PHILIP THE TETRARCH (4 B.C.-34 A.D.): Son of Herod the Great and of Cleopatra, a woman of Jerusalem. He was educated in Rome For his tetrarchate and rule see HEROD AND HIS FAMILY, II., § 3. He was a gentle and gracious prince, who always resided in his own territories and was ever ready to give aid and justice to his people. Philip's coins bear the representation of the emperor and the device of a temple, which is more probably the temple of Augustus at Cwsarea than the sanctuary at Jerusalem. His reign of thirty-seven years was almost contemporaneous with the life of Jesus, who sometimes traversed Philip's dominions. When the latter died in 33 or 34 A.D., his land became a part of the province of Syria and was administered as an imperial domain.
There is some difficulty in bringing Mark vi. 17 (Matt. xiv. 3) into agreement with Josephus, Ant., xviii. 137, where Philip is said to have married Salome, the daughter of his brother Herod Antipas and of his niece Herodias, while Mark makes Philip the first husband of Herodias herself, and states that she left him to marry Herod. Some interpreters suppose that two sons of Herod the Great bore the name of Philip, one of them being also called Herod; others again think that there must be some error either in Josephus or in Mark. It is probable that the latter confused two brothers, one of whom was the father and the other the husband of Salome.
Consult the literature under H
PHILIPPI, fi-lip'-pi, FRIEDRICH ADOLPH: German Lutheran; b. at Berlin Oct. 15, 1809; d. at Rostock Aug. 29, 1882. Although a Jew by birth, he soon began to consider the problem of the truth of Christianity. He became a convert when he was sixteen years old, but out of respect to his parents he was not baptized until four years later. After completing his education at the universities of Berlin (1827-29) and Leipsic (1829-30), he taught at Dresden (1830-32) and Berlin (1833-34), but withdrew from active life to devote himself to the private study of theology, especially dogmatics and exegesis. In 1837 he became privat-docent for theology in the University of Berlin, whence he was called to Dorpat in 1841 as professor of dogmatics and moral theology. Here he took a lively interest in the ecclesiastical questions of the day, contributing much to strengthen the position of Lutheranism in Russian territory. In 1851 he was called to Rostock as professor of New-Testament exegesis, in which capacity he successfully opposed the theology of Johann Hofmann and Michael Baumgarten (qq.v.). In addition to his professorial duties, Philippi was appointed a theological examiner in 1856, and a consistorial councilor in 1874. Among his writings are: De Celsi adversarii Christianorum philmophandi genere (Berlin, 1836); Der tlul*e Gehorsam Christi., sin Beitrag our Rechtfertigungslehre (1841); Commentar über den Brief Pauli an die Romer (3 parts, Erlangen and Frankfort, 1848-52; Eng: transl. by J. S. Banks, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1878-79); Kirchliche Glaubenslehre (6 vols., Gütersloh, 1854-79); Predigten and Vorträge (edited by F. Philippi, 1883); Symbolik, akademisehe Vorlesungen (edited by the same, 1883); and Erklärung des Briefes Pauli an die Galater (edited by the same,1884).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Meklenburgdisches Kirchen- und Zeitblatt, 1882, nos. 19-21; M. A. Landerer, Neueste Dogmenschichte, p. 215 et passim, Heilbronn, 1881.
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