JEFFERS, ELIAKIM TUPPER: Presbyterian; b. at Stewiacke, Nova Scotia, Apr. 6, 1841. He studied at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. (B.A., 1862), and Princeton Theological Seminary (1862-1865), and at the United Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa (1865-66). He was pastor of the United Presbyterian Church at Oxford, Pa. (1865-72), after which he was president of Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa., until 1890, and professor of theology in Lincoln University, Oxford, Pa (1883-90). He was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Oil City, Pa. (1890-93) and since 1893 has been president of the York Collegiate Institute, York, Pa. He has written Shortest Road to Cæsar (New York, 1896).
JEHOAHAZ, je-ho'a-haz: 1. Eleventh king of Israel, son and successor of Jehu. His dates, according to the old chronology, are 856-840 B.C.; according to Kautzsch, 814-798 B.C. Under him the oppression of the northern kingdom by the Arameans reached its height, the army being reduced to fifty horsemen, ten chariots, and 10,000 foot soldiers. An addition to II Kings xiii. 22 in the Septuagint shows that the Arameans operated from the southwest as well as from the north against Jehoahaz. Under him the Asherah worship seems to have revived (II Kings xiii. 6).
2. Sixteenth king of Judah, third son and successor of Josiah (called Shallum, Jer. xxii. 11). He reigned only three months, according to the old chronology, in 610 B.C.; according to Kautzsch, 609 B.C.; according to Peake, 608 B.C. He was evidently regarded as more energetic than his elder brother (see JEHOIAKIM), since the people elevated him to the throne; but both the Book of Kings and Joaephus give him a bad character (II Kings xxiii. 30 sqq; Ant. X., v. 2). Pharaoh Necho, on his return from his campaign to the Euphrates, summoned Jehoahaz to Riblah and threw him into chains to be carried to Egypt, whence he never returned, and put his brother Jehoiakim (Eliakim) in his place as king. Whether the name Shallum (="retribution"?) was symbolically applied or was his original name, discarded when he became king, is a subject of debate. [The list of Josiah's sons in I Chron. iii. 17-18 erroneously makes Shallum to be a different person from Jehoahaz.]
Sources are: II Kings xiii. 1-9, xxiii. 30-35;
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