PIUS, pai'us: The name of ten popes.
Pius I.: Bishop of Rome 140-155. According to the Meratorian Canon (q.v.) he was a brother of the Hermas who was the author of "The Shepherd." Tertullian (" Against Marcion," i. 19) declares that Marcion in the time of this pope went to Rome for the purpose of establishing his sect there. According to Irenæus, Valentinus and the Syrian Cerdon were active there at the same time. Thus the pontificate of Pius I. was a stormy one. What part Pius took in these conflicts and controversies is not known, but one of the ablest of his champions and allies was Justin Martyr (q.v.). Pius I. was canonized and his festival is July 11.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are Irenæus, Hær.,Ill., iii. 3, Eng. transl., ANF, i. 418; Eusebius, Hist. eccl., IV., xi., Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 ser., i. 182 sqq; Liber pontificalis, ed. Ducheane, i.. 4-5, Paris, 1886, ed. Mommsen, in MGH, Gest. pont. Rom., i (1898), 14. Consult, Jaffe, Regesta, i. 7-8; Harnack, Lltteratur, i. 789, ii. 1, pp. 70 sqq. (where literature on the lisle of Roman bishops is fully given); J. Langen, GeachichEe der rlisniachen Kirche, i., iii, sqq., Bonn, 1881; Bower, Popes, i. 12-13; Platina, Popes, i. 27-29.
Pius II. (Æneas Silvius, Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini):
Simultaneously with his "conversion," as secretary of Frederick III. he changed the direction of his ecclesiastical statecraft. While Felix V. and the Council of Basel still regarded him as the advocate of their interests, he posed even in Vienna as one of the " neutrals," and as such openly Diplomacy. appeared at the Nuremberg diet of 1444. The resolution passed by this diet, that the status of " neutrality " should last till 1445, but that Pope Eugenius IV. should then be requested to convoke a new council, was conveyed to Rome by Piccolomini in person; and if, indeed, he did not there contrive to gain approval for his errand, he still gained the entire favor and pardon of Eugenius IV. as far as his own course was concerned. Thus the political variation was effectually reversed; while in order to set aside the animosity still prevalent in Germany he supported the king with all his diplomatic art. Nor was reward from Rome lacking. After Eugenius IV. had appointed him papal secretary, there followed, upon his returning to Vienna subsequently to the papal election of 1447, his nomination as bishop of Trieste, and, in 1450, as bishop of Siena. At this time Piccolomini conceived a new "mission" for himself, designed to carry him still higher and to obliterate all disagreeable souvenirs of his Basel period. He
Rome joyfully acclaimed the election of the worldly-fashioned humanist. Nevertheless, his election proved a disappointment to the mendicant literati, who beset him with all sorts of petitions. To his teacher alone, the aged Filelfo in Florence, was he accessible, and to him he granted a pension, though this was irregularly paid, thus eventually gave occasion to invectives against the donor. However, Pius II. expended considerable sums in the acquisition of manuscripts and for the copying of valuable codices, besides employing artists of every kind, particularly architects, at Rome, Siena, and Corsignano. The first project which the new pope desired to carry out, was that of a crusade to recover Constantinople. An assembly of Christian princes, convened at Mantua, was opened by Pius II. himself; but the proposition to impose a general tithe for the purpose was withstood on the part of Venice and France, and also met with obstruction in the case of the Austrian Duke Sigismund's delegate, Gregory of Heimburg (q.v.). It was in course of the strife with him (for he appealed from the pope to a general council) that the notorious bull Execrabilis appeared, Jan. 18, 1460, which even thus early applied the ban against an appeal of that kind. This reveals the extreme of contrasts expressed in the man who formerly at Basel had championed the superiority of the councils over the popes. The action that emanated from Mantua, and even evoked a bull declaring war and issuing summons for a crusade (Jan. 14, 1460), had no practical result, because meanwhile, at Naples, the conflict which broke out between the Spanish and the French pretenders for the sovereignty rendered all procedure against the Turks impossible. The pope then turned his attention to other objects. He endowed with affluence his nephews and other favorites at Siena; he sought to annul the pragmatic sanction of Bourges (1438); in Germany, the opposition of the archbishop of Mainz, Dieter of Isenburg, necessitated measures of the utmost stringency, including that prelate's deposition (1461) followed next by the ban, which was not revoked until 1464. It was in Bohemia, however, that the strife became hottest. In 1458, King Podiebrad had been forced to promise, in conjunction with his oath of obedience to Calixtus III., that he would "lead back the Bohemian people from all errors and heresies to the true Catholic faith and into obedience toward the Roman Church," which promise Podiebrad was unable to meet because the Utraquists (see HUSS, JOHN), under Rokyczana, were too strong. On the contrary, at the national diet of May 15, 1461, he was compelled to guarantee them the perpetuation of the articles compacted at Prague. Accordingly, Pius II. stepped in. with absolute power, and annulled the concession by the Council of Basel in favor of the Bohemians, although he himself had advised its adoption. Podiebrad, who personally was a Utraquist, now sided openly with that party. His subsequent citation to Rome, under date of June 15, 1464, on charge of heresy was rendered inoperative by the pope's death.
