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Page 354


France Francis, Saint THE NEW BCHAFF-HERZOG

committee, the D616gation Lib6rale. On Doe. 11, 1905, Parliament voted and promulgated a law which decreed the separation of Church and State. The two parties, the orthodox and the liberal, are now utterly separate. A third party, the Center, which had at first tried in vain to unite the two others, forms now a third church. The three churches are called: the Agliee. R6form6e Avang6lique (orthodox), the Union d'l~glises R6form6eB de France (Center), and the Aglises11kform6es Unies (liberal).-In 1848 Fr6d6ric Monod (q.v.) and others seceded from the State Church and in 1849 formed the Union den Aglises Avang6liques, generally called the Free Church. At first it numbered fifty congregations, but subsequently many returned to the State Reformed Church. See the articles GALLICAN CONFF$BION; Huauwon; and FRENCH RIcvoLuTION.

9. The Lutheran church: Before 1908 the status of the Lutheran Church also depended upon the laws of 1802 and 1852. The conaistories, however, were to form an inspection, and the inspectors were chosen for life. The Church had a central govern ing body, the head consiatory, in two divisions, one legislative and one administrative. This state of affairs lasted until the Franco-Prussian war, when the loss of Alsace-Lorraine, which contained six of the eight inspections, shook the Lutheran Church of France to its foundations and compelled it to enter upon a struggle for existence. The two inspections which were left (Montb6liard and Paris [including Algeria]) were at first suspicious of each other, and that of Montb6liard wished to join the Reformed churches. A general synod, summoned July 23, 1872, brought peace; and a proposition for union with the Reformed Church was voted down, like wise a creed submitted by the Pietistic minority. They passed, however, a project for reorganization of the Church, brought forward by the minority. The head consistory was given up and the Church was divided into two synodal districts, Montb6liard and Paris, almost wholly independent of each other. The inspectors were named for only nine years. There was a general synod constituted for the government of the Church, to meet alternately at Paris and at Montbdliard. The theological faculty at Strasburg was replaced by one at Paris. Owing to the dis turbed condition of France after the war, this scheme was not sanctioned by the two chambers and carried into effect until 1880. At the separa, tion of Church and State in 1905, the synod adapted the constitution of the Church to the law of separa tion, and named the Church the #glise tvang6lique Luth6rienne de France. The parishes became Associations cultuelles. C. PFENDER.

S. Evangelical Work in France: Samuel Vincent says, " After the Revolution the French Protestants experienced a profoudd tranquillity very much like indifference. Religion possessed little interest for them, as it did for most Frenchmen; for them as for many others the eighteenth century was still in existence. The law of 1802 insured tranquillity and so relieved them and their pastors from all anxiety for the support of their form of worship, but at the same time that it removed the chief cause of unrest it also did away with that of awakening.

The pastors preached their sermons, the people heard them, the consistoriea met, the service re tained all its forms, but no one was interested or troubled about it; religion was outside the sphere of every one's daily life." This condition of things lasted until the third decade of the century when the religious awakening came from Switzerland into France and gave new life to the Church. It roused especially a glowing zeal for missions, and Evan gelical work of all kinds was- undertaken with great eagerness. The famous society of Evangelical mis sions among the heathen was founded in 1822, Bible societies were formed (see BIBLE Socnrrlas, I1., 2), also several other societies for Evangelical work in France. This great display of missionary zeal, however, has another side: French Protestant ism up to the middle of the last century produced nothing noteworthy in theology. But since then matters have improved, societies have been formed, periodicals have been begun, and many learned works have been written. In this work the Lutheran Church has had its share; and the church at Paris especially has become a spiritual force. Since 1896 the Lutheran Church has maintained a mis sion in Madagascar. The . Methodists in France have twenty-five parishes, the Baptists twenty-nine. C. PFRNDEM.

BIHwoa$APH7: On the Catholic Church in general consult: Gallia Christiana, 18 vole., Paris, 1715-1885; J. H. AIbanbs, Gallic Christiana nooissima, vol. i.. Valence, 1899; W. H. Jervis, The Gallican Church 1618-1788 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1872; idem, The Gallivan Church and the Revolution London, 1882; E. de Presee , L 'Aplise de France pendant la rivolutiorN Paris, 1890; ~ V. Maumus. La Republiqus et la politique do l'iplise, Paris, 1892; C. F. Ballet, Lee Oripines des 4plisee de France et lea tastes ipiscopauz, ib. 1898; E. BirE, Le Clergb de Franca pendant Is resolution, 1789-1798, Lyons, 1901; L. Bourgain, L'Apliss de France. at 1'iW au 19 eiicle, 2 vole., Paris, 1901; W. M. Sloane, The French Revolution and Religious Reform, 1789-180;, London, 1901; Archives de Mist. religiswe de la France, Paris, 1902 sqq.; F. V. A. Aulard, La Revolution fransaise et lea eonpripations, ib. 1903; L. Launay. Hint. de 1'ielim pauloise' jusqu'd la conquite franque, 611, 2 vole., ib. 1908.

On the aonoordate consult: J. Baisew, Le Concordat de 1801 et lea articles orpaniques, Paris, 1902; A. Body, Le Concordat; son histoire 1801-1803, Lyons, 1903; F. D. Matthieu, Le Concordat de 1801, Paris, 1903; A. Baudrillart, Quatra cents an* de concordat, ib. 190.5; E. Sdveetre, L'Histoire, k texts at la destines du concordat de 1801, ib. 1906.

On the clergy and the orders consult: Rwueil des aetea, titres et m6moiraa concernant lea afaires du cleroi de France, 12 vols., Paris, 1718; E. Marie, Le Clerpi at les temps nouveaux, ib. 1892; A. Deeeaine, Le Clergi /ranvais au 20. sitde, ib. 1897; S. Grenier, Noa iviquee, ib. 1900; E. Leone. La Hierarchic 6piscopale an Gaul@ et Germane, 742-882, Lille. 1905; Le Clerpi franraia (annual); E. Keller, Les ConprApations reiipituses an France, Paris, 1880; L. A. R dmondibre, Lea Congregations religicusss, is fiac, Is parlemsnt at is cow de caaaation, ib. 1892; G. Surugue, Regime legal des oonpr*ahone reiigeeueta en France, ib. 1898; Besunier, La France monastique, new ad., ib. 1905; Helyot, Ordrea monaetiques; Heirnbucher, Orden and Konprepationen.

On the separation of Church and State and its consequences consult: J. A. C. Sykes, The New Reign o/ Terror in France, London, 1903; J. L. E. Combes, fine campapne laique, 1800-03, Paris, 1904; G. Berry, Une page d'hist.; la separation den eplisse et de 1'itat i1 la chambre des diputds, ib. 1905; A. Briand, La Separation des iplina et de Md. Rapport au nom de la commission de la chambre des diputis, ib. 1905; P. Grunebaum Balfin, La Separation des Mime a de Mal, ib. 1905; J. Roche, La Separation de l'ipliee et de lWQt, ib. 1883; Berard, Essai his-