MUEZZIN, mn-ez'zin (MUEDDIN): The official attached to a Mohammedan mosque, whose business it is to chant the azan (from which the word muezzin is formed with the aid of the preformative), or call of the faithful to prayer, five times each day. The call is sounded from the minaret, if the mosque has one, otherwise from the side of the mosque. The words of the call are: " Allah is most great (four times); I testify that there is no God but Allah (twice); I testify that Mohammed is the apostle of Allah (twice); come to prayer (twice); come to salvation (twice); Allah is most great

(twice); there is no god but Allah." In the early morning call, after the words " Come to salvation," the Muezzin adds " Prayer is better than sleep " (twice).

MUFTI: The title of an official in Mohammedan, particularly Turkish, countries, whose duty it is to assist the judge or cadi by expounding the law. He must be familiar with the Koran, with

the body of Mohammedan tradition as well as with the works on law, as it is part of his work to cite decisions already made in similar cases.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. B. Macdonald, Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence, and Constitutional Theory, pp. 115, 184, 278, 277, New York, 1903.


$arian and the followers of him and John Reeve (1608-58); b. in Walnut Tree Yard, off Bishopsgate Street Without, London, July, 1609; d. at London Mar. 14, 1698. Apprenticed as a tailor, he went as a journeyman to his cousin John Reeve (1608-58) in 1631, who converted him to Puritanism, and in 1647 he withdrew from all worship, adopting an agnostic position. In 1650 he was attracted by the declaration of the two so-called prophets, John Robins, a " ranter," and Thomas Tansy, a predecessor of the Anglo-Israelites, whose crude pantheism took hold of him; at the same time he read Jacob Boehme (q.v.). He drew also Reeve to his views. The latter in 1652 professed personal communications, appointing him messenger and Muggleton mouthpiece of a new dispensation; and as the two witnesses (Rev. xi. 3) they set forth as prophets of a new system of faith. They gathered a large following and the sect continued till the last century, Joseph Gauder (d. 1868) being reported as the last adherent.

The element of spirituality was contributed by Reeve. He distinguished between faith and reason as respectively the divine and demoniac elements in man (the doctrine of two-seeds), and shared with the Socinians a frank anthropomorphism and a belief that the mortality of the soul is to be remedied by a physical resurrection. The harder outlines, including the rejection of prayer, came from Muggleton. His philosophy is epicurean, holding that


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J. B. Shearer, Modern Mysticism, New York, 1905; A. Hegler, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Mystik in der Reformalionszeit, Berlin, 1908; A. E. Waite, Studies in Mysticism, London, 1906; F. Pfeiffer, Deutsche Mystiker, Gottingen, 1907 sqq.; E. Receiac, Essay on the Basis of Mystic Knowledge, London, 1907; W. M. Scott, Aspeds of Christian Mysticism, ib. 1907; H. Delacroix, nudes d histoire et de psychologie du mysticisms, Paris, 1908; F. Gieseeke, Die Mystik Jo. Baptist van Helmonts (1677'-1 Bl,4), B3hmen, 1908; F. von Hiigel, The Mystical Element of Re- ligion as Studied in.Saint Catherine of Genoa and her Friends, GSttingen, 1908; A. W. Hopkinson, The Mystery of Mysticism, London, 1909; R. M. Jones, Studies in myaticat Religion, ib. 1909; J. Paehen, Paycholopie des mystiques ehraiens, Paris, 1909; Meister Bckhart's Sermons, Eng. transl. by C. Field, London, 1910; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 1, pp. 636 sqq.


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