France, in 1830, he repaired to Switzerland, and became a teacher at Freiburg; but in 1835 he returned to France, and


in 1837 he succeeded Lacordaire as preacher of Notre Dame. He was considered one of the greatest preachers of his time, vehement in pathos, trenchant in irony, audacious but compelling in argument. In 1848 he retired to his convent on account of ill health. He published De l'existence et de l'institute des jesuites (Paris, 1844; 10th ed., 1901), and Clement XIII. et Clement XIV. (2 vols., 1854).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. de Ponlevoy, Vie du R. P. Xavier de Ravignan, 2 vols., Paris, 1860, Eng. transl., Life of Father Ravignan, New York, 1869; J. Poujoulat, Le Pere Ravignan, Paris, 1859.

RAWLINSON, ro'lin-sun, GEORGE: Church of England, commentator and orientalist; b. at Chadlington (14 m. n.w. of Oxford), Oxfordshire, Nov. 23, 1812; d. at Canterbury Oct. 6,1902. He entered Trinity College, Oxford (B.A., 1838; M.A., Exeter College, 1841); was ordained deacon 1841, and priest 1842; was fellow of Exeter College, 1840-46; tutor, 1842 1846; sub-rector, 1844-15; curate of Merton, Oxfordshire, 1846-17; classical moderator at Oxford, 1852-54; public examiner, 1855-57, 1868-69, 1875-79; Bampton lecturer, 1859; Camden professor of ancient history, Oxford, 1861-89; proctor for the chapter in convocation of Canterbury, 1873-1898; after 1872 canon of Canterbury; and after 1888 rector of All Hallows, Lombard Street.

His publications were, commentaries on Joshua, I and II Kings, I and II Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther (London, 1873), in The Bible (Speaker's) Commentary; on Exodus (1882) in An Old Testament Commentary by C. J. Ellicott; and on Exodus (1882), II Kings (1889), Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther (1880), Job (1892), Isaiah (1886-87), and Psalms (1896), in The Pulpit Commentary . He was the editor of History of Herodotus, with copious notes and appendices, in collaboration with Henry Rawlinson and J. G. Wilkinson (4 vols., London, 1858-80; with notes abridged by A. J. Grant, 2 vols., 1897); The Historical Evidences of the Truth of the Scripture Records (Bampton lectures for 1859; 1859); The Contrasts of Christianity with Heathen and Jewish Systems (1861); The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World (4 vols., 1862-87); The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy (1873), The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy (1876), the last three frequently republished and reprinted collectively under the title The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World; A Manual of Ancient History (e. g., New York, 1889); Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament (London, 1871); St. Paul in Damascus and Arabia (1877); The History of Ancient Egypt (2 vols., 1881); The Religions of the Ancient World (1882); Egypt and Babylon from Scripture and Profane Sources (1884); Bible Topography (1886); Ancient Egypt (1887); Phamicia (1889), and Parthia (1893), in The Story of the Nations series; Ancient History (1887); Moses, His Life and Times (1887), The Kings of Israel and Judah (1889), Isaac and Jacob (1890), and Ezra and Nehemiah (1891), in The Men of the Bible series; and The History of Phoenicia (1889).


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