HERSFELD (HEROLVESFELD): A town of Hesse-Nassau, Germany, about twenty-three miles north of Fulda, the site of a celebrated abbey founded about 770 by Archbishop Lullus of Mainz. Charles the Great placed the monastery under royal protection and conferred upon the monks freedom of choice in the election of their abbot. He also bestowed upon it extensive territorial possessions. During the lifetime of its founder the monastery included 150 monks, who were active in propagating Christianity among the Saxons. Literary labor began in the ninth century, the most important production being the Hersfeld chronicles, now lost, but drawn upon by the compilers of the chronicles of Hildesheim, Quedlinburg, and Weissenburg.

At Herafeld, in the eleventh century, wrote Lambert (q.v.) and the author of the Liber de unitate ecclesite conservanda, according to some Walram, later bishop of Raumburg. Beginning with the thirteenth century, the town gradually freed itself from the jurisdiction of the abbey, and about 1371 placed itself under the protection of the landgrave of Hesse, which was conceded by the abbot in 1432. The prosperity of the abbey declined; and on the resignation of Abbot Wolpert in 1513 it was placed under the abbot of Fulda for a time. Abbot Krato (1517-56) was inclined to Lutheran ideas, but the abbey maintained a feeble existence until the death of the last abbot, Joachim 8511, in 1606. The landgrave of Hesse kept the administration in his family until at the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the territory of the abbey, as a fief of the empire, was formally incorporated with Hesse.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lampertus, De institutions Heroeldensis eccleaim, in his Opera, Hanover, 1894; idem, Vita Lulli, in MGH, Script., xv. 1 (1887), 132; Miracula Wigberti, in MGH, Script., iv (1841), 224; Rettberg, KD, i. 602; Hauck, KD, ii. 58.

HERTZLER, CHARLES WILLIAM: Methodist Episcopal; b. at Burlington, Ia., Feb. 22, 1867. He studied at German Wallace College, Berea, O. (B.A.,1889) and the University of Berlin (1892-93), and held pastorates -at Peoria, Ill. (1889-91), and St. Louis, Mo. (1891-92). After his return from Germany he was pastor at Jordan, Minn., from 1893 to 1895, when he was appointed president of St. Paul's College, St. Paul, Minn., a position which he occupied for five years. Since 1900 he has been professor of practical theology at Nast Theological Seminary, Berea, O.

HERVAUS BRITO (HERV.&US NATALIS; 0Herv6 de N6dellee): Thomist philosopher and theo-

logian; b. at Nddellec, Brittany; d. at Narbonne Aug., 1323. He studied at Paris, entered the Dominican order, became provincial for France in 1309 and general of his order in 1318.

For many years he taught scholastic theology and philosophy. As a moderate Thomist, he distinguished himself by his opposition to the views of Duns Scotus. In opposition to the univocal. being of the Scotists he maintained that the reality of individual objects depends upon that background of being which is common to them. On the other hand, he seemed to incline toward nominalism in his view that universals, though they have their basis in the nature of things, are subjective. In particular Hervaeus devoted his attention to the famous question of individuation, which the Scotists had explained by the doctrine of haecceity. He showed that liaecceity itself is only a universal concept, which becomes a principle of individuation only when applied to an individual thing, and that such a principle might just as well be applied to matter or form. His own view is that essence is the inner principle of individuation. In theology Hervaeus held that the existence of God can be deduced on rational grounds, but that positive knowledge of God is won only through faith. He treated the doctrines concerning God, the Trinity, and Christ in the traditional scheme of distinctions. His importance lies in the insight which he gives into the sphere of interests of Thomistic philosophy and theology after Scotus. His chief. works are: In quatuor Petri Lombardi sentegit,volumina scripta subtilissima (Venice, 1505); Quodlibeta undecim cum octo profundissimis tractahWus (1513); and De intentionibus secundis (Paris, 1544).; A list of unpublished writings by Hervaeus will be found in Qudtif and Itchard's Seriptores ordinis prwdiicatorum (vol. i., p. 533, Paris, 1719).


BIBLIoaRAPRY: J. C. F. Hoefer, Nouvelle biopraphie pEn_rale, xxiv. 532-533, 46 vols., Paris, 1852-1866; K. Werner, Der heilipe Thomas won Aquino, iii. 104 eqq., Regensburg, 1859; B. Haurdsu, Hist. de la philoeophie scolaatique, ii. 2, pp. 327 eqq.. Paris, 1880; KL, v. 1916-17.

HERVAUS BURGIDOLENSIS (Hervi de BourgDieu) : Medieval French exegete; b. at Le Mans (130 m. s.w. of Paris) in the latter part of the eleventh century; d. at Ddols (72 m. s.e. of Tours) about 1150. About 1100 he entered the Benedictine monastery at Ddols, where he spent the remainder of his life, devoting himself to the study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. His chief works were his commentaries on Isaiah and the Pauline Epistles (MPL, Icxxxi.). Whether his interpretations of the pericopes of the Gospels may be recovered from the homilies ascribed to Anselm of Canterbury is a moot question, but the commentaries on Matthew and Revelation assigned to him were actually written by Anselm of Laon.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hiatoire litt6raire de Ia France, vol. xii.; M. Ziegelbauer, Hiatoria rei literari ordinia S. Benedicti, vol. iii., Regensburg, 1739; J. C. F. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie pbn6rale, xxiv. 532, 46 vols., Paris, 18551866; F. H. R. Frank, Die Theologie der Coneordienformel, ii. 54 eqq., 4 vole., Erlangen. 1868-8b.


