FRITZSCHE, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH: Re formed theologian; b. in Nauendorf (10 m. n. of Halls) Aug.17,1776; d. at Zurich Oct.18,1850. He studied in the Latin school of the Halls orphan asylum and entered the University of Leipsic in 1792; in 1799 he became pastor in Steinbach and Lauterbach near Borna, and in 1809 preacher and superintendent at Dobrilugk. He took a warm interest in the public schools and wrote monographs and articles on the theological questions of the time from the supernaturalistic point of view. When he became too deaf to preach he was made honorary professor of theology at Halls in 1827, ordinary professor in 1830; and held the position till 1848. His writings were collected in two volumes of Opusculd academics (Leipsic, 1838, and Zurich, 1846). (O. F. FxITZSCa>,t.)

Bn;LIOaxArax: C. W. Spieker, Ana dens Leben don · · . C. F. Breaciva, Frankfort, 1845; Ava den Brie%n von C. F. Breacius an C. F. Fritzache, von O. F. Fntssahe in

7.%G, uv. 214-240.

FRITZSCHE, KARL FRIEDRICH AUGUST: German exegete, eon of Christian Friedrich Fritzsche (q.v.); b. at Steinbach, near Boma (15 m. s.s.e. of Leipaic), Dec. 16, 1801; d. at Giessen Dec. 6, 1846. He was educated from 1814 to 1820 at the Thomasschool in Leipsic and then studied theology at the same place. In 1825 he became professor on the philosophical faculty. In 1826 he went as professor of theology to Rostock, and in 1841 to Giessen. His theological views were rationalistic, and he concentrated his efforts chiefly upon the exegesis of the Bible, especially of the New Testament. Biblical exegesis in the second decade of the nineteenth century was at a low ebb. The prevailing conception of language was purely empirical; general laws were deduced from superficial investigations, and by confounding the meaning and sense of words the most different and contradictory interpretations were often justified; there was no trace of a penetration into the fundamental spirit of language. Exegesis had become the vehicle of dogmatics, and everything displeasing was simply explained away from the Bible. The reform of these conditions in the sphere oŁ philology was started by the Rostock philologist Gottfried Hermann, and it was transferred to Biblical literature by Winer and Fritzsche. The strictly grammatical method of Bible study was first introduced by Winer in his Gtammatik des neutesttameratlichen Slorachidioms (Leipsic, 1822), and Fritzsche was one of the most industrious contributors to the later emendations and editions of this work. He paid special attention to the linguistic element in exegesis; textual criticism was one of his favorite occupations. His most important works are: De taonnullis posterior's Pauli ad Corinthios epistola; locis dissertationes dace (1823-24) and his commentaries on Matthew (1826), Mark (1830), and the Epistle to the Romans (3 parts, Halls, 1836-43). Some of his miscellaneous writings have been collected in Fritzschiorum oPuscula academics (Leipsic, 1838). Against the purely diplomatic method which Lach-


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tive era, and hence is final. (5) Every single sin unrepented of deserves endless retribution. (6) Character tends to final permanence, as seen in the strengthening of the wrong decision, the consequent bondage of the will, and the intensifying of the sinful opposition to God in view of punishment experienced; naturally, final permanence can be attained but once. (7) The conscience expects and demands unending, retribution in another life. (8) Finally, reference is made to the long history of this belief, and the eminent supporters of it in every age. Relief from the painful conclusion here reached is sought in many ways: appeal to human ignorance; a probationary period between death and the judgment for those who in this life have not finally refused God (see PROBATION, FUTURE); the incompatibility of the ultimate loss of any soul with the perfection of the Creator; the injustice of everlasting punishment for sins committed during the short span of the earthly life; continuance of punishment for a time after death, but God will finally succeed in his purpose of grace, or, on the other hand, the incorrigible will be eventually worn out with their punishment. See Eschatology.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The subject is invariably treated as a section of systematic theology, and therefore the works cited under DOGMA, DOGMATICS may be consulted. Much of the literature under the articles on FnceATotOo:; Gs wsixA; PaoBArcox, Fvrross; UimasseLzc. and re·

lated topics is pertinent. Consult further: M. Stuart, Future Punishments, in vol. iii. of Philological Tracts, in Biblical Cabinet, 45 vole., Edinburgh, 1838-44; R. W. Hamilton, Revealed Doctrine of Rewards and Punishments. London, 1853; H. M. Dexter, The Verdict of Reason upon the . . . Future Punishment of . . . As Impenitent, Boston, 1885; f3. C. Bartlett, Future Punishment, i b. 1875; [J. M. W hiton], Is " Eternal " Punishment Endless f ib. 1878; N. Adams, Endless Punishment: Scriptural Argument for . . . future endless Punishment, ib. -1878; E. Beecher, Hist. of opinions on the scriptural Doctrine of Retribution, New York, 1878; G. P. Fisher, in his Discussions in Hist. and Theology, ib. 1880; E. M. Goulburn, Everlasting Punishment, ib. 1880; J. B. Reimenanyder, Doom Eternal, Philadelphia, 1880; T. J. Sawyer, Endless Punishment, $oeton,4880 (Universalist); F. W. Farrar, Mercy and Judgment, London, 1881; idem, Eternal Hope, ib. 1892; W. Griffith, Evidence of the Evangelists and Apostles on Future Punishment, ib. 1882; R. H. Mcli;irn, F~tura Punishment, New York, 1883; V. M. de Lissi, De d~uturn= ymnarum, Naples, 1884; C. A. Row, Future Retribution in the Light of Reason and Revelation, New York, 1887; W. G. T. Shedd. The Doctrine of Endless Punishment, ib. 1887 (perhaps the strongest affirmative statement of the doctrine since Edwards); J. Macpherson, The Larger Hope, London, 1890; S. M. Vernon, Probation and Punishment, New York, 1890; Wider Hops, Belays and Strictures upon the Doctrine aril Literature of Future Punishment, with Bibliographical Ap pendix, London, 1890; R. L. Bellamy, The Harvest of the Soul, kb. 1902; J. Mew, Traditional Aspects of Hell, Ancient and Modern, ib. 1908; J. Bauts, Die Hslie, Mains, 1905; L. B. Hartman, Divine Penology, New York, 1906; J. R. Norris, Bfernal Torment: is it a possible human Destiny f ib. 1905.


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