A matter of less moment was involved in a conflict with Duke Sigismund of Tyrol, mentioned above as Duke Sigismund of Austria. For years the latter had stood at odds with the bishop of Brixen, the famous cardinal of Cues (Cusanus), who claimed the suzerainty over Tyrol. Cusanus had been commissioned during the convention at Mantua as governor of Rome, for he was an old friend of Pius Il. But when he returned to Tyrol, Sigismund.waylaid him and took him prisoner. Ban and interdict were the sequel (1460). On promising to procure at Rome the repeal of the church penalties, Cusanus recovered his freedom; but as nevertheless he failed to effect the desired repeal, he did not return to Tyrol. Neither did he survive the conclusion of subsequent negotiations between Pius II. and the duke (1461). With all these conflicts and cares, the pope was not permitted to compass his favorite plan. Even his marvelous attempt miscarried whereby the Sultan Muhamed II. was to be converted by epistolary persuasion. Above all, there was dearth of money. Within the papal domain, and but eight miles from Rome, the rich and sumptuous camp of the Alouni was discovered; whereupon Pius II. once again convened envoys of various powers, and in 1463 promulgated a new bull in behalf of a crusade. But except at Venice, which had a twofold interest in the enterprise, and Hungary, which was immediately menaced,, the war against the Turks found no response. Then the pope headed affairs in person. In June, 1464, he journeyed to Ancona; and had the satisfaction, on August 12, when already gravely ill, of outliving the arrival of the Venetian fleet. But three days later he died, in his last words earnestly commending to those about him the crusade and the dependent members of his family. He seemed to have realized what had been his strongest motive in connection with this undertaking, to expiate, by means of a " good death," an evil life. " We think," for so had he said in the discourse wherewith he proclaimed the beginning of the crusade, " it might go well with us if God should please to have us end our days in his service."
The tremendous chasm which seams his life Pius Il. himself attempted to cover under a still greater equivocation. All that he formerly assailed at
Upon the death of Pius II. at Ancona on August 15, his body was conveyed to Rome, and first bestowed in the (older) Church of St. Peter; subsequently (1614), sarcophagus and monument were lodged in the Church of S. Andrea dells Valle.
The pope's writings were printed in a collective edition at Basel, 1551 and 1571. His Literæ appeared in many separate editions (Cologne, 1478; Nuremberg, 1481, 1486, 1496.) They were classified, with many accessions, by G. Voigt in Archiv für Kunde österreichischer Geschichtsquellen (1856); some supplements appear in Pastor's Römische Pällpste, vol. ii., appendix (Freiburg, 1894; Eng.transl., vol. iii.); a new ed. was begun by R. Wolkan in the Fontes rerum Austriacarum, of which two volumes have appeared, Vienna, 1909-10. There is a Frankfort edition (1614) of his Commentarii rerum memorabilium, also, ed. G. Lesca, Pisa, 1894. The Commentariorum . . . de concilio Basiliensi appeared at Cologne, 1521; his Epistola Retractationis is in C. Fea, Pius II. a calumniis vindicates (Rome, 1823); the Historia Friderici, III, is in A. F. Kollar, Analecta . . . Vindobonensia, vol. ii. (Vienna, 1762); his "Addresses" were issued by Mansi (3 vols., Lucca, 1755-59); supplements by G. Cugnoni, Opera inedita Pii II. (Rome, 1883).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Creighton, Papacy, iii. 202-358; K. R. Hagenbach, Erinnerungen an Æneas Silvius Piccolomini, Basel, 1840; C. H. Verdikre, Essai sur Ænea Silvio Piccolomini, Paris, 1843; J. M. Diix, Der deutsche Kardinol Nicolaus van Cusa, i. 189 sqq., ii. 119 sqq., 142 sqq., Regensburg, 1847; G. Voigt, Eneas Silvius . . und sein Zeitalter, 3 vols., Berlin, 1858--83; idem, Die Wiederbelebung des klaasischen AIterthums, 2 vols., Berlin 1880-81; H. G. P. Gengler, Ueber Æneas Sylvius in seiner Bedeutung fur die deutsche Rechdageschichte, Erlangen, 1880; F. Palacky, Geschichte van Böhmen, iv. 2, pp. 80 sqq., Prague, 1880; A. Jäger, Der Strait des Nikolaus von Cusa mit dem Herzog Sigmund von Oesterreich, i. 317 sqq., ii. 44 sqq., Innsbruck, 1881; C. A. H. Markgraf, Ueber das Verhältness des Königs Georg von Böhmen zu Papst Pius II., Breslau, 1887; A. von Reumont, Geachichte der Stadt Rom, iii. 1, pp 129 sqq., 387 sqq., Berlin, 1888; F. H. Reusch, Index der verbotenen Büicher, i. 38, 40, Bonn, 1883; A. Frind, Die Kirchengeschichte Böhmens, iv. 48 sqq., Prague, 1878; G. W. Kitchin, Life of Pius II., London, 1881; A. Bees, Pius II. in seiner Bedeutunp als Geograph, Halle, 1901; W. Boulting Æneas Silvius (Enea Silvio de Piccolomini--Pius II.), Orator, Man of Letters, Statesman and Pope, London, 1909; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 2, passim; Mirbt, Quellen, pp 189-170; Ranks, Popes, i. 28-29, 308; Pastor, Popes, vols. ii.-iii. passim; Bower, Popes, iii. 241-244; Platina, Popes, ii. 257-275, Milman, Latin Christianity, vii. 565, viii. 84-122.
