ELIDES, yQdz or (Fr.) Od, JEAN, AND THE EUDISTS: French Roman Catholic priest and the Congregation founded by him. Eudes was born at Mezerai, southern Normandy, Nov. 14, 1601; d. at Caen (149 m. w.n.w. of Paris) Aug. 19, 1680. He was educated at the Jesuit college in Caen and at the Oratory in Paris under Bi=rolls, where he was ordained priest in 1626.

Eudes distinguished himself by his care of the sick during times of plague and as a miesioner, and in 1639 became superior of the Congregation of the Oratory at Caen. Four years later, however, he left the Oratorians, and with five companions founded the Congregation of the Missionary Priests of Jesus and Mary, or Eldists, which substituted for monastic vows the vow of strict obedience and received the official sanction of the bishop of Bayeug, in 1644. The object of the Congregation was to provide a corps of educated secular priests for the special purpose of holding missions among the people, and during Eudea's administration of thirtyseven years as superior-general it spread throughout Normandy and s portion of Brittany, while seminaries were founded on the model of the mother house in Rouen, Evreua, Lisieux, Coutances, and Rennes. Under the immediate successor of Eudes, Blouet de Camilly, additional seminaries were established at Avranches, Dol, 8enlis, and Paris, while under Guy de Fontaines (d. 1727) and Pierre Cousin (d. 1751) the Eudists, together with the Jesuits, strongly opposed Jansenism. Up to the outbreak of the Revolution the Eudists were one of the most respected and influential Congregations of Roman Catholic France, and possessed a college at Paris, in addition to twelve large and five small seminaries, while Father H6bert, the superior of the Paris house, was the confessor of Louis XVI.

Despite the suppression of the Congregation during the Revolution, it was quietly revived in 1800 by Toussaint Blanchard in the seminary at Rennes, and was formally reorganized in 1826. It has consistently maintained its pronounced Ultramontanism, and since the middle of the nineteenth century has been active in foreign missions. Eudes himself not only founded the Congregation which bears his name, but also the Daughters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge, the prototype of the modern sisterhoods of the Good Shepherd, and was likewise active in spreading devotion to the hearts of Jesus and Mary, thus preparing the way for the later Congregations devoted to this purpose (see SACRED HEART oir J>flsus, DIDV0170N To). Since 1874 the Eudists have earnestly striven to secure the canonization of their founder. (O. Zbe>i1.Eat.)

Brnztoanwrtt:: C. de Montaey, Le Ptrro Eudes et sea insti-

tute, Paris, 1889, Eng. ttgnel., 2d ed., London, 1883; A. le 1brb, Lea Yertus du . . . Jean Eudea. Paris, 1872; idem, Les SaerBs Contra d . Jean Eudea, ib. 1891; A. Pinae, La V6mErabk Pdra Endue et we asuroru, Paris, 1901; HelYo4 Ordr,ee -aqua. viii. 1b9-188; Hembueher, Order and Konprepationen, iii. a84-86, 423. 4bo-4b1; xL, iv. 9Ēr988; Ot>

EUDO DE STELLA (E Oft, EUOft DE L'ETOILE): Founder of a heretical sect in France; d. after 1148. He came from a noble family of Brittany and rose into prominence there about 1146 as a vehement opposer of the hierarchy and an exponent of apoo alyptic views. He appears to have applied to himself the liturgical formula [Otto of Freising De (lestia Friderici., 1, chap. 54]" by him (Lat. sum, which he connected with his own name ion) who is to come to judge the quick and the dead," gave himself out to be the Bon of God, and by proph ecies and feigned miracles gathered some following. Though a layman and unable to read, he celebrated mass, elected " angels " and " apostles " from among his adherents, and bestowed on them high sounding names like " Judgment " and" Wisdom," together with the rank of bishops and archbishops. They undertook devastating raids for the plunder of churches and cloisters, and spent their pillaged treasures, so the narrative runs, in riotous orgies. In 1148 Eudo was captured, with a number of his followers. When led for trial before the Synod of Reims, he vaingloriously appealed to his " divine mission." He died not long afterward in the prison of Archbishop Samson of Reims. Some of his ad herents, who would seem to have spread as far as Languedoc, were burned at the stake. Hereafter the sect disappears from history. About the same period as Eudo's time certain heresies of a Mani chean character were prevalent in Brittany, but it is an erroneous deduction from this fact to suppose that Eudo should be included among the Cathari. In reality he was a mystic fanatic, who went his own way. Hzsxwrr Haurr.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. U. Hahn, Oeaehichte der Rstaer im bfih telaltsr, i. 483, 8tuttgaft, 1845; C. 8chmidt, Histoiro et doctrine do la sects du Catharee, i. 48, Paris, 1849; H. C. Lea, History o/ the Inquisition, i. 88, New York, 1908; J. J. I. von I)Sllinger, Beitrdye our 3ektaaperchichte, i. 101, Munich, 1890; K. M81ler, Kirdtenpeerhichte, i. 495, Freiburg, 1892; C. Molinier, in Revue historique, liv (1894), 1b8-181; P. Alphanddry, Las Id1ee morales ehea Iee hEtErodoxes Latina au dlbut du 13s. ai3cle, pp. 102 eqq., Paris, 1904; Hefele, Conciiisnpsxhirhte, v, b18-817; xL, iv. 882; Schaff, v, I, pp. 482, 483.

EUDOCIA, yu-d8'ehi-a, AELIA: Empress of Byzantium and wife of Theodosius II. (408-450); b. at Athens 394; d. at Jerusalem e. 460. Her original name was Athenais, and she was the daughter of the pagan rhetorician Leontius, she herself attaining wide celebrity as a scholarly defender of the ancient faith. After the death of her father, she is said to have gone to Constantinople to protest to Pulcheria, the sister of the empress, against the provisions of the will of Leontius, but Pulcheria, charmed by her beauty and culture, converted her to Christianity and presented her to her brother as a bride. The marriage is dated in 421, and she bore Theodosius a daughter Eudoaia, who became the wife of the Western emperor Valentinian III. In 438 Eudocia went to Jerusalem and brought back relics which included the two chains of 8t. Peter, depositing one at Constantinople and presenting the other to her daughter at Rome, where it gave its name to the church of St. Peter ad Vincula. Two statute were erected at Antioch in gratitude for Eudooia'e eulogy of the city. Before


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lieved that the Persian Gulf once extended 150 or perhaps even 200 miles farther north than at present, and the formation of alluvial land continues at the rate of about a mile in seventy years.

The whole course of the river is about 1,780 miles, and it is navigable for small vessels for about 1,200 miles. It has been well said that the "upper region of the Euphrates resembles that of the Rhine, while its middle course may be compared with that of the Danube, and its lower with the Nile."
See ASSYRIA, II., §2; BABYLONIA, II., §§1-2.


Bibliography: F. R. Chesney, Expedition for the Survey of the . . . Euphrates, London, 1850 (the best); W. K. Loftus, Chaldea and Susiana, ib. 1857; A. H. Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, chaps. xxi.-xxii., ib. 1867; G. Rawlinson, Herodotus, Essay ix., London, 1875; F. Delitzsch, We lag das Paradies? pp. 169-170, Leipsic, 1881; Schrader, KAT, pp. 26-28, 122, 148, 239, 359, 528; DB, i. 794; ED, ii. 1427-29.


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