PLACETTE, plā"set', JEAN LA: French Protestant theologian and moralist; b. at Pontacq (118 m. s.s.w. of Bordeaux) Jan. 19, 1639; d. at Utrecht Apr. 25, 1718. He studied theology at the Protestant academy at Montauban; became pastor at Orthez (1660), and at Nay (1664), where he earned a brilliant reputation as an orator; after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) he became pastor of the French church at Copenhagen, where he labored fruitfully as pastor and as writer till 1711, when he retired and went to live at Utrecht. His writings fall into three classes, those on systematic theology, on morals, and on practical theology. Among those in the former class to be named are: Observationes historico-ecclesiasticæ (Amsterdam, 1695); Traité de la foi divine (1697); and Réponse à deux objections . . . sur l'origine du mal et sur le mystère de la Trinité (1707). In the second class mention may be made of Nouveaux essais de morale (1892); a second series with the same title (6 vols., The Hague, 1715); Le Morale chrétienne (2 vols., Cologne, 1695) ; and Divers traités sur des matières de conscience (Amsterdam, 1698). In the third class are: La Mort des justes ou manière de biers mourir (1695; Eng. transl., The Death of the Righteous, 2 vols., London, 1737); La Communion devoté (2 vols., 1895); Traité de la conscience (1699; Eng. transl., The Christian Casuist, London, 1705); and


the posthumous Avis sur la manière de prêcher (Rotterdam, 1733; contains a biography).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Beside the life in Avis . . , ut sup., consult: Niceron, Mémoires, vol. ii.; P. A. Sayous, Hist. de la littérature française à l'étranger, ii. 211-220, Paris, 1853; Lichtenberger, ESR, vii. 741-744.


PLACEUS, plā-sî'-us, JOSUA (JOSUÉ DE LA PLACE): French theologian; b. at Saumur (30 m. s.e. of Angers) probably in 1596; d. there Aug. 17, 1665 or 1655. He became pastor at Nantes in 1625 and was professor of theology at his native city from 1633 till his death. Placeus together with M. Amyraut (q.v.) and L. Capellus belong, as followers of John Cameron (q.v.), to that theological movement at Saumur which in contrast with the orthodox school of Sedan sought to moderate the Calvinistic doctrine by emphasizing the ethical and common human elements, without, however, departing from the fundamental principles. From the supreme value of the accountability of every human soul, Placeus especially drew the conclusion against the imputation of Adam's actual sin. In defense of the doctrine that the sin of Adam could be reckoned to his descendants only as mediated by the inherited sinful subjective state he pointed out that Calvin knew nothing of an immediate imputation and that the same was denied by Peter Martyr and Daniel Chamier (q.v.), but did not go so far as to justify himself by the view of Zwingli that hereditary guilt was no more than the guilt of every individual. The national synod of Charenton (1644) under the leadership of Antoine Garissoles (q.v.), representing the over-zealous constituency of Montauban, opposed this assertion by adopting a decree to be subscribed by all pastors and candidates. Placeus issued later his vindication, Disputatio de imputatione primi peccati Adami (Saumur, 1655). The national synod of Loudun, in 1659, withdrew all threatening measures of discipline, but the Zurich orthodoxy did not rest content until in the Formula consensus Helvetici of 1675 it repudiated with Saumurism as a whole the mere " imputation mediate and consequent."


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Opera omnia were published in 2 vols., Franeker, 1899, Aubencit, 1702. Consult: E. and E. Haag, La France protestante, ed. H. L. Bordier, vi. 309 sqq., Paris, 1889; J. G. Walch, Einleitung in die Religions-Sereitigkeiten . . ausser der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, iii. 890 sqq, Jena, 1734; Bartholmeas, in Bulletin de la socié:té de l'hist. du protestantisme françaís, 1853; Saigey, in Revue de théologie, Oct., 1855; Lichtenberger, ESR, xi. 489 sqq.


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