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the prospects for decipherment of inscriptions and therefore of more complete and accurate information are (1909) very bright.

On the Egyptian monuments the people are always figured as a yellow race, with very prominent protuberant noses and large nostrils, retreating forehead and chin and thick lips, high cheek bones, black hair and eyes. They are generally portrayed as beardless and as wearing the hair in a queue. They appear short in stature, but heavy in build. Since the Assyrians were not expert in drawing, as were the Egyptians, the Assyrian portraiture gives nothing additional. The monuments of the Hittites corroborate all the de-

b. The tails afforded by the Egyptian por- People. tfaiture except the color, which the nature of the remains does not indi cate. But the men are everywhere portrayed as wearing high boots with the toes curling upward and even backward, and generally as wearing mit tens with a separate stall for the thumb only. The raiment seems heavy and agrees with the items just given in suggesting the emergence of the people from a cold snowy climate. Along with this goes the fact that the region into which they spread favors their coming by a route between the Black Sea and the Caspian. The evidence points to a period between 1600 and 1300 s.c. as the time when perhaps they pushed their outposts south ward till forced back by Egyptian and perhaps Philistine resistance, when they spread eastward toward the Egean. Their centers were at Car chemish, Hamath, Kadesh on the Orontes, Senjirli, and Boghazkeui, while Hebron seems to have been their most southern point of settlement. The men tion in the historical books of the Old Testament suggests that they constituted an element in the population of Palestine. Some points of their physiognomy seem to corroborate Jensen's con tention that they were " proto-Armenians." On the other hand, the accounts of the many Assyrian campaigns in Armenia do not contain a single hint that the sturdy opponents of that power in the Armenian Mountains were of the Hittite race. This is the more decisive since the Assyrians were at the time in conflict with Hittites elsewhere. Moreover, other physiological characteristics, such as hair (especially the queue), and the high cheek bones seem to connect them with the Mongolian race.

The idea of a Hittite " empire " in the sense of a unified rule is not borne out by the historical indications, but what does appear is the appearance of confederation (see 4 above). As invaders of southern Asia and opponents of Egyptian and later of Assyrian aggression, there was a power of reserve which with other marks suggests mutual support and a power of confederation which contrasts strongly with Semitic

7. Their separativeness. The condition is some"Empire"; thing like that of the Philistines whose

Influence cities were under individual rule yet on who acted together in case of aggres- Culture. sive campaigns. Their meaning for civilization is only secondary, through the Greek. They unquestionably influenced early Greek inscriptions and art-early Greek writing

was boustrophedon. A Hittite seal in the possession of Dr. Ward is unmistakably allied to the Mycenaean seals and drawings. The Eons of Mycen2e, the rope pattern of Greek adornment, the Greek sphinx, and some of the Greek deities are firmly held to be of Hittite origin. Dr. Ward suggests that not improbably they gave to the Greeks the last five letters of the Greek alphabet, a suggestion which does not seem to have been used in attempts at decipherment. See ASSYRIA; CANAAN, CANAANITE6, 7; CARCHEMISH.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Brown, in Presbyterian Review, 1880; W. Wright, The Empire of as Hittites, London, 1888; Ball in PSBA, x (1888), 437 aqq.; G. Perrot and C. Chipies, History of Art in . . Assyria, Phanicia . . . and Asia Minor, 2 vols., London, 1884-85; A. H. 8ayee, The Hittites; the Story of a forgotten Empire, London, 1888; C. R. Conder, Altaic Hieroglyphs and Hittite Inscriptions, ib. 1889; J. Campbell, The Hittites, 2 vols.. Toronto, 1890 (covers language, ethnology, and history); Halivy, in MEvaires de Cacad6xiie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, Paris, 1892; idem, in Revue almitique, i. 56 sqq., 126 sqq.; F. E. Peiser, Die hditisrhan I nachriftan, Berlin, 1892 (attempts decipherment); T. Tyler, in Religious systems of the world. London, 1893; C. A. de Care. Gill Hethei-Palaapi, 3 vole., Rome, 1894-1902 (identifies the Hittites and the Pelasgians); J. F. McCurdy, History, Prophecy and the Monuments, i., 156-167, New York. 1894; P. Jensen, Hittiter and Armenier, Strasburg, 1898 (sums up his work on the inscriptions); idem, in H. V. Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible Lands, pp. 753-793, Philadelphia, 1903; L. Messerschmidt, Bemerkunpen su den hetitischsn Inachriften, also Corpus inscriptionum Hitticarum, all in Miuheilunpen der roorderasiatischen Oessllschaft, Berlin, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1906; W. H. Ward, in H. V. Hilpreeh, Recent Research in Bible Lands, pp. 159-190, Philadelphia, 1898; Menant, in MEvwires de 1'acadfie des inscriptions, vol. xxxiv. 1 aqq.; Nowack, Archdolopie, i. 96, 282, 341; especially H. Winokler and O. Puahetem in Mittedunpen der deutachen Orient-(lesellackaft, for 1908-08, especially Dec., 1907, and E. Meyer in 3itsunpabarichte der preussischen Akadernie der Wiseenschaften, Jan., 1908. The files of the PSBA since 1887 contain much material which is pertinent.


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