RAUSCHENBUSCH, AUGUSTUS: Baptist; b. at Altona (41 m. n.e. of Cologne) Feb. 13, 1816; d. at Hamburg 1899. He came of a long line of Lutheran pastors and authors; studied at the universities of Berlin and Bonn; was pastor at Altona in succession to his father, 1841-45; emigrated in 1845 to America to serve among his countrymen there; was German secretary and editor for the American Tract Society, 1846-53; in 1850 he became a Baptist, and served German Baptist churches in Missouri, 1853-58; was head of the German department in Rochester Theological Seminary, 1858-90; returned to Germany in 1890 and spent the rest of his life there in literary labors. Among his books may be noted Geschichte der Eravdter (New York, 1859); Die Bedeutung des Fusswaschens Christi (Hamburg, 1861); Die Vorldufer der Reformation (Cleveland, O., 1875); Gehoren die Apokryphen in der Bibel hinein (Hamburg, 1895); Die Entstehung der Kindertaufe (1897); Biblische Frauenbilder (1897); Die Entatehung der Kindertaufe im S. Jahrhundert nach Christum and die Wiedereinfuhrung der biblisehen Taufe im 17. Jahrhundert (1898); and Handbuchlein der Homiletik fur freskirchlwhe Prediger and fur Stadtmissiondre (Cassel, 1900).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Leben and Wirken van August Rauschenbusch, Cassel and Cleveland, Ohio, 1901 (by himself and his son Walter, q.v.).
RAUSCHENBUSCH, rau'shen-bush, WALTER: Baptist, son of the preceding; b. in Rochester, N. Y., Oct. 4, 1861. He received his education at the Rochester Free Academy, the classical gymnasium at Gütersloh, Germany (1879,83), University of Rochester (B.A., 1884), Rochester Theological Seminary (graduated 1886), with supplementary studies in Germany (1891-92 and 1907-08); he was pastor of the Second German Baptist Church, New York City, 1886-97; professor of New-Testament interpretation in the German department of Rochester Theological Seminary, 1897-1902; and of church history in the seminary since 1902. His principal work is Christianity and the Social Crissis (New York, 1907), which has run through several editions. Besides this other works worthy of mention are Das Leben Jesu (Cleveland, Ohio, 1895); Leben and Wirken von August Rauschenbusch (Cassel, 1901); The New Evangelism (New York, 1904); For God and the People (1910; prayers); and the sections dealing with American church history in the Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, ed. G. Krüger (Tübingen, 1909).
RAUTENBERG, rau'ten-barH, JOHANN WILHELM: German Protestant and one of the fore most preachers of his day; b. at Moorfleth (a village near Hamburg) Mar. 1, 1791; d. at Hamburg Mar. 1, 1865. After being forced to flee from Hamburg in 1813 because of his part in the deliverance of Hamburg from the French, he studied at the universities of Kiel (1813-16) and Berlin (1816-17). He then returned to Hamburg, where he supported himself chiefly as a private tutor until 1820, when he was chosen pastor of St. George (now part of the city of Hamburg). There he labored for nearly forty-five years, and there, on Jan. 9, 1825, he opened a Sunday-school to give elementary secular instruction as well as religious training to those children who were deprived of opportunities for such teaching during the week. Despite much opposition, this school not only developed into a week-day school and even into the St. George Stiftskirche, but was ultimately responsible for the establishment of the Rauhes Hans (see W,small>ICHEHN, JOHANN HINRICH). Rautenberg's theological position was throughout one of unswerving orthodoxy and devotion. His chief writings were as follows: Denkblätter (13 parts, Hamburg, 1821-33); two volumes of sermons (ed. H. Sengehnann, Hamburg, 1866-1867); and two hymnals, Festliche Nachklänge (1865) and Hirtenstimmen 1866; both edited by H. Sengelmann).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. 8engelmann, Zum Gedfhtnis Johann Wilhelm Rautenberps, Hamburg, 1885; F. A. Löwe, Denkwurdigkeiten aus dem Leben and Wirken des J. W. Rautenbergs, ib. 1888; J. H. Höck, Bilder aus der Geschichte der hamburgischen Kirche, pp. 323 sqq., ib. 1900; ADB, xxvii. 457 sqq.; P. Lange, Johann Wilhelm Rautenberg, Berlin, 1900.
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