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JAMES, SAINT, OF COMPOSTELLA, ORDER OF: A military order, founded in 1161, as the Knights of St. James of the Sword (de Spada), by Pedro Fernandez of Fuente Encalada, in the diocese of Astorga, Spain, united in 1170 with the Canons of San Loyo (St. Eligius) of Compostella. Toward the end of the century it was confirmed by Pope Celestine III. In purpose and character the order was like those of Alcantara and Calatrava (qq.v.), but it never equaled them in importance. It came to an end in 1835. See COMPOSTELLA.

(O. ZÍCKLER†.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Giucci, Iconografia storica degli ordini religiosi e cavallereschi, i. 96-100, Rome, 1836; P. B. Gams, Die Kirchengeschichte von Spanien, iii., 1, p. 56, Regensburg, 1876; Currier, Religious Orders, p. 217.

JAMES, JOHN ANGELL: English Congregationalist; b. at Blandford Forum (17 m. n.e. of Dorchester, Dorset) June 6, 1785; d. at Birmingham Oct. 1, 1859. After serving four years as an apprentice to a linen-draper at Poole, Dorset, he entered the theological academy at Gosport in 1802, and qualified under the Toleration Act as a dissenting preacher the following year. He was called to Carr's Lane Chapel, Birmingham, in 1805, and ordained pastor there early the following year. He remained in this pastorate till his death. He was chairman of the board of education of Spring Hill College, Birmingham (now Mansfield College, Oxford), from 1838 till his death; and in 1846 he was one of the chief promoters of the Evangelical Alliance. He was held in high esteem as a preacher and author, and as a public man. Though a Calvinist in creed, he laid more stress on Christian duty than on doctrinal niceties. He published numerous single sermons and addresses and a dozen small volumes, of which the best known are Christian Charity (London, 1828); and The Anxious Enquirer after Salvation (Birmingham, 1834), which was widely circulated in England and America and translated into Welsh, Gaelic, and Malagasy. Other writings by James will be found in his Works (17 vols., London, 1860-64).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: James's Autobiography was published as the last volume of the Works, ut sup. Consult also: J. Campbell, Review of J. A. James' History and Character, London, 1859; R. W. Dale, Life and Letters of John Angell James, ib. 1861; DNB, xxix. 215-217.

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