JACOBI, JUSTUS LUDWIG: Professor in Halle; b. at Burg (14 m. n.e. of Magdeburg) Aug. 12, 1815; d. at Halle May 31, 1888. He studied in Halle, and in Berlin, where in 1841 be became privat-docent, and in 1847 professor extraordinary; in 1851 he went as ordinary professor of theology to Königsberg, in 1855 to Halle. As representative of the "mediating theology" and advocate of the Evangelical Union, he was involved in various controversies with the confessional party. By founding the home for deaconesses in Halle with the wife of Professor Tholuck, he took a practical part in the charitable works of the Church. His writings betray the influence of Neander. In Die Lehre des Pelagius, ein Beitrag zur Dogmengeschichte (Leipsic, 1842) he represented the standpoint of Augustine. The first part of Kirchliche Lehre von der Tradition und heiligen Schrift appeared at Berlin, 1847. His Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte (part i., Berlin, 1850) is characterized by a thorough presentation of the sources combined with a fine appreciation of external conditions as well as of internal development, measured by the central doctrine of sin and grace. He also wrote Die Lehre der Irvingiten verglichen mit der heiligen Schrift (1853; 2d ed., 1868); Professor Schlottmann, die hallesche Fakultät und die Centrumspartei (2d ed., Halle, 1882), a defense of his colleague against the aggressive tendency of the Roman curia in the so-called Kulturkampf; and Streiflichter auf Religion, Politik, und Universitäten der Centrumspartei (1883). He commemorated his teachers in Erinnerung an D. August Neander (1882), and Baron von Kottwitz (1882).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Jacobi, J. L. Jacobi und die Vermittelungstheologie seiner Zeit, Gotha, 1889.
Jacobus Baradæus (Jacob Baradai) was born at Tella Mauzalat (55 m. e. of Edessa) toward the close of the fifth century, and died at the monastery of Cassianus, on the Egyptian border, July 30, 578. He was educated in the monastery of Phasilta near Nisibis, lived for fifteen years as a monk in Constantinople, and was consecrated bishop in 541 or 543. Clad in rags, he then wandered from Egypt to the Euphrates and to the islands of the
It was from Jacobus Baradæus that the Jacobites took their name, and not from the Apostle, as was stated by John of Ephesus, nor from the Hebrew patriarch. They used to call themselves "the orthodox," and in Egypt went under the names of Theodosians, Severians, and Dioscurians. For the peculiarities of doctrine consult the articles EUTYCHIANISM, and MONOPHYSITES. In the propagation of this system they were peculiarly zealous. In 1587 Leonard Abel found the agent of the Jacobites ready to acknowledge the Roman Church, but he absolutely refused to condemn Dioscorus and to recognize Chalcedon. In the cultus emphasis is laid upon the making of the bread of the Eucharist of leavened dough mixed with salt and oil, and also upon the addition to the trisagion "who was crucified on your account." They make the sign of the cross with one finger, and the lot is often used at the election of patriarchs and bishops. Their patriarch takes his title from Antioch, though he never resides there, inasmuch as the Greeks regard Jacobites as heretics and refuse to their chief officer residence in Antioch. His seat is therefore not fixed, but is sometimes in a monastery, often in Amid (Diarbekr). During the Jacobitic schism, 1364-1494, there were as many as four officials claiming the title of patriarch in as many different places. The jurisdiction of the Syrian patriarch meets that of the Coptic patriarch, though Jerusalem has both a Coptic and a Syrian-Jacobitic bishop. In the most flourishing period of the Church it had probably 100 bishops. Under the patriarch is the Maphrian, who is the primate of the East, and is sometimes called Catholicus. His office dates as far back as Jacobus Baradæus, though the title is much later. It is not uncommon for a married man to be admitted to the order of deacon or presbyter, though marriage after ordination is not permitted. They have a number of monasteries. The monks are not reckoned among the clergy, yet the bishops are chosen from among the monks, and have charge of the cloisters. The writers of the Jacobites include Jacob of Edessa, Jacob of Sarug, John of Ephesus, John of Dara Isaac of Antioch, George, bishop of the Arabs, and Philoxenus (qq.v.), also Paul of Tella, Thomas of Heraclea, Stephen bar Sudaili, Dionysius of Tellmahre, Moses bar Kepha, and Dionysius bar Salibi.
The chief work on the Syrian Jacobites is
still J. S. Assemani Bibliotheca orientalis, especially vol.
ii., Rome, 1721. Consult farther: E. Renaudot, Hist.
patriarcharum Alexandrinorum Jacobitarum, Paris, 1713;
M. Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, vols. ii.- iii., ib. 1740;
J. M. Neale, Hist. of the Holy Eastern Church, 2 vols.
London, 1850 (for the liturgy); O. H. Parry, Six Months
in a Syrian Monastery, ib. 1895; C. E. Hammond, Liturgies Eastern and Western, ed. F. E. Brightman, i. 69-110,
ib. 1896; F. Diekamp, Die origenistischen Streitigkeiten
im 6. Jahrhundert, Münster, 1899; R. Duval, La
Littérature syriaque, Paris 1900; E. Sachau, Am Euphrat
und Tigris, Leipsic, 1900· J. B. Chabot, Chronique de
Michel le Syrien, patriarche jacobique d'Antioche (1166-1199), 2 vols., Paris, 1900-04; F. C. Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity, London, 1904; L. Silbernagl, Verfassung
und gegenwärtiger Bestand sämtlicher Kirchen des
Orients, Regensburg, 1904; Harnack, Dogma, passim;
KL, xi. 1124-34; the periodicals mentioned in the last
paragraph above, together with Echos d'orient; and the
literature under EUTYCHIANISM; MONOPHYSITES. On
Jacob Baradæus consult H. G. Kleyn, Jacobus Baradeus,
Leyden, 1882; DCB, iii. 328-332.
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