RESPONSES. See ANTIPHON.
RESTARICK, HENRY BOND: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Honolulu; b. at Holcomb, Somersetshire, England, Dec. 26, 1854. He was educated at King James' Grammar School, Bridgewater, Somersetahire, and Griswold College, Davenport, Ia. (A.B., 1882), and was ordered deacon in 1881 and advanced to the priesthood in the following year; was curate of Trinity Church, Muscatina, Ia. (1881-82); rector of St. Paul's, San Diego, Cal. (1882-1902), when he was consecrated first Protestant Episcopal bishop of Honolulu. In theology he is a positive Churchman, and has written Lay Readers: Their History, Organization, and Work (New York, 1894), and The Love of God: Addresses on the Last Seven Words (1897).
RESTITUTION, EDICT OF. See WESTPHALIA, PEACE OF.
RESTORATION. See APOCATASTASIS.
RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD:
The Christian hope of a renewal of life after death was to a certain extent anticipated by the expectation of redemption current among the Jews before the time of Christ; but its real basis is found in the teaching of Christ and in his own resurrection, though it is true that the Christian exposition of the doctrine presupposes the Jewish. While a thorough investigation of the history of the latter is rendered difficult by the uncertainty which prevails in regard to the age of the sources, a tolerably clear idea of
The first trace of an expectation that some dead men (not the dead in general) will rise is found in Isa. xxvi. 19 (Hos. vi. 2, xiii. 14; Ezek. xxxvii. 1-14, refer to the restoration of the national and spiritual life of Israel). In this passage the hope of a resurrection appears in connection with that of a glorious future for Israel. The prophet anticipates a time when the righteous Israelites shall awake from death to a share in the blessings of the period of redemption. A fuller conception is found in Dan. xii. 2, where for the first time is contemplated a resurrection of both just and unjust, though still only of Israelites. Upon this follows a judgment, which will assign to the just eternal life in the Messianic kingdom, and to the wicked exclusion frorp that kingdom, "shame and everlasting contempt." Here again the close connection between the Messianic hope and that of a resurrection is to be noted. Frequent attempts have been made to adduce passages from the Psalms
The doctrine proclaimed by Christ and the NewTestament writers, while having points of contact with the foregoing, develops along its own lines. In the discussion with the Sadducees (Matt. xxii. 23-32) Jesus offers a special proof of the resurrection of the righteous (who alone are considered here); but in other sayings of his the resurrection of the ungodly is taken for granted (Matt. xi. 24). Apparently he treats both as simultaneous (cf. also John v. 28, 29); only in Luke (xiv. 14, xx. 35) is there an apparent separation, and this may be the effect of Paul's influence on Luke. Paul himself distinguishes two resurrections, or rather three-that of Christ, that of those who have died believing in him, which takes place at his second coming, and that of the other dead (I Cor. xv. 21-24). He does not define the interval between the two latter; the Apocalypse places a thousand years between them (Rev. xx. 4). Of more importance than the question of time are the proofs which Christ and Paul offer of the fact. The former, in the passage of Matthew cited above, demonstrates the resurrection of the righteous by the fact that God calls himself the God of the patriarchs, which can mean only that they will return to life, and that life, to be complete, must be a bodily life. What is true of them, is true also, as Luke puts it with a slight change of thought
The agent in this resurrection in all the Pauline passages is God the Father (Rom. iv. 17, viii. 11; I Cor. vi. 14; II Cor. i. 9); in John v. 21, the Son is named as cooperating with the Father, and in John vi. 39, 40, 44, is the sole agent. These two conceptions are reconciled in that of the relations of God and Christ. All the dead in rising again experience the power of God (I Cor. vi. 14;
As to the nature of the resurrection body, both Christ and Paul tell something. Both, however, speak exclusively of that of the righteous (Matt. xxii. 30; 497
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The subject is treated from the Biblical side in the commentaries on the passages cited, and in the works on Biblical Theology (see the lists given in and under that article); and from the dogmatic standpoint in the works on systematic theology (see in and under DOGMA, DOGMATICS) and especially on Eschatology (q.v.). Special note may be made of: S. Drew, An Essay on the Identity and General Resurrection of the Human Body . . . in Relation both to Philosophy and Scripture, London, 1822; G. Bush, Anastasis; or the Doctrine of the Resurrection of the Body Rationally and Scripturally Considered, New York, 1845; R. W. Landis, The Doctrine of the Resurrection of the Body, Philadelphia, 1846; B. F. Westcott, The Gospel of the Resurrection. Thoughts on its Relation to Reason and History, London and New York, 1865; H. Mattison, The Resurrection of the Dead, Considered in the Light of History, Philosophy, and Divine Revelation, Philadelphia, 1866; A. H. Klostermann, Untersuchungen zur alttestamentlichen Theologie, Gotha, 1868; A. H. Cremer, Die Auferstelung der Todten, Barmen, 1870; idem, Ueber den Zustand nach dem Tode, 3d ed., Gütersloh, 1892; Jahrbücher für deutsche Theologie, 1874, no. 2 (by Staehelin), 1877, no. 2 (by Köstlin); J. Hall, How are the Dead Raised, and with what Body do they come? Hartford, 1875; D. W. Faunce, Resurrection in Nature and in Revelation: an Argument and a Meditation, New York, 1884; C. E. Luthardt, Lehre von den letzten Dingen, 3d ad., Leipsic, 1885 H. W. Rinek, Vom Zustand nach dem Tode, Basel, 1885; F. Splittgerber, Tod. Fortleben, und Auferstehung, 4th ed., Halle, 1885; R. Kabisch, Eschatologie des Paulus, Göttingen, 1893; W. Milligan, The Resurrection of the Dead. An Exposition of 1 Corinthians xv., Edinburgh, 1894; C. S. Gerhard, Death and the Resurrection, Philadelphia, 1895; P. Giannone, Il Triregno (Della Resurrezione de Morte), 3 Vol., Rome, 1895; W. F. Whitehouse, The Redemption of the Body, London, 1895; E. Huntingford, The Resurrection of the Body, ib. 1897; J. Maynard, The Resurrection of the Dead, ib. 1897; J. Hugh-Games, On the Nature of the Resurrection of the Body, ib. 1898; J. Telfer, The Coming Kingdom of God, ib. 1902; L. Kessler, Relipiöse Wirklichkeit. Von der Gewissheit der Auferstelunp, Göttingen, 1903; E. Wolfsdorf, Die Auferstehung der Toten, Bamberg, 1904; J. H. Hyslop, Psychical Research and the Resurrection, Boston, 1908; C. K. Staudt, The Idea of the Resurrection in the Ante-Nicene Period, Chicago, 1910; D. Völter, Die Entstehung des Glaubens an die Auferstehung Jesu, Strasburg, 1910; J. G. Björklund, Death and Resurrection from the Point of View of the Cell Theory, Chicago, 1910.
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