KRAWUTZCKY, kra-wuts'kî, ADAM: German Roman Catholic; b. at Neustadt (59 m. s.e. of Breslau), Upper Silesia, Mar. 2, 1842; d. in Breslau in Jan., 1907. He studied in Breslau (1860-62), Tübingen (1863-64), and Munich (1864; D.D.,1865), and at the seminary for priests at Breslau (1864-65). He was ordained to the priesthood in 1865, and after being curate at Kanth and Breslau, became subdirector of the seminary and privat-docent in the University of Breslau in 1868. In 1885 he was appointed associate professor of moral theology at Breslau, and professor in 1888. He wrote Zählung und Ordnung der heiligen Sakramente in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (Breslau, 1865); De visione beatiftca in Benedicti XII. constitutionem "Benedictus Deus" (1868); Petrinische Studien (2 parts, 1872-73); Des Bellarmin kleiner Katechismus mit Kommentar (1873); and Einleitung in das Studium der katholischen Moraltheologie (1890).
KRELL (CRELL), NIKOLAU Saxon statesman and religious reformer; b. in Leipsic c. 1550; beheaded at Dresden Oct. 9, 1601. He was the son of the jurist Wolfgang Krell, and studied at the Royal School at Grimma and at the University of Leipsic (B.A., 1572; M.A., 1575), concluding his education with a journey to Switzerland and France. It was here, no doubt, that he obtained the degree of doctor of law. He soon achieved great renown at Leipsic as a university instructor, as well as a practical jurist. In 1580 he was appointed aulic councilor by Elector Augustus, and in 1581 he was delegated as counselor and preceptor to Prince Christian. When the latter assumed the government in 1586 he pursued a policy which materially diverged from that of his father. Whereas heretofore public officers and the clergy were required to subscribe the Formula of Concord, this practise now fell away. The higher clergy who had continued loyal to the Formula of Concord were supplanted by men with Philippist views; and when Court Preacher Mirus objected, he was put under custody at Königstein. This attack on Lutheran orthodoxy in the interest of Crypto-Calvinism was
BIBLIOGRAPHY: An extensive list of literature is given in Hauck-Herzog, RE, xi. 85. Consult: M. Ritter, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Gegenreformation, i. 644-645, ii. 44-61, Stuttgart, 1889-95; idem, in ADB, xvii. 116-122; A. V. Richard, Der kurfürstliche sächsische Kanzler . . . Nicolaus Krell, Dresden, 1859; F. Brandes, Der Kanzler Krell, Leipsic, 1873; F. von Bezold, Briefe des Pfalzgrafen Johann Casimir, ii. 419, Munich, 1884; G. Droysen, Das Zeitalter des dreissigjährigen Krieges, pp. 364-375, Berlin, 1888; J. Janssen, Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, vols. v.-viii. passim, Freiburg, 1893-94, Eng. transl., St. Louis, 1896-1905; G. Kawerau, Reformation und Gegenreformation, pp. 267, 274-276, Berlin, 1899; B. Bohnenstadt, Dae Prozeesverfahren gegen den kursächeischen Kanzler N. Krell, Halle, 1901; Moeller, Christian Church, iii. 297-298; Cambridge Modern History, iii. 711, 713, New York, 1905.
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