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received an excellent education, and decided to become a priest. After preaching the Gospel in his own country he went to Gaul as a missionary, making his abode at Poitiers. Here he occupied himself chiefly with collecting relics of St. Hilary, and the saint appeared to him in a vision and exhorted him to revive his cult. With the aid of Clovis, the ruler of the Franks, he erected a church for the bones of Hilary, who then commanded him to go to Alemannia to an island in the Rhine. After founding a monastery and several church on the Rhine he finally reached the island (Sackingen), and founded a church and a nunnery there. He was highly esteemed for saintliness and on account of the miracles which he wrought. This report was written about 500 years after the date of the alleged events. Balther claims to have taken his account from an older biography of Fridolin, but this is doubtful, and the whole history seems to have been Balther's invention as it fits into neither the reign of Clovis I. nor that of

Clovis II. (A. HAvcx. )

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Balther's life, ed. B. Krusch, in in MGH, Script rer. Merov., iii (1898), 350-369, and with a thirteenth century German transl., in F. J. Mons, Quellensammlung der badiwhhenn Landesgeschichta, i. 1-17, 99 111, Carleruhe, 1848. Consult Rettberg, KD, ii. 29 sqq.; Friedrich, KD, ii. 411 sqq.; Hauck, XD, i. 328; J. H. A. Ebrard, Die irosdwttisc&e Missionakirehe, p. 288, Gttersloh, 1873; H. Leo, Der Wigs Fridolin, Freiburg, 1886; Wattenbach, DGQ, i. 620; ADB, vii. 385-387.

FRIDUGIS, frf"iii"zllf' (FREDEGISUS, FRIDUGISUS, FREDEGIS, FREDUGIS): French ecclesiastic and statesman; b. in England in the second half' of the eighth century; d. in France 834. He left his native country for France some time before 796 and became a favorite pupil of Alcuin. He was a deacon at the French court in that year, and four years later had become archdeacon and teacher at the academy. After the death of Alcuin in 804, Charlemagne appointed Fridugis abbot of St. Martin's in Tours, later giving him the monasteries of St. Omer and St. Bertin. From 819 to 832 he was chancellor of Louis the Pious, in which office he made a number of praiseworthy innovations, but his career as an abbot was less creditable. Fridugis was the author of an Epiatolo ad proceres, in which he discusses light and darkness as positive entities, not as abstract negations. He likewise wrote another work which is lost, although its contents are known from Agobard's L4'ber contra objectiones Fredegesi, which states that in it Fridugis maintained the doctrine of the verbal inspiration of Scripture.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are the Bpistolm of Alcuin, nos. 99, 108, 158, 180, 197, and the Vita Alcuiai (see under ALcuIn); Einhard, Vita Karoli, chap. xxxii. in MGH, script., ii (1829), 426-463; Theodulph, Carmiaa, 25, ed. D6mmler in MGH, Posits Lat. aroi Carolsai, i (1881), b69-573. Consult: C. BRhr, Geschichts der rdmischen Literahur, Carlsmhe, 1840; H. F. Router, Geschichfe der religi- Aujkldtrunp, 6ondersbausen, 1875-77; M. Abner Fredepia roon Tours, Leipsic, 1878; Hauck, KD, ii. 137, 148 eqq., 574.

FRIEDBERG, frfd'berg, EMIL ALBERT: German Protestant jurist; b. at Konitz (62 m. s.w. of Danzig) Dec. 22, 1837. He studied in Berlin (Dr.Jur., 1861) and Heidelberg, and was privat-do-

cent at Berlin (1862-6b), associate professor at Halls (186b-68), and full professorat Freiburg (1868-89). Since 1869 he has been professor of canon and German law at Leipsic. Among his numerous writings mention may be made of the following, as of theological interest: De fircium inter ecclxaiam et eivitatem regettdorum judicio quid medii etri doetores et leges atatuerint (Leipsie, 1861); Die evartgeliache and katholiache Kirche der reeu einverlex3tert tinder in ihren Bexiahungen our 7rroteatantischen Landeakircha and zum Statute (Halls, 1887); Aus deutachen Buaabiichern (1865); Das Veto der Regierung bei Biachofswahl in Preussen and der obey-rheinisehen Kirchenprovinx (1869); Agenda mie es in des Churf,araten. zu Sachserl Landen in den Kirchen gehalten taird (1869); Der Stoat and die ktttholische Kirche im Grossherzogtum Baden aeit 1880 (Leipsie, 1871); Akten-Stiicke zum eraterc vatilcareischen Kortxil (1872) ; Crenzera zloischert Sttutt and Kirche. (3 vole., Tiibingen,1872); Johann Baptist Baltzer (Leipeic,1873); Dar Stoat and die Bischafawahlerl in Deutschland (2 vole., 1874); Akten-Stocks die ttltkatholische Bewegung betreffend (Tubingen, 1876); Corpus yuris ednonici (2 vole., Leipsie, 1879-81); Lehrbuch des kotleoliachen and evcsngeliachert Kirehetlrechts (1879); Quiraque compilatiortea antiquae (1882); Die gelte»den Verfaasungageaetze der evartgelischen deutachen Landeakirche (Freiburg, 188b); also four supplementary volumes, 1888-1904); and Conotlea Sammlungen zwischen Grattan and Bernhard van Pavia (189T). From 1864 to 1892 he edited the Zeitachrift far Kirchanrecht in collaboration with R. Dove, and since 1892 he end E. Sehling have edited the successor of this periodical, the Deutsche Zeitachrift fiir ICirchertrecht.

FRIEDLAENDER, MICHAEL: Jewish scholar; b. at Jutroschin (38 m. n. of Breslau), Germany, Apr. 29, 1833. He studied in Berlin and Halls (Ph.D., 1862), and at the Talmud Thorah, of which he was director until 1865, when he became principal of Jews' College, London, resigning in 1907. He has written, edited, or translated The Commentary of Ibn Ezra an Isaiah (3 vole., London, 1873-77); The Guide of the Perplexed of Maimonides (3 vole., 1885); The Jewish Religion (1891); and also a revision of the Authorized Version with the Hebrew text (1882) and the second edition of Lady Katie Magnus, Outlines of Jewish History from B.C. 586 to C.E. 1885 (1888).

FRIEDRICH, JOHAIIN: German Old Catholic; b. at Poxdorf June 5, 1836. He studied in Bamberg and Munich, and was ordained to the priesthood of the Roman Catholic Church in 1859. He was chaplain of Markscheinfeld until 1862, when he became privat-docent at Munich. In 1865 he was appointed associate professor in the same university and in 1889 was called to Rome as a councilor in theVatican council. He refused to accept the dogma of papal infallibility and in 1871 was ex communicated and was also deprived of his benefice for violating a fundamental principle of the Church in giving the sacrament to a colleague who had fallen pader ecclesiastical condemnation. Notwithstanding the protests of the bishops, be was promoted to the rank of full professor in Munich in