Missions to the Heathen A. Roman Catholic Missions. 1. Introduction. II. Separate Fields of Labor. 1. Africa West Africa (˘ 1). Western Central Africa (˘ 2). South and East Africa ($ 3). North Africa, African Islands (5 4)· 2. Asia. Eastern and Southern India (5 1). Western and Northern India (§ 2). Ceylon ($ 3). Eastern Asia ($ 4). Dutch East Indies; Philippines ($b). China (5 8). Korea and Japan ($ 7). 3. America. United States and British North America (5 1). Latin America and the West Indies ($ 2). 4. Australia and Oceania. B. Protestant Missions. I. Introduction. The Basis of Christian Missions ($ 1). General Results (˘ 2). IL Colonial Missions. MISSIONS TO THE HEATHEN. 1. The Period of the Reformation and of the Old Protestant Orthodoxy. Attitude of the Reformers (§ 1). Adrian Seravis ($ 2). II Two Early Attempts (§ 3). 1. Reformed and Lutheran Opposition Q 4). Dutch Work in East Indies ($ b). Work of English Colonists (˘ 8). Early Danish Missions (5 7). 2. Era of Pietism and Rationalism. 2. Franeke'e Services (5'1). 3. Zinaendorf and the United Brethren 4. Apathy under Rationalistic Influ- 8. eases (§ 3). 7, 3. The Present Mission Era. 8. Events Leading to Renewed Effort 9, (i 1). 10 Carer and the English Missionary 11. Societies (12). IV Results on the Continent (§ 3). 4. Missionary Organisations. Ecclesiastical Attitude toward Missions (5 1). The Training of Missionaries ($ 2). Rise of Missionary Organisations present article deals with missions, Catholic and Protestant, to non-Christian peoples, considering especially the basis, history, results, and methods of this work. Various aspects of missions, especially of home missions, sae treated in the articles CITY MISSIONS; EMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS, MISSION WORK AMONG; HARMS, GEORG LUDWIG DETLEV THEODOR; HOME MISSIONS; INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA, MISSIONS TO; 11VNEHE MISSION; JEWS, MISSIONS TO THE; and SLAVIC MISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES; and in the biographical articles on the missionaries who gave their efforts to the Church.] A, Roman Catholic Missions.

[The figures enclosed in parentheses in the following summaries give for purposes of comparison the corresponding data of the Protestant Missions, or, as the author prefers to designate them. "Evangelical," as objectionable term in its implications, though frequently used sad appropriate if properly defined.)

I. Introduction: According to the Roman Catholic conception, the missionary task consists in the Catholicizing of non-Catholic peoples, while Protestants understand by it the Christianizing of nonChriatians. In conformity with this view, this treatment will deal with the work of Roman Catholics among the heathen. It is, however, difficult to carry out this distinction, since efforts are made in the missionary fields not only occasionally to convert Europeans, but also to draw over native Evangelical converts to the Roman Catholic Church [the counterpart to the Protestant propagandaj. Those who are expelled or are dissatisfied furnish a welcome excuse for this work, and an excessive lenity toward unchristian customs serves as a temptation. It therefore happens that among the Roman Catholic converts from heathenism, many are counted who are gathered from Evangelical missions. Besides the Congregation de propaganda fide in Rome, where all the threads of the widely diffused Roman missions are brought together, there are in the different Roman Catholic countries

Survey of Missionary Organisations Summary ($ 6). The Evangelical Missionary Fields. America. The Arctic Regions (˘ 1). British North America (˘ 2). United States (˘ 3). West Indies (§ 4). Central and South America (4 b). Africa. Central Asia. British India. Non-British UpperTndis. Malay Archipelago. Chins. Korea. Japan. Oceania. Conclusions. Methodology of Missions. The Purpose of Missions (§ i). Ends to be Attained (§ 2). Auxiliaries Employed (f 3). The Movement for Immediate Evangelization (14). The True Method ($ 5).

missionary societies. Thus there is the Xavier Society or Society for the Propagation of Faith, founded in 1822 in Lyons; branch societies exist in most Roman Catholic countries. The journal of the society, the " Year Book," appears in various languages. The contributions reach the sum of from one and a quarter to one and a half million dollars annually. Others are the Society of Foreign Missions (Paris, 1820); the Leopoldinische Stiftung (Vienna, 1829); the Society of Holy Childhood (Paris, 1843) for the rescue of heathen children, who are baptized when in danger of death. In fifty years, twelve million children were baptized (mostly in China) and sixteen and one-half million dollars were expended by the society. Missionary seminaries exist in Paris, Lyons, Milan, Verona and Rome. England also has one: St. Joseph of Mill Hill. The seminary at Steyl, Holland, is principally for the education of German missionaries. Recently several mission homes have been founded in Germany to provide for the German colonies. The greater number of missionaries come, however, from the congregations, many of which serve the heathen mission exclusively; for instance, the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary (1841; later combined with that of the Holy Spirit); the Mariate in Lyons and Paris; the Congregation of Picpus (Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary); the order of the Oblates of the Immaculate Conception of Mary; in Algiers, the Fathers of the Holy Spirit (called the White Fathers); in Paris, the Lazarists. The old orders also-Dominicans, Franciscans (Minorites), Capuchins, Carmelites, and othersshare in the work. Many of these orders have special missionary fields assigned to them, and have their procurators with the Propaganda. Others assume an auxiliary position, in thatathey supply the missions with lay brothers in great numbers for teaching, the care of the sick, work of civilization, and similar tasks. Many female orders work in this manner and send out hosts of sisters as missionaries.


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Missions to the Heathen to Mithra

town, Conn. (A.B., 1873), the school of theology attached to Boston University (B.D., 1876), and the University of Leipsic (Ph.D., 1879). He was then pastor of the church of his denomination at Fayette, N. Y., for a year (1879-80), after which he was tutor in Latin and Hebrew at Wesleyan University for three years (1880-83). Since 1883 he has been connected with Boston University, first as instructor in Hebrew and Old-Testament exegesis (1883-84) and later as professor of the same subjects (since 1884). In 1901-02 he was director of the American School for Oriental Study and Research in Palestine. In addition to translating C. H. Piepenbring’s “Theology of the Old Testament” (New York, 1893), he has written Final Constructions of Biblical Hebrew (Leipsic,1879); Hebrew Lessons (Boston, 1885); Amos, an Essay in Exegesis (1893); Isaiah, a Study of Chapters i.-xii. (New York, 1897); The World before Abraham (Boston, 1901); Tales told in Palestine (in collaboration with J. E. Hanauer, Cincinnati, 1904); and the volume for Genesis in The Bible for Home and School (New York, 1909).


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