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seer (cf. A. Dillinann, Daa Bticlt Henorh, Leipsic, 1853, pp. xxvi. sqq.). In the last centuries before Christ, Enoch was accredited with the entire treasure of contemporary knowledge about God, nature, and history; as was done in the theologically important Book of Enoch (sue PSEUDEPIORAPHA, OLD TESTAMENT, IL, 4-5). With the Arabs, Enoch, or, as they more commonly call him, Idris (" the learned, expert one ") plays predominantly the part of the mediator of higher wisdom and science (cf. d'Herbelot, Biblio>orieretole, Germ. transl., i., Halls, 1785, pp. 624-825; G. Weil, Biblische Legendert der Muaelmdrtner, Frankfort, 1846, pp. 62-87); for rabbinic legends cf. J. A. Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Juderethum, ii., Konigsberg, 1711, pp. 396 sqq.).

BxsLCOOawrar: Besides the literature given in the teat, consult: H. Polsno. Selections from the Talmud. DP. 3437, Philadelphia, 1876; H. E. Ryle, Early Narratirce of Genesis, pp. 90-91, London, 1892 idem, in Expository Times, iii. (1892) 355; DB, i. 7~4-708; EB, ii. 129496; JE, v. 178-179; and Commentaries on Genesis and on Jude.


ENTHUSIASM: An intense moral impulse or au-engrossing temper of mind. The term as applied to religion designates both a noble temper of mind and moral fervor, and also a misdirected and even destructive intensity of feeling. In the better sense of the term, our Lord was the highest illustration of enthusiasm. His soul was possessed with overwhelming affection for men, and an intense impulse to help them. The apostles were enthusiasts in a good sense. The early monks, St. Francis of Assisi, Dominic, Huss, the Reformers, the early Methodists, are all examples of religious enthusiasm. Heathen religions have had their enthusiasts as well as the Christian.

Christian enthusiasm in the good sense is derived from two motives, love for men and love for Christ. In the bad sense, enthusiasm is almost synonymous with fanaticism, and enthusiasts with zealots. It is fervor of soul drawn from wrong principles, founded on wrong judgments, and applied to wrong ends. Neither selfish nor impure motives necessarily prevail in such a temper of mind, and zeal of activity. Such enthusiasm may proceed from a sincere desire to glorify God. It substitutes fancies for the truth, and in its last stages the disorder of the mind becomes mental insanity.

The term " enthusiasts " has also had a technical sense, as in the Elizabethan period. Jewel, Rogers (Thirty-reins Articles, Parker Society ed., Cambridge, 1854, p. 158), and others speak of " Enthusiasts " as they do of Anabaptists. During the Commonwealth period, and afterward the term was frequently applied to the Puritans in a tone of depreciation, as by Robert South, who preached a special sermon on the subject, " Enthusiasts not Led by the Spirit of God," meaning by " enthusiasts" the Puritans. See ECSTASY. (Sermons, ed. W. G. T. Shedd, sermons Iv. Ivi, vol. iii., pp. 157190, 5 vole., New York, 1866-1871.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. Taylor, Natural History of Enthusiasm, New York, 1849; G. Lavington, Enthusiasm o/ Methodists and Papists, ed. R. Polwhele, London, 1833; J. Mackintosh, MiaceUaneoua Works, p. 731, ib. 1851; C. Wesley's Sermon on Enthusiasm is in his Works, ii. 331 eqq.

EftZIIPAS, FRANCISCO DE: Spanish Protestant; b. at Burgos, Spain, c. 1520; d. at Geneva 1570. He was known in Germany by the Grecized form of his name, Dryander, and by the name Eichmann, in France as Ducheane, in Holland as Van Eyck-all translations of his Spanish name, which means " oakman." He studied in the Netherlands and embraced the Reformation; then visited Wittenberg, where he translated the New Testament from the Greek into Spanish under the eye of Melanchthon. His completed work he took to the Netherlands and published it there (Antwerp, 1543). He dedicated it to Charles V. and presented it in person to the emperor at Brussels. But this procedure was so evidently in the interest of the Reformation in Spain that it could not be permitted to pate unpunished, consequently Enzinas was soon after thrown into prison. He escaped in 1545, and thereafter lived in different places. His brother, Jaime, also embraced Protestantism, prepared a catechism in Spanish setting forth the Evangelical faith, and printed it at Antwerp (1545). He then, in pursuance of his father's directions, went to Rome, where he was burned at the stake, 1548. The third brother, Juan, also became a Protestant, but, settling in Germany, escaped persecution. See SPAIN, THE REFORMATION IN.

B113LIOGRAPHY: MJmoirea de Francisco de Easinaa, 2 vole., Brussels, 1862-83, cf. ZXIi, aii. (1892); T. MeCrie. His& o/ . . the Reformation in Spain, chap. v., Edinburgh, 1829: H. C. Lea, HiaG of the Inquisition of Spain, iii. 424, New York, 1907; KL, iv. 881-662.


EPAO, SYNOD OF: A synod held in Sept., 517, at Epao or Epaone, a village to the south of Vienne, near the present Anneyron, at that time part of the kingdom of Burgundy, where a year earlier the Arian king Gundobad had been succeeded by his orthodox son Sigismund. It was attended by twenty-four bishops from all parts of the kingdom, on the invitation of Avitua of Vienne (q.v.). Laymen seem to have been present, after their participation had been declared lawful; canon axiv. permitted them to bring charges against any clergy who were justly accused of immorality. The forty canons passed at this meeting should be considered in connection with those of the synods of Agile (506) and Orleans (511; qq.v.). They were intended to do for the Burgundian kingdom what these had done for the Visigothic or Frankish-though the speedy dissolution of the former made their effect alight. Several of them, however, were included in a later (Spanish) collection of the canons of Agile (though with some modifications in the direction of leas severity), and thus continued to have an influence on subsequent practise. The spirit of Avitus breathes through them all. An important section deals with the inalienability of ecclesiastical property; a more