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torique our la siparation de 1'6plies et do 1'6tat pendant la r6roolution, ib. 1905; A. Debidour, L'Itplias ootholique et 1'f4 1870-88, vol. i., ib. 1908; R. Bertin et J. Charpen tier, Manuel des associations d&lar&a, ib. 1907; J. E. C. Bodley, The Church in France, London, 1908; A. Galton, Church and State in Franc, 1300-1807, London, 1907; E. Barbier, Le Proprta du libtralisme oatholiqua en Francs sow . . . Lion XIII., 2 vols., Paris, 1907; J. N. Brod head, The Religious Persecution in France, 1800-OB, Lon don, 1907; E. Lecsnuet, L'Aplise de Franc sow 1a boi sihme ~r6puUique.

Paris, 1907. See also under Cauwa AND BTATm.

On Protestantism in France consult: T. Bees, Hint. ecclhiastique de Franc, ed. P. Vessor, 2 vole.. Toulouse, 1882: D'Huismau, La Discipline due Aplisee r.1fonn* de France. Geneva, 1f86: G. de Fdlioe, Hist. do synodes nationaux do l*lise r6formie do Francs, Paris, 1884; idem, Hint. do proteatanta do Franc, Toulouse, 1580; idem, lea Protestants d'autrs foia, 4 vole., Paris, 18971902; G. Weber, Ouchichtliche Darstellunp des Calviniemue in Prankrcich bin sur Aufhebunp den Edikta von Nantes, Heidelberg, 1835; A. L. Herminiard, CoRSspondance des r4formateura, 9 vole., Geneva, 1888--97; E. Bersier, Hint. du synods p6gralh do 7'Miae rbform6e de France, 2 vole., Parie, 1872; E. and 1t. Haas, La France proteatante, ed. H. L. Bordier, Paris, 1877 eqq.; L. Aguesse, Hut. do l'6tabliasemant du protestantjsms en France, 4 vols., ib. 1882-80; A. Lode, La LApidation do eultae protestanfe 1787-1887, ib. 1889; N. A. F. Puaux, Hist. du proteatantisms en Franc, ib. 1894: J. B. Marsval. Le Protestantism au 16. et 19. siicle, Albi, 1900; E. Belleroohe, Successive Events that finally Led to the Edict of Nantes, New York, 1901; C. Durand, Hint. du protcetantiame frangais pendant la rivolution et 1'empirs, Paris, 1902;

FRANCIS, SAINT, OF ASSISI, I . Life of Saint Francis. Boyhood and Early Manhood (§1). The Winning of the Brotherhood (§ 2). Work and Extension of the Brotherhood (§ 3). The Last Years of Francis (§ 4). II. The Three Rules of the Order and the Testament of Saint Francis. The First Rule (§ 1). The Rule of 1221 (§ 2). The Third Rule (§3). The Testament (§ 4). RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA France Francis, Saint

C. Coignet, L'tvotu#ms du protaatantisms Jrnngats au 18. siJcie, ib. 1907; Bulletin hiatorique et Litlfrairs de la aoci.. 6t6 de Mist. du Protestantism franpaia (a monthly): Ades et d6asrnne du synods. den 6glisEa r6/ormbes de France; E. Davsine end A. Lode, Annuaire du proteefantiame fra. Paris, 1892 eqq.: $- Besu7our, L'Aplise r6form6s do Franc uni6 d l'6tat, eon organisation todifi6s, lC~a~en, 1883; and the literature under such articles as WLIaNI; HDaDE'NOTB; J·NaENIaIr, and NANTHs, EDICT or. For the Lutheran Churches consult W. Jackson, Recueii do documents relatifa d 7a r6orpaniaation de l'6plise de la confession d'Aupebo,ap, Paris, 1881; L'Aplias luth6rienna do Pons pendant la r6volution, ib. 1892.


FRANCICA-NAVA DI BONTIFE, fran"chf"ca'na"vii' df ben"tl"f2', GIUSEPPE: Cardinal; b. at Catania (b4 m. n.n.w. of Syracuse), Sicily, July 23, 1848. After the completion of his studies and a successful career as a priest, he was consecrated titular bishop of Alabenda in 1883, and six years later was made titular archbishop of Heraclea end appointed papal nuncio to Brussels. He was then nuncio at Madrid, and in 1895 was enthroned archbishop of Catania. He was created cardinal priest of Santi Giovanni a Paolo in 1899, and is a member of the Congregations of the Council, Index, Studies, and Ceremonial.

AND THE FRANCISCAN ORDER. Dissensions During the Life of Francis (§ 1)· Development to 1239. The Lazer Party (§ 2). To 1274. Bonaventms (§ 3). To 1300. Continued Dissensions (§ 4). Temporary Success of the Stricter Party, Persecution (§ b). Renewed Controversy on the Suc tion of Poverty (16).

From the designation Frtttrea minorea the members of the Franciscan order were called Minorites, and in England they were popularly called Grey Friars from the color of their dress.

I. Life of Saint Francis: Giovanni Bernardore, commonly known as Francesco, the founder of the Franciscan order, was born in the little town of Assisi, in Central Italy, between Perugia and Foligno, in 1182. His father Pietro, a well-todomerchant;gave the boy a good education. The 1. Boyhood tee, of Francesco ("the French-

and Early m >> bY .which his baptismal name was soon altogether replaced, is said to have been given him soon after his birth by his father, returning to Assisi from a trip to France; according to another account it was due to his early acquisition of the French language. Francis showed little inclination to concern him self with his father's business, but lived a gay life with the young men of his own age. In 1201 he joined a military expedition against Perugia, was taken prisoner, and spent a year as a captive. It is probable that his conversion to more serious thoughts was gradual. It is said that when he began to avoid the sports of his former compan- ffepoaste Congrotgtione (§ 7). Unsuccessful Attempts Ust(I7) Unite the order <§ s). New Congregations ($ 1). Present Status (12). Distinguished Names (§ 3). V. The Clsrissee or Poor Clsles. VI. The Third Order. Origin and Rule (§ 1). New Arrangements of Leo XIII.

ions, and they asked him laughingly if he were thinking of marrying, he answered " Yes, a fairer bride than any you have ever seen "-meaning his " lady poverty," as he afterward used to say. He spent much time in lonely places, asking God for enlightenment. By degrees he took to nursing the moat repulsive victims in the lazar-houses near Assisi; and after a pilgrimage to Rome, where he begged at the church doors for the poor, he had a vision in which he heard a voice calling upon him to restore the Church of God which had fallen into decay. He referred this to the ruined church of St. Damian near Assisi, and sold his horse together with some cloth from his father's store, giving the proceeds to the priest for this purpose. Pietro, highly indignant, attempted to bring him to his senses, first with threats and then with corporal chastisement. After a final interview in the presence of the bishop, Francis renounced all expectations from his father, laying aside even the garments received from him, and for a while was a homeless wanderer in the hills around Assisi. Returning to the town, where he spent two years at this time, he restored several ruined churches, among them the little chapel of St. Mary of the