KALISCH, ka'hsh, (MORITZ) MARCUS: Biblical scholar; b. of Jewish parentage at Treptow, Pomerania, Prussia, May 16, 1828; d. at Rowsley (18 m. n.n.w. of Derby), Derbyshire, England, Aug. 23, 1885. He studied classical and Semitic languages at the universities of Berlin and Halle (Ph.D., 1848), and Talmudic literature at the rabbinical college in Berlin. On the subsidence of the revolutionary movement of 1848, in which he had been actively interested, he settled in London. From 1849 till 1853 he was secretary to the chief rabbi, N. M. Adler, through whom he obtained a tutorship in the family of Baron Lionel Rothschild. Throughout the remainder of his life he was intimate with the Rothschilds and their munificence enabled him to devote himself to scholarly work. He planned a Historical and Critical Commentary on the Old Testament with a New Translation, and published Exodus (London, 1855), Genesis (1858), and Leviticus (2 vols., 1867-72), which at the time of publication were the best commentaries on the respective books in the English language and are not yet wholly superseded, having especial value as the work of a learned Jew. III health prevented the continuation of the work and also interrupted a projected series of Bible Studies after the appearance of The Prophecies of Balaam (1877) and The Book of Jonah (1878). Kalisch also published a Hebrew grammar (2 parts, 1862-63; 2d ed. of part i., 1875); a book of poems in German (Leipsic, 1868); Life and Writings of Oliver Goldsmith (London, 1860); and Path and Goal; a Discussion on the Elements of Civilization and the Conditions of Happiness (1880).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. S. Morais, Eminent Israelites of the Nineteenth Century, pp, 170-173, Philadelphia, 1880; DNB, xxx. 237; JE, vii. 420.
KALKAR, kal'kar, CHRISTIAN ANDREAS HERMANN: Danish theologian; b. in Stockholm Nov. 27, 1803; d. at Copenhagen Feb. 2, 1886. He was the son of a Jewish rabbi, spent his childhood at Cassel, Germany, where his father held a high position in the Jewish community, and upon the latter's death went to Copenhagen (1812), being later admitted to the university of that city. From 1819 to 1823 he devoted himself to the study of law, but on being baptized chose a theological career, and was graduated in theology in 1826. In the following year he was appointed adjunct at the Latin school of Odense, and in 1834 became rector. During his stay in Odense he published a commentary on the Old Testament (1836-38), a history of the Bible (2 vols., 1837-1839; German transl., Kiel, 1839), and lectures on the apostolic history (1840). In 1842 he received a royal stipend enabling him to travel through European countries to collect material for a history of Denmark during the Reformation, and on his return was appointed minister at Gladsaxe, near Copenhagen. In 1845 he published as the result of his travels "Documents relating to the History of Denmark in the Time of the Reformation," which was intended as an introduction to a contemplated Corpus reformatorum Danicorum, but he was prevented from accomplishing his task by a fire which destroyed his collected material. In 1847 he published, with other theologians, a new Danish version of the Bible, with maps and illustrations. During the following years Kalkar devoted himself more to the history of missions, and published numerous works on Protestant and Roman Catholic missions in general as well as missions among Jews and Mohammedans. As a historian in this field, however, he displayed a lack of critical and thorough investigation, which detracts from the value of his works. In 1868 he retired from active life, and spent the remainder of his days in Copenhagen, engaged in literary pursuits.
Calvin College. Last modified on 10/03/03. Contact the CCEL.