Pius III. (Francesco Todeachini): Pope 1503. He was a nephew of Pope Pius II. and was born at Siena in 1439. His uncle had him educated at Perugia, and influenced him to adopt the name and arms of the Piccolomini. He also created him archbishop of Siena in 1460, cardinal in 1462, and governor of Rome in 1464. By the following popes the " cardinal of Siena " was largely employed on diplomatic missions. That he possessed courage was evinced by his vigorous opposition, in 1497, restraining Alexander VI. from erecting a duchy out of portions of the States of the Church in behalf of his son, the duke of Gandia. He is supposed to have owed his election in Sept., 1503, not so much to his unstained reputation as to his manifestly impaired health. In fact, he died on the tenth day after his enthronement, Oct. 18, 1503. He had permitted Cæsar Borgia to return, and thus left the city of Rome in grievous confusion under the strife between him and the Orsini and Colonna.
BIBLIOGRAPHY; Pastor, Popes, vi. 185-208; Creighton, Papacy, v. 81-87; F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Hist. Diplomatique des conclaves, i. 435 sqq., Paris, 1884; F. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, viii. 4 sqq. Stuttgart, 1874; A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, iii. 2, pp. 7 sqq.. Berlin, 1878; Piccolomini, in Archivio storico Italico, v. 32, 102-103, Florence, 1903; Bower, Popes, iii. 277-278.
Pius IV. (Giovanni Angelo Medici): Pope 1560-1565. He was derived not from the Florentine Medici but from a Milanese family, was elected pope at the age of sixty years in Dec., 1559, and was enthroned as Pius IV. on Epiphany, 1560.
Unlike his predecessor Paul IV. (q.v.), whose
Nepotism in the Curia was radically abolished by Pius IV., who contrived to extract large sums of money from the States of the Church and from the ecclesiastical administration, and allotted considerable amounts to his adherents, though he never yielded to them special influence in State or Church. His weightiest concern was the reopening of the Council of Trent (q.v.), the result of which was no less gratifying to the Curia than it was disappointing to Emperor Ferdinand. For even though the emperor refused to acknowledge its decrees, and though not until later, and subject to the guaranteed rights of his crown, were these decrees acknowledged by King Philip II., while the French parliament assumed an expectant stand, yet during the council and by virtue of it, Pius IV. removed all dangers that threatened the papal absolutism within the Church. When, in 1564, he solemnly published the council's decrees and imposed upon the bishops the Professio fidei Tridentinæ (see TRIDENTINE PROFESSION OF FAITH) as a matter of obligation, he could do so in the consciousness that the papal theory had now conquered effectually. Hence the contingency of apostasy without was indemnified within the Church by a centralization of ecclesiastical economy such as laid all the lines of administration, jurisdiction, and doctrinal finality in the sole hands of the pope.
Destiny placed Pius IV. between two popes who stand as the most impassioned persecutors of heretics in that century, Paul IV. and Pius V. For he is not the equal of these in furtherance of the inquisition and in persecution of heretics. Yet where opportunity offered, he showed himself ready for that object; and it was he who facilitated the conflict in the literary arena by devising the expedient of the Index librorum prohabitorum, so named by him in 1564.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Onuphrius Panvinius, De summis pontificibus continuatio, Bonona, 1599; Ranke, Popes, 1. 241 sqq., iii. nos. 31-40; M. Broach, Geschichte des Kirchenstaates, vol. i, Gotha, 1880; F. H. Reuseh, index der verboten Bücher, passim, Bonn, 1885; Bower, Popes, iii. 319-320; and the literature under TRENT, COUNCIL OF.
Pius V. (Michele Ghislieri): Pope 1566-72. He was born at Bosco near Alessandria (48 m. e.s.e. of Turin), and both as cardinal and as pope conceived his main task to be the detection and annihilation of heresy. He belonged to the Dominican order, to which this activity was particularly committed. After some earlier inquisitorial service about Milan, he was drawn to Rome by Caraffa in 1550 (see PAUL IV.), who conferred on him the cardinalate and appointed him director of the Roman inquisition. He owed his election as pope (Jan. 8,1566) to Cardinal Borromeo and other exponents of the very strictest trend in the sacred college. The Roman populace felt due fear on hearing that " Fri Michele dell' Inquisizione " had ascended the papal throne. In fact, no pope applied so indefatigably every agency for annihilating the heretics. Both in and out of Italy, he was incessantly exhorting or threatening governments to make them accommodating to this end. And the consequence was favorable to him, especially in the Italian peninsula. During the six years of his pontificate, Protestantism in Italy was deprived of its last vestige of strength; its prominent advocates being either killed or driven away (see ITALY, REFORMATION IN). In France, Catherine de' Medici and Charles IX. were at his command. He fortified the Spanish king in his measures against the Netherlands, and sent to the duke of Alva the consecrated hat and sword.
Yet according to Roman Catholic apprehension, this foe of " heretics " was a very pious man, and in Rome he insisted on the most stringent ecclesiastical discipline, imposing heavy penalties for desecration of festival days. No physician was to continue treating a patient critically ill, unless that patient's certificate of confession be produced on the third day for inspection. Whoever, among the higher clergy, combined an ascetic life with strictness toward the nether clergy, was regarded as the right man, as in the case of Carlo Borromeo.
Toward the close of his labors he was destined also to achieve a notable success in statecraft. Like so many of his predecessors, he headed an action against the Turks, which Venice and Spain assisted with their naval forces, and the work was crowned by the brilliant victory of Lepanto (Oct. 7, 1571).
Pius V. died on May 1, 1572, and was canonized by Clement XI.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. G. G. Catena, Vita del . . . Papa Pio V., Rome, 1587; Ranke, Popes, i. 269 sqq., iii., no. 43: J. Qubtif and J. Eehard. Scriptores ordinis Pradicatorurn, ii. 220, Paris, 1721; J. Mendham, Life and Pontificate of . Plus V., London, 1832; A. F. P. Comte de Falloux, Hist. de . . . Pie V., 2 vols., Angers, 1844; T. M. Granallo, Frà Michele Ghislieri, o San Pio V., Bologna, 1877; F. H. Reusch, Index der verbotenen Bücker, Bonn, 1885; C. A. Joyau, Saint Pie V., pope du rosaire, Poitiers, 1892; P. A. Faroehan, Cheypre et Léfante, St. Pie V. et Don Juan d'Autriche, Paris, 1894 (profusely illustrated): U. Papa, Un Dissidio tra Venezia a Pio V.. Venice, 1895; B. A. H. Wilberforce, St. Pius V., London, 1896; Bower, Popes,iii. 320, 484-489; Pastor, Popes, viii. 432 sqq.
Pius VI. (Giovanni Angelo Braschi):
At first, the pope turned his attention to the elevation of the morality of the clergy in Rome. Before long, however, he was diverted to affairs at a distance, first, in Germany. In that country the movement which was associated with the work of Febronius (see HONTHEIM, JOHANN NIKOLAUS VON) had circulated extensively, though it had been placed on the Index in 1764. Meanwhile the true authorship, concealed under the pseudonym, had become known. Inasmuch as Pius VI. had correctly described, in an address dated Sept. 24, 1775, the bearings of the movement upon the Roman Church, he now commissioned the elector of Treves to constrain the author to retract, and the form of retraction was to comprehend the statement of its purely voluntary character. This experiment proved successful, for the author was a broken old man, then (1778) nearly fourscore years old. However, in other quarters there asserted itself the spirit which had prompted Hontheim, in the form of Josephinism (see JOSEPH II.).
But though Pius VI. perceived things clearly and was prepared to retaliate, he neither approved nor yet abruptly reversed the first procedure of Joseph II., who withdrew the Austrian cloisters from submission to the supreme control of foreign generals of monastic orders. Even when Garampi, his nuncio at Vienna, in Dec., 1781, met with a brusk rebuff from Count Kaunitz, on the score of his instructive Promemoria to the emperor-the pope still believed he could attain every purpose through petsonal intervention. So in the spring of 1782 he journeyed to Vienna, but every attempt to draw the emperor and his minister from the path of reform continued fruitless. The enthusiastic speeches, in turn, which the Roman Catholic population addressed to the pope on occasion of his awe-commanding appearance in Vienna, Munich, and Augsburg nowise availed to console him over the miscarriage of his attempt. This is apparent from the brief to the emperor, dated Aug. 3, 1782, with its rather patent affirmation that " those who lay their hands on the goods of the Church belong to hell." He seemed afterward more conciliatory; but in Sept., 1783, he was provoked afresh by the emperor's arbitrary course in appointing, as though he were the sole authority, a bishop for Milan. When, therefore, Joseph II. was confronted with the prospect of excommunication, he answered that his holiness might anyhow deign to visit the becoming punishment upon the individual who had made so bold as to misuse his name by forging a document. Without awaiting reply, the emperor next announced his visit to Rome, which came to pass in January, 1784. And at last Pius gained the point which had been so vehemently contested, namely, that the appointment to the episcopal sees in Lombardy be conceded to him. He continued the reforms in church conditions in Austria. After the Congress of Ems (see EMS, CONGRESS OF) had completed its sittings, and the electors transmitted to the emperor the Ems Proviso, Joseph II. made answer that they could reckon upon his cooperation in execution of the same. And yet they had there decidedly emphasized the sole prerogative of the archbishops in matters of reform. At all events, the pope easily became master of the Ems resolutions, as not only the bishops in Germany, but even one of the members of the Congress, the archbishop of Mainz, went over to the papal camp. In order to secure the Curia's acquiescence in the election of a coadjutor, he offered the Ems Proviso by way of exchange; wherein he was followed, down to 1789, by the other participants in the Congress. In short, they transformed the drafted resolutions into very modest petitions. In the case of the king of Prussia, Frederick William IL, who had been accommodating to the pope in connection with Mainz, Pius VI. accorded him the reward of no longer thenceforth withholding from him the title of king.
Even while premonitory signs of the French Revolution were perceptible, the pope still gained a victory over Joseph's reform attempts. In what was then Austrian Belgium, the closure of the episcopal seminaries (1786) had evoked great agitation, also actively fomented by the papal nuncio. And though Joseph II. dismissed the nuncio from that country, this measure did not stay the outbreak of actual insurrection any more than did the repeal of the closure itself, together with a propitiatory word from the pope. For the provinces proclaimed their independence, and there stepped to the front as president the pope's thoroughly devoted cardinal-primate Frankenberg. Joseph II. died in 1790. Subsequently; church concerns in the Austrian hereditary lands were once again made thoroughly conformable to papalistic grooves, barring some alight provisional modifica tion at the hands of Emperor Leopold II. Still more serious for Pius VI. appeared to be the trend of ecclesiastical conditions in Tuscany under the Grand Duke Leopold I. The latter, under date of Jan. 26, 1786, issued a circular to the Tuscan bishops proposing fifty-seven reforms; for instance, convocation of diocesan synods, improvement of clerical studies, segregation of suspicious relics, diminution of processions, and the like. Seven bishops assented on principle, among them Ricci of Pistoja (see RICCI, SCIPIONE DE'), who then also submitted these points to a synod convening at Pistoja in Sept., 1786, and effected their immediate acceptance. On the other hand, a protest was raised by the bishops generally, through the chan-
The outbreak of the French Revolution (q.v.) involved most incisive consequences for the Church. The "civil constitution of the clergy," still proposed for acceptance under Louis XVI., was rejected by Pius VI.; and, in fact, 50,000 priests, following the precedent of 130 bishops, refused the oath in connection with this new ruling. Thereupon, in Sept., 1791, the National Assembly answered by annexing Avignon and Venaissin. Then when a secretary of the French embassy in Rome had been assassinated there by the rabble, in 1793, and when the pope took part in the coalition against France, Bonaparte declared war on him, advanced upon Rome, and compelled Pius VI., during the truce of Bologna, 1796, to relinquish a large part of the States of the Church (see PAPAL STATES). When disturbances were renewed, General Berthier occupied Rome in 1798; and had Pius VI., who was ill, transported first to Florence, then to Valence, where he died Aug. 29, 1799.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For his bulls, etc., consult either N. S. Guillon's Collection pinirale des brefs et instructions de . .Pie VI., 2 vols., Paris, 1798; the Collectio brevium . . . of L. H. Halot, 2 parts, Rome, 1800; or the Collectio bullarum, brevium . . , London, 1803. For his life and acts consult: Ranke, Popes, ii. 453 sqq., iii. no. 165; P. P. Wolf, Geschichte der römisch-katholischen Kirche unter . . . Pius VI., 7 vols., Zurich, 1793-1802; G. de Novaces, Stoma de' sommi Pontefiei, Rome, 1822; P. Baldassari, Hist. de l'enlèvement et de la captiviti de Pie VI., Paris, 1839; F. Beccatini, Storia di Pio VI., 4 vols., Venice, 1841; G. C. Cordare, De Profectu Pii VI. ad aulam Viennensem, ed. J. Boërus, Rome, 1855; F. Petrucelli della Gattina, Hist. diplomatique des conclaves, iv. 211 sqq., Paris, 1866; A. von Reumont, Gesehichte der Stadt Rom, iii. 2, pp. 660 sqq., Berlin, 1870; A. M. de Franclieu, Pie VI. dans lea prisons du Dauphins, Grenoble, 1878; I. Bertrand, Le Pontificat de Pie VI. et l'athéisme réolutionnaire, Paris, 1879; F. H. Reuseh, Index der verbotenen Bücher, vol. ii., Bonn, 1885; H. Schletter, Die Reise des Papstes Pius VI. nach Wien, and Pius VI. und Josef II., 2 vols., Vienna, 1892-94 (valuable for the literature named); Pie VI., sa vie, son pontificat (1717-99), Paris, 1907; Nippold, Papacy, pp. 20, 36; Bower, Popes, iii. 390-419.
Pius VII. (Luigi Chiaramonti): Pope 1800-23. He was born at Cesena (57 m. n.e. of Florence) Aug. 14, 1740. At the age of sixteen he entered the Benedictine order, became a lecturer in the cloister at Parma and later in Rome. His predecessor made him bishop of Tivoli, then of Imola, and in 1785, cardinal. When the French army approached Imola, he still maintained his residence in his episcopal city. On that-occasion (1797), he contrived to save the town from spoliation and even maintained good terms with Republican powers.
Shortly before he was taken captive, Pius VI. had prescribed that the conclave should be held in that city in the neighborhood of which the most cardinals might happen to be at his death, only not in Rome. So they assembled in Venice, and on Mar. 14, 1800, Chiaramonti was elected unanimously, and in July he entered Rome as Pius VII. For secretary of state he appointed Cardinal Ercole Consalvi (q.v.), whose first achievement of note was the conclusion of the concordat with France (see CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BULLS, VI., § 1), which restored most of its rights to the Roman Catholic Church, and annulled episcopal power in favor of the papal absolute supremacy. However, in virtue of the " Organic Articles " (1802), the first consul deprived these concessions of nearly all significance, insomuch that the pope protested. Yet both sides wished to avoid a rupture, and in the following year, Pius VII. appointed the consul's uncle (Joseph Fesch, q.v.) a cardinal.
Meanwhile in Germany, when by terms of the peace of Lunéville, in 1801, the left bank of the Rhine had fallen to France, the secularization of the temporal dominions of the Church was brought to pass despite every protest; and the Elector Dalberg of Mainz, against the will of the Curia, was elected primate of Germany. Even thus early, Napoleon put forth still greater demands, as, when the senate had named him hereditary ruler of France, he desired the pope to consummate the imperial coronation. Reluctantly, but yet in the hope of thereby gaining concessions for the Church, Pius VII. performed the ceremony of anointing (Dec. 2, 1804), but when he was about to place the crown on the sovereign's head, Napoleon forestalled him, crowned himself, and placed the diadem on the head of his consort, Josephine. All demands by the pope on occasion of this journey came to naught; what satisfaction he felt was on account of the deportment of the French people, who were charmed by his presence. At Florence, on his return journey, he received the full , submission of Bishop Ricci of Pistoja (see RICCI, S
But heavy clouds were gathering from France. The emperor demanded the dissolution of his brother Jerome's marriage, desiring Jerome to marry a princess-a prelude to his own course later. When the pope firmly refused, Napoleon declared the marriage dissolved. In 1808, he managed to find occasion to occupy Rome; in 1809, he declared it a French city; and when for this reason he was put under the ban, he had the pope and Cardinal Pacca, carried captive to Savona. But even here Pius VII. would not bend, and refused the confirmation of the French bishops appointed by the emperor until finally the enervating torments of his captivity induced him to an oral assent. But when, owing to continued confinement at Fontainebleau, the tor-
At the close of his life, Pius VII. found himself once again involved in conflict, this time with Spain and Portugal. In that quarter, the revolution and the liberal government of 1820 had not only abolished the settlements of the Jesuits, but also those of most of the remaining orders, and ruptured diplomatic relations were the result. The French, however, suppressed the revolution, and King Ferdinand VII. proclaimed the abrogation of all acts against the Church (1823). This happened also in Portugal, where Dom Miguel, at the same time, put an end to liberalism.
The Rome of the second phase of the pontificate of Pius VII. became the goal of artists of all nations. Crowned heads, as well, sought the city, and the venerable pontiff was visited by Emperor Francis II. of Austria (1819); by the king of Naples; and by King Frederick William III. of Prussia, while Charles IV. of Spain and Emanuel of Savoy made Rome their permanent residence. The city was thus enveloped with new splendor; and Pius VII., who died on Aug. 21, 1823, is commemorated still by that part of the Vatican sculpture museum which bears his name Chiaramonti.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The bulls are in the Bullarii Romani contsnuatio of Barberi, vols. xi.-xv., Rome, 1848-53. Consult: Ranke, Popes, ii. 481 sqq, 488 sqq., 539 sqq.; E. Pistolesi, Vita del; . . Pio VII, 2 vols., Rome, 1824; H. Simon, Vie polstsque et privie de . . . Pie VII, 2 vols., Paris, 1823· Jäger, Lebensbeschreibung des Papstes Pius VII. mit Urkunden, Frankfort, 1824; A. F. Artaud de Montor, Hist. du pope Pie VII, 3 vols., Paris, 1839; B. Pacca, Historical Memoirs, 2 vols., London, 1850; idem, Mémoires sur Is pontificat de Pie VII., 2 vols., Paris, 1884; N. P. S. Wiseman, Recollections of the last Four Popes, London, 1858; A. Gavazzi, My Recollections of the last Four Popes London, 1858; J. Bohl, Pius VII. en ziin Tijd, 2 vols., Rotterdam 1881; F. Petrucelli della Gattina, Hist. diplomatique des conclaves, iv. 282 sqq., Paris, 1888; A. Theiner, Hist. des deux concordats de la république Française et de la république cisalpine, 2 vols., Bar-le-Duc, 1889; A. van Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, iii. 2, pp. 885 sqq., Berlin, 1870; O. Meier, Zur Geschichte der rdmisch-deutachen Prage, vols. i.-iii, passim, Rostock, 1871-73; D. Bertollotti, Vita di Papa Pio VII., Turin, 1881; F. H. Reuseh Index der verbotenen Bücher, vol. ii., Bonn, 1885; H. Chotard, Le Pape Pie VII. à Savone, Paris, 1887; Mary H. Allies, Pius VII, London, 1897; F. Nippold, Handbuch der neuesten Kirchengeschichte, ii. 15-70 Berlin, 1901; L. König, Die Säkularisation and das Reichskonkordat, Innsbruck, 1904; H. Welschinger, Le Pape et L'empereur, 1804-16, Paris, 1905; Nielsen, Papacy; Nippold. Papacy, passim; Pastor, Popes, viii. 299; Bower, Popes iii. 419-434; and the literature under CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BULLS.
Pius VIII. (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni): Pope 1829-30. He was born at Cingoli (102 m. e.s.e. of Florence) Nov. 20, 1761. The principal event of his brief pontificate was the Emancipation Act of Apr. 23 , 1829, in favor of English Catholics, though this did not have the pope's cooperation. In the case of the contest just then breaking out with the Prussian government, Plus VIII. allowed the clerical assistentia passiva, where there was no guaranty for the bringing up of all the children as Roman Catholics. This concession was revoked by his successor. When the Bourbons were expelled from France in the July revolution, and Louis Philippe was instituted king, the pope reluctantly acknowledged the reversal.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The bulls are in the Bullarii Romani continuatio of Barberi, vol. xviii., Rome, 1858; for the Brief of Mar. 25, 1830, cf. Mirbt, Quellen, pp. 350 sqq. Consult: A. F. Artaud de Montor Hist. du pape Pie VIII.,Paris, 1844; A. Gavazzi, My Recollections of the last Four Popes, London 1858; N. P. S. Wiseman, Recollections of the last Four Popes, London, 1858; M. Broach, Geachichte des Kirchenstaates, ii. 318 sqq., Gotha. 1882; F. H. Reuseh, Index der verbotenen Bücher, vol. ii, passim. Bonn. 1885; F. Nippold, Handbuch der neuesten Kirchengeschichte, ii. 79 sqq., Berlin, 1901; Bower, Popes, iii. 484-470; Nippold. Papacy. Passim; Nielsen, Papacy, Passim.
Pius IX. (Giovanni Mastai Ferretti): Pope 1846-1878. He was born at Sinigaglia (70 m. s.e. of Ravenna) May 13, 1792. He studied in the Collegium Romanum, was made priest, and labored for several years in Chile. In 1827 he became bishop of Spoleto, then of Imola, and obtained the cardinalate in 1840. Elected by 34 (37 ?) votes, in the conclave following the death of Gregory XVI, Pius IX. found himself confronted with extremely difficult tasks. The administration of the Papal States (q.v.) had everywhere aroused the utmost dissatisfaction; and the cities of the eastward half-Ancona, Bologna, and' Ravenna,-clamored for reforms. The pope's character and presence appeared to warrant such progress, and it was hoped that he might even assist in the unification of the entire nation, which was demanded on every side.
Good will for the amelioration of existing conditions attended him from the outset. He curtailed the expenses of the papal court, though in connection with the civil administration he could not persuade himself to break with the system according to which the governing officials were to belong almost without exception to the clerical body. He refused the patriots' demand for some action toward eliminating the Austrians from the Italian peninsula, resolving not to declare war on Austria, although his troops were already united with the Piedmont troops; but, in his address of Apr. 29, 1848, he took shelter behind the pronouncement that "conformably to our apostolic rank, we embrace all nations with like love."
Though it proved not feasible to laicize the administration of public affairs throughout the Papal States, in Rome the lay element was to be more strongly represented in the common council; some non-clerics also took seats in the council of state (consulta). This did not meet the impetuous demand for a constitution and for institution of secular ministers. Yet on May 4, 1848, upon adjustment of the membership of the Consults in the proportion of six laymen to three clerics, a patriotic president of council was accepted in the person of
The administration of the Papal States was now conducted by Antonelli (q.v.) on a thoroughly clerical basis. In the department of finance, individuals, including Antonelli, enriched themselves; nothing was done in the matter of public instruction to reduce the scandalous illiteracy of the land; while in the department of justice arbitrary ruling was rife. In short, the Papal States remained the worst administered political fabric in Europe, while trade and industry were in wretched condition. In the distinctly ecclesiastical sphere, wherein Pius IX., in 1854, conceived the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary (q.v.), without taking counsel of the Church, he tested the point as to how far the bishops would conform to his bidding. At the same time, in relation to civil governments, he carried most of his demands through the medium of concordats (with Spain, 1851; Austria, 1855; also with lesser German States; see CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BULLS). In Italy, however, the unification project, supported by Piedmont, now so successfully asserted itself against the pope that its several stages were completely accomplished (victory over Austria, 1859; Victor Emanuel, king of Italy, 1860; September treaty, 1864) even down to the conquest of Rome, in 1870. It is memorable that the last step in the process was achieved shortly after the momentous date when the Vatican Council (q.v.) had declared the infallibility of the pope, July 18, 1870.
To be sure, the occupation of Rome by the Italian army was by no means intended to banish the pope from that city thereafter. They suffered him the narrowly circumscribed " sovereignty " of the Vatican; and even offered him, in the stipulation law of 1871, an annual income of 3,250,000 francs. But Pius IX. rejected this offer, feigned a state of captivity, and a limitation upon his action which soon became subjects of derision; for it appeared, as in the contest with Prussia, that the Curia had grown more free than formerly in the matter of safeguarding its ecclesiastical interests. The last years of Pius' pontificate are largely filled with this contest, he himself having given the challenge in that address of the spring of 1871 wherein he threatened Prussia with the " stone " of her destined shattering. Yet even this contest (so grave in its results and not finally appeased until Leo XIII., q.v., came into power) did not prevent the brilliant celebration of two jubilees of Pius IX. In 1871 he celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his pontificate, whereby he had attained to the "years of Peter "; and in 1877 his jubilee proper, or fiftieth year in the priesthood. On this occasion he beheld the whole Roman Catholic world at his feet. In deed, he surpassed the " years of Peter " by seven years, dying on Feb. 7, 1878. He and his secretary of state Antonelli did not achieve the restoration of the temporal sovereignty, but they bequeathed such a heritage to the following pontiff as he well understood how profitably to occupy to the Church's advantage.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources of information for the pontificate are the Acta Pie IX., 4 vols., Rome, 1854 sqq.; Acta sancta sedis, ib. 1885 sqq.; Acta et decreta sanctorum conciliorum, vol. vi., Freiburg, 1882. A collection of this pope's encyclicals was published in Freiburg, 1881 sqq., and of his "Apostolic Letters," 2 vols., Paris, 1893. A large literature is indicated in the British Museum Catalogue, under " Rome, Church of," cols. 332 sqq., and under Pius IX. Consult: Mirbt, Quellen, pp. 360-390 sqq.; M. Marocco, Storia di Pio IX., 2 vols., Turin, 1856-59; H. Reuchlin, Geschichte Italiena, vols. i., iii., iv., Leipsic, 1859-73; F. Liverani, Il Papato, l'Impero a il Regno d'Italia, Florence, 1861; A. Gennarelli, Le Sventure ital. durante il Pontificato di Pio IX., Florence, 1863; A. 0. Legge, Pius IX., 2 vols., London, 1872; Abbé Gillet, Pie IX., sa vie et les acts de son pontificat, Paris, 1877; T. A. Trollope, Story of the Life of Pius IX., 2 vols., London, 1877; J. G. Shea, Life of Pius IX. and the Great Events of . . . his Pontificate, New York, 1878; J. M. Stepischnegg, Fürstbischof von Lavant, Papst Pius IX., 2 vols., Vienna, 1879; A. M. Dawson, Pius IX. and his Times, Toronto, 1880; C. Sylvain, Hist. de Pie IX., 3 vols., Lille, 1883; F. H. Reusch, Index der verbotenen B&uUml;cher, passim, 2 vols., Bonn, 1885; A. Pougeois, Hist. de Pie IX., 6 vols., Paris, 1886; J. F. Maguire, Pius IX. and his Times, London, 1893; M. Pagba Pie IX., sa vie, ses écrits, sa doctrine, Paris, 1895; E. Gebhart, Moines et papes (Alexander VI. and Pius IX.), Paris, 1896; F. Nippold, Handbuch der neuesten Kirchengeschichte, ii. 102-155, Berlin, 1901; J. Fernandez Montana, El Syllabus de Pio IX., Madrid, 1905; J. H. Robinson and C. A. Beard, Development of Modern Europe, vol. ii. passim, New York, 1908; R. de Cesare, The Last Days of Papal Rome, 1860-70, Boston, 1909; Nippold, Papacy, pp. 113 sqq.; Nielsen, Papacy. Use also the literature under INFALLIBILITY OF THE POPE; ULTRAMONTANISM; and VATICAN COUNCIL.
Pius X. (Giuseppe Melchior Sarto): Pope since 1903. He was born at Riese (a village near Castelfranco, 25 m. n.w. of Venice), Italy, June 2, 1835. His parents were in humble circumstances and their family was large, but such were the talents of the future pope that every effort was made for his education. His early training was received in the gymnasium at the neighboring town of Castelfranco, and in 1850 he entered the Seminary of Padua, where he remained seven years, being ordained to the priesthood in 1858. He was immediately appointed curate in Tombolo, in the diocese of Treviso, where he remained until 1867, when he was called to take control of the parish of Salzano. In 1875 he was made canon of Treviso, and three years later was appointed director of the episcopal chancellery and vicar general of the diocese. Meanwhile his talents were rapidly gaining recognition, and in 1882 he was consecrated bishop of Mantua, where he found an evil condition of affairs, made still worse by the attacks of the Italian government, which from 1871 to 1879 had rendered exercise of episcopal functions impossible. Within the eleven years of his bishopric, Sarto transformed the diocese of Mantua into a model see, and his labors
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pie X-Actes-eneycliques-rnotu proprio, brefs, allocutions, etc. Texte latin avec la traduction française en regard précédés d'une notice biographique suivi d'une table générale alphabétique, 3 vols., Paris, 1906-09; A. de Waal, Papst Pius X.; Lebensbild, Munich, 1903 Eng. transl., Life of Pope Pius X., Milwaukee, 1904; A. Marchesan, Papst Pius X. in Leben and Wort, Einsiedeln, 1906; N. Peters, Papst Pius X. and das Bibelstudien, Paderbom, 1906; A. Hoch, Papst Pius X. Ein Bild kirchlicher Reformthätigkeit, Leipsic, 1907; W. E. Schmitz [Didier], The Life of Pope Pius X., New York, 1908; B. Sentzer, Pius X., Graz, 1908; N. Hilling, Die Reformen des Papstes Pius X. auf dem Gebiet der kirchenrechtlichten Gesetzgebung, Bonn, 1909; and the literature under MODERNISM